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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 1
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Development and effectiveness of positive psycho-educational intervention program in enhancement of student engagement, motivation and alleviation of depressive symptoms of selected school dropouts
Page 1-10
Kuzhivellil Martin Joseph The Graduate School, University of Santo Thomas, Espana, Manila, Philippines

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India with more than a billion residents has the second largest education system in the world. But it is alarming that the dropout problem is very pervasive in the Indian educational contexts. Many children who enter school are unable to complete their education and multiple factors are responsible for children dropping out of school. Therefore, this study is aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of the positive psycho-educational intervention (PPEI) in enhancing student engagement, motivation and alleviation of depressive symptoms among the dropouts in West Bengal, India. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase 1 focused on the development of the intervention program: The positive psycho-educational intervention (PPEI) based on the positive psychology and Broaden and Build theory, utilizing the descriptive research method. Phase II involved the assessment of the effectiveness of the newly developed intervention program (PPEI) in enhancing student engagement, motivation and alleviation of depressive symptoms of dropouts employing the true experimental research design particularly Between-Subjects: Two Independent Group Design. Three psychological tests (motivation and engagement scale (MES-HS), student engagement instrument (SEI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) were administered to the participants before and after the program implementation. A total of 68 dropout boys from urban areas were randomly assigned both in control and experimental groups. The data analysis was done utilizing mean scores, paired samples statistics, t-test for independent samples and Cohen's d. The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The statistical analysis between the pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant difference (p=.000) and its post-test scores indicated significant increase in student engagement and motivation and significant decrease in the depressive symptoms. It indicates that the Psycho-education focused
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Parent-adolescent relationship enhancement training: A response to adolescents risk behaviors in Kerala, India
Page 11-16
Kalathananickal Paul Bijimol The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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Adolescence is the developmental period of transition from childhood to adulthood and involves biological, cognitive and socio-emotional changes. The reaction and stimulus adolescents receive from parents strongly influence the adolescents' behaviors. Aggression, rule breaking, and self-injurious behaviors are common among adolescents aged 12-16. Enhancing parent-adolescent relationship with secure attachment helps adolescents to reduce risky behaviors. This study is an attempt to develop and assess the effectiveness of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Enhancement Training (PARET) in reducing adolescent risk behaviors by enhancing parent-adolescent relationship between parents and adolescents in Kerala, India. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase1: the development of PARET, and Phase II: the assessment of the effectiveness of the PARET employing a true experimental research method. A total of 40 adolescents and their parents were randomly assigned to both control and experimental groups. The data analysis was done utilizing mean scores, independent sample t- test, paired sample statistics, and Cohen's d. The pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant differences (p=0.000) at 0.05 levels and the scores of the control group and experimental groups showed significant differences (p=0.000) in all dependent variables in the post test. The result of the study reveals the effectiveness of the PARET as a significant influence in enhancing parent-adolescent relationship thereby reducing adolescent risk behaviors.
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Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based stress reduction program on stress and well-being in adolescents in a school setting
Page 17-22
Urvashi Anand Department of Psychology University of Delhi, South Campus, New Delhi and Mahendra P. Sharma Department of Clinical Psychology National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore

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During the past two decades research on the use of mindfulness-based practices on adults has grown rapidly. However, little is known about the effects of such interventions for adolescents. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and usefulness of a Mindfulness - Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program in reducing stress and enhancing well-being in adolescents in the school setting. Thirty three adolescents aged 13-15 years studying in class IX participated in the intervention. The program comprised of eight weekly sessions conducted within the school hours for duration of approximately 40 minutes. Tools used were the School Situation Survey, Personal Well-being Index for School Children, Weekly Meditation Form and Intervention Feedback Proforma. Pre, post and 3 month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results of the present study provide evidence for the effectiveness of the MBSR program in significantly reducing physiological and emotional manifestations of stress, academic stress, stress due to peer interactions, and enhancing academic self-concept and well-being. Regular practice was instrumental in cultivating mindfulness. Findings suggest that the intervention is feasible and acceptable to adolescents.
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Does secure attachment predict altruism: A causal study
Page 23-27
Aradhana Sharma Department of Psychology, DAV College, Sector -10, Chandigarh

