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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 6 (2015), Issue - 2
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Pathway from adolescents' career indecision to career decision: Basis for career guidance program
Page 136-142
Robert Fernandes and Lucila O Bance The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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Deciding on a career is one of the most important decisions the individual makes in life. While adolescence is an important period during which decision about the future is made and career is carved out, episodes of career indecision among adolescents are unfortunately not uncommon. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the factors which influence adolescents' career certainty and indecision. Following a qualitative approach using focus group discussion, the researcher chose 28 participants through purposive sampling from two different schools studying in Grade 10. Data were analyzed through content analysis as emerging key issues led to themes that guided the analysis and discussion. The study revealed that career indecision and career certainty are influenced by a number of internal and external factors in the life of the adolescents. The researcher found out that empowered adolescents tend to come up with appropriate choices provided they are given the proper freedom. Parents, relatives, teachers and peers need to be supportive of the adolescents, and a career guidance program need to be designed which is both informative and leading towards their making the right career decisions.
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Role of optimism and sense of humor towards subjective well being among college students
Page 143-148
Athira Santhosh and Aneesh V. Appu Department of Psychology Christ College, Thrissur, Kerala

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The present study attempts to ascertain the role of optimism and sense of humor towards subjective well being among college students. The term “subjective well-being” (SWB) refers to people's evaluations of their lives - including cognitive judgments, such as life satisfaction; and affective evaluations (moods and emotions), such as positive and negative emotional feelings. Optimism is the generalized expectancies of good outcomes in one's life. Humor is the tendency of particular cognitive experiences to provoke laughter and provide amusement. The study was carried out with 80 graduate students from various colleges in Thrissur district, Kerala. The Multi dimensional sense of humor scale (MSHS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT - R) were used for collecting responses from the participants. Result shows that there is no significant difference in optimism, subjective well being and humor (682) .The regression result implies that optimism (β =.420**) and sense of humor (β=.369**) is highly predicting towards subjective well being. The present study implies the role of optimism and sense of humor in individuals subjective well being and which are very important in maintaining interpersonal relationships.
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A study of the relationship of self-differentiation and emotional intelligence with marital satisfaction of married women in Tehran