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The present study was carried out to examine the relationship of altruism with attachment security among youngsters. Altruism was measured by two methods, viz. a self report measure of altruism (Kool & Sen, 1987) and Peer ratings on altruism. The Kerns Security Scale (Kerns, 1996) was used as a measure of attachment security. The sample consisted of 350 students (175 males and 175 females) within the age group of 17-21 years drawn from various colleges in Chandigarh. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses and Product-Moment correlations were calculated between altruism and attachment scores. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out separately with both the measures of Altruism as dependent variables, and Attachment Security scores as the Independent variables. Overall results indicate a significant positive relation between altruism and attachment security.
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Enhancing sports and exercise performance through cognitive interventions
Page 28-32
Fauzia Nazam and Akbar Husain Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP

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In this article, we have explored relationship between anxiety and sport performance and reviewed a number of studies in support to this relationship. Besides we have introduced a number of cognitive interventions techniques such as Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions (cognitive restructuring, visualization imagery, bizarre imagery, psyching-up, attribution training, thought-stopping), Relaxation Techniques and Self-help Strategies (develop self-confidence, distract yourself, focus on that which you can control, association and dissociation, positive self-talk (PST), anticipation). On the basis of earlier evidence we can infer that Sport Psychologists can work with athletes on a variety of strategies that will help in reducing anxiety. And these interventions will be useful to researchers and practitioners who wish to study how to enhance exercise and sports performance of athletes.
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Self-concept and emotional competence among day students and boarders: A comparative study
Page 33-36
Smruti Deshpande and Shobhana Abhyankar Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra

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The present study was conducted to measure the Self Concept and the Emotional Competencies of adolescents who lived in boarding schools and those who lived at home. A sample of 243 adolescents, both male and female, with age ranging from 13 years to 16 years were given Saraswat's Self Concept Questionnaire and Sharma and Bharadwaj's Emotional Competencies test. The Independent-Samples t-test revealed significant differences on some dimensions of self concept and emotional competencies. Day students and boarders differed significantly on adequate depth of feeling (t=2.678, p<.01); former being higher than latter on this dimension of emotional competence. Male and female adolescents differed significantly on social concept (t=2.28, p<.05), educational self concept (t=2.28, p<.05), and also on adequate expression and control of emotions (t=2.10, p<.05), and ability to function with emotions (t=1.95, p<.05); boys scored higher than girls. The results are discussed in the light of recent findings and schooling methods.
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Emotional intelligence among healthcare professionals: Exploring its moderating effect in occupational stress and burnout relationship
Page 37-40
J.S. Bidlan and Anupama Sihag Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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Emotional intelligence has recently been an area of interest worldwide in human service industry and the purpose of this research is to explore the moderating effect of emotional intelligence in occupational stress and burnout relationship among healthcare professionals. The Occupational Stress Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) and Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Intelligence was administered on a sample of 600 healthcare professionals from the private hospitals of Delhi, NCR. The data was collected from nursing, support staff (security, pharmacy, front office, housekeeping and dietetics/food and beverages staff) and doctors with equal number of male and female participants. A moderated regression analysis was used to explore the relationship. Results indicate that emotional intelligence has a facilitative role in the relationship between occupational stress and burnout.
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Life stress, optimism, and life satisfaction among school students
Page 41-45
Jwmwishree Boro and D. Dhanalakshmi Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship among life stress, optimism and life satisfaction among adolescents. A sample of 145 high school students (78 male and 67 female) were randomly selected from the school for current study. The participants were given three standardized questionnaires to assess their levels of life stress, optimism and life satisfaction. The scales used for the current study were Students Stress Inventory by Gadzella, Revised Life Orientation Test by Scheier, Carver and Bridges, Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) by Scott Huebner. Pearson's correlational analysis and t-test were carried out to assess the relationship among life stress, optimism and life satisfaction, and to examine the gender differences. The study found significant positive correlation between optimism and life satisfaction and it also found that girls experienced higher level of life satisfaction when compared to boys and that boys experienced a high level of pressure, a dimension of life stress, when compared to girls. Some kind of counseling program can be designed to improve life satisfaction and reduce pressure among boys and as well as for their family
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Well-being and emotion regulation in emerging adults: The role of religiosity
Page 46-50
Sapana Singh Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P.

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For a long time psychologists have been interested in the role religion plays in the interpretation of and response to life events as well as it influences on individual and social lives. Religiosity has been considered as a source of meaning that gives stability to individuals in situations of uncertainty and contributes to their psychological health and well-being. A distinction has been made between intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity. Research findings suggest that intrinsic religiosity positively correlates with different indicators of well-being, whereas extrinsic religiosity negatively affects health, well-being and achievement. Religiosity also influences emotion regulation ability of a person. The present study analyzes the role of extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity in emotion regulation and well-being during the early adulthood period. The sample included 150 adults, between 20 to 25 years of age drawn from different departments of Banaras Hindu University. Data were collected with the help of Age Universal I-E Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of data revealed interesting findings. In the study, no clear distinction of extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity found. Participants with high level of religiosity have been reported higher well-being. It has also been found that participants with high level of religiosity use more functional strategies and less dysfunctional strategies to regulate their emotions. As reviewed before, religiosity revealed as a culturally sensitive and defined concept.
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Some positive personality correlates of adherence to treatment among post-bariatric surgery patients
Page 51-54
Kaehalee Ghorpade and Shobhana Abhyankar Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra

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Obesity was recently deemed a disease by the American Medical Association. This chronic disease has established its roots in India and the incidence and prevalence of Obesity and its related diseases is at an all-time high. As per the Times of India Report in 2009, nearly 55 million of the Indian population is obese. Bariatric Surgery, evaluated as the best treatment option for morbid obesity is growing in popularity. Bariatric surgery involves an anatomical modification of the gastro-intestinal tracts; as a result the post-surgery treatment is chronic involving the patient to incorporate several behavioural modifications. The long-term follow-up makes adherence a vital issue in the bariatric patient population. The researchers sought to identify certain positive personality correlates of good treatment adherence in post-surgery bariatric patients. Thirty one patients scheduled for surgery at different times, were given a pre-operative test packet during which they were assessed on their levels of Perceived Competence for adhering to the treatment, Dispositional Optimism regarding a general expectancy of future outcomes, Internal Reasons of Motivation for choosing the treatment program, and Autonomous Self Regulation of Health Behaviours. At the 15 day follow up when the first diet change would be made, the patients were assessed for the level of treatment adherence as rated by the doctor. It was found that Perceived Competence was positively correlated with Treatment Adherence (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). However, Optimism (r = 0. 25, p > .05), Internal Reasons of Motivation for choosing the treatment (r = 0.12, p > .05), and Autonomous Regulation of health behaviour (r = 0.24, p > .05) showed an insignificant correlation with Treatment Adherence. Relative Autonomy Index (RAI) was calculated by subtracting controlled regulation from autonomous self-regulation. RAI was positively correlated with Treatment Adherence (r = 0.42 p < 0.05). This implies that autonomous regula
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Voluntary work behaviours: A value congruence perspective
Page 55-59
Khushbeen Sohi Department of Psychology, Delhi University, Delhi

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The present research was undertaken to study the impact of value congruence between values of employees and organizations on their perception of two discretionary employee behaviours, i.e., Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) and Counterproductive Work Behaviour (CWB). The sample consisted of 50 middle management employees working in an MNC in India. Interviews were also conducted with 5 employees as part of the qualitative aspect of the research. Quantitative data were analyzed using t-test. The researcher's impressions based on the qualitative data have also been presented to supplement findings of the quantitative analysis. Discussion of results has been based on past research findings as well the unique context of the present research.
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Perceived level of stress, stressors and coping behaviours in nursing students
Page 60-65
Sandhya Ghai, Monika Dutta and Aarti Garg National Institute of Nursing Education, PGIMER, Chandigarh

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Stress in nursing is inherent. Continuous and prolonged exposure to stress among nursing students can affect their academic as well as clinical performance. Stress is hazardous as it results in impaired body functions. Nursing students as part of health care system needs to be in optimum state of health in all dimensions (physical, psychological, social, spiritual and economical) to provide high quality care to the patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception level of stress and sources of stress among undergraduate nursing students. Coping behaviours of these students were also explored. The study was carried out in National Institute of Nursing Education, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted in this study. Sample size consisted of 221 nursing students. Data were obtained using questionnaire method including Sociodemographic profile sheet, Perceived stress scale, stressor check list. Results revealed that no student was free from stress only the degrees of stress varied from individual to individual. Maximum students had low and moderate level of stress. Only 5 (2.3%) students had severe level of stress. Maximum mean stress score was for 2nd and 3rd year students of B.Sc. nursing (4 years) course. Main stressors in this study were clinical and academics related i.e. performing nursing procedures in front of teacher, increased classroom workload, fear of making mistakes in clinical area, poor performance in examination, fear of catching nosocomial infection. Few stressors were in other categories like personal problems, environmental issues and relationship issues. Positive as well as negative coping strategies were used by students to deal with the stressors. On the basis of sociodegraphic characteristics no significant difference was observed in the stress level.
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A study of job stress and psychological capital in Rajasthan police officers
Page 66-68
S. S. Nathawat Director, Amity Behavioral School, Amity University, Rajasthan and Meenal Dadarwal Research Scholar, Amity University, Rajasthan

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The present research has examined the relationship between PsyCap and 8SQ in a sample of 300 police officers in the Rajasthan state. The sample was subjected to 4 measures of PsyCap which are Hope, Self-efficacy, Resiliency, Optimism and 8 emotional state including anxiety, arousal, depression, extraversion, fatigue, guilt, regression and stress.. The analysis of these measures reveal that the constructs of PsyCap are significantly correlated with the construct of job stress suggesting that individual with high PsyCap would have low negative emotion stress state in the job and PsyCap can serve as effective predictor of Job Stress in Rajasthan police. Implications of the findings have been discussed to motivate them in turning the adversity in to opportunities and dealing with job stress in positive manner in order to pursue growth and development in the life of custodian of law.
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Sensitization of teachers regarding management of learning difficulties across various educational levels
Page 69-71
Deepika Vig and Sumandeep Kaur Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab

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The present research study investigated the impact of an intervention programme designed to enhance the knowledge levels of teachers regarding management of learning difficulties among elementary school children across various educational levels. The study was carried out in 15 urban Private schools of Ludhiana City. From each school, 3rd and 4th class children facing problems in reading, writing and mathematics were randomly selected. The total sample consisted of 300 students. 172 teachers who were teaching Mathematics & language to these selected students constituted the sample of teachers .These teachers were given intervention on various aspects of learning difficulties among children. Pre and post-intervention knowledge scores were assessed across two educational levels. The results indicated that intervention significantly improved the overall knowledge scores of the teachers from poor to good level at both the educational levels. However, after getting intervention, post- graduate teachers were found to have significantly better comprehension and application skills and were able to utilize the gained knowledge for solving day to day problems related to reading, writing and mathematics among students of their respective classes.
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Higher order theory of mind and social competence in school age children
Page 72-74
Simran Bedi Clinical Psychologist, Masina Hospital, Mumbai and Nandita Babu Department Psychology, North Campus, Delhi

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Theory of mind (TOM), or the ability to make inferences about the mental states of other people is thought to be the proximate mechanism underlying human's ability to function in complex collaborative social networks. Here we present a set of stories and questions for investigating higher order theory of mind functioning in school age children, and also a scale for obtaining ratings of children's social competence. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to assess TOM in adolescents and to determine whether individual differences in this mentalizing ability relate to social competence. It was hypothesized that adolescent's ability to understand thoughts and emotions in others would be associated with their social competence. 80 adolescent (40 class 11th students and 40 class 9th students; mean age 16-14) completed peer social competence ratings and participated in a social understanding (TOM) interview. Parent's ratings of the participants' social competence were also collected. Based on composite TOM scores, results indicated positive associations between TOM and peer and parents ratings of social interaction skills.
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Efficacy of mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT): On anger reduction in drug addicts
Page 75-77
Bahman Akbari Department of Psychology, Rasht Branch Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran, Hadi Moradi, Azadeh Darwishnia, Parisa Izadirad and Orkideh Alijani Department Clinical Psychology, Tonekabon Branch Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran and Samira Safdari Department of General Psychology, Young Researchers Club, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

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The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of “mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on anger reduction in drug addicts". The population consisted of 150 patients were referred to drug addiction clinic in Tonokabon city. Among them the scores of 102 persons were on top of cut-off point in implemented questionnaire (anger). Then, 30 were randomly selected and were assigned into two control and test groups. The research design was experimental and of pre-test and post-test with control group. After random selection of experimental and control groups, first pre-test was conducted for both. Then experimental intervention (mindfulness based cognitive therapy) was presented to test group. Following the end of treatment program the post-test was taken. Finally, the results of analyzing data by multivariate covariance method (Mancova) have shown that the hypothesis is confirmed.
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Methodological analysis of mindfulness and foreign perspective
Page 77-80
Ashna Gupta Department of Psychology, Delhi University, New Delhi

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In the last 20 years, mindfulness has become the focus of considerable attention for a large community of clinicians and, to a lesser extent, empirical psychology. Mindfulness has been described as a process of bringing a certain quality of attention to moment-by-moment experience (Kabat-Zinn, 1990). The capacity to evoke mindfulness ostensibly is developed using various meditation techniques that originate from Buddhist spiritual practices (Hanh, 1976). This paper describes the methodological analysis of mindfulness and the development of various mindfulness techniques that have evolved in foreign.
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Art therapy: A creative and expressive process
Page 81-85
Kanchan Dilawari and Nishi Tripathi Department of Psychology, Sam Higginton Instititute of Agriculture and Technology, Allahabad

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As an expressive medium, art can be used to help clients communicate, overcome stress, and explore different aspects of their own personalities. In psychology, the use of artistic methods to treat psychological disorders and enhance mental health is known as art therapy. Art therapy integrates psychotherapeutic techniques with the creative process to improve mental health and well-being. Art Therapy is a mental health profession that uses the creative process of art making to improve and enhance the physical, mental and emotional well-being of individuals of all ages. It is based on the belief that the creative process involved in artistic self-expression helps people to resolve conflicts and problems, develop interpersonal skills, manage behavior, reduce stress, increase self-esteem and self-awareness, and achieve insight. Art therapy can be used to treat a wide range of mental disorders and psychological distress
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Positive thinking and positive words: Why it's so important
Page 86-89
Anita Saleem Forman Christian College, Lahore, Pakistan

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The power of thoughts and words has fascinated researchers for centuries. The complicated patterns in which thoughts and words influence an individual's psychological well being are explored in this review paper. A review of several studies based on different cultures suggests that there is an obvious link between spoken words and psychological well being. This paper explores that connection in depth and proposes that cognitions do not occur in isolation; in fact they have emotional, physiological and behavioural aspects as well. The implication of this study is that it points out why verbal statements are so imperative to one's overall well being.
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Forgiveness: An incredible strength
Page 90-93
Arun Kumar and Vidushi Dixit Defence Institute of Psychological Research, DRDO, Timarpur, Delhi

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Forgiveness may be defined as a prossocial change in which responses become less negative and more positive, as a propensity to forgive others and as an attribute. There are 7 components of forgiveness and few facilitating factors. The studies on forgiveness indicate that forgiveness enhances physical and psychological health, can help restore more benevolent and cooperative goals to relationships, social support, it influences person's propensity to forgive , there is a positive correlation between forgiveness and well-being and negative correlation between forgiveness and psychological distress.
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Emotional competence in relation to parental involvement among adolescents
Page 94-97
Neeta Gupta and Renuka Joshi Department of Psychology, D.A.V. (PG) College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

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The present study attempts to explore Emotional Competence of the respondents in relation to parental involvement among adolescents. The data were collected on 150 adolescents (75 boys and 75 girls) equally divided into three groups on the basis of high average and low parental involvement. Chopra and Sahoo's (2007) Parental involvement scale and Bharadwaj's (2007) scale of Emotional Competence were used to measure parental involvement and emotional competence of the respondents. The results have revealed that (1) boys and girls differed significantly on all the dimensions of emotional competence except one dimensions i.e. enhancement of positive emotions and (2) boys who perceived low parental involvement were found to be more above to function with emotions.
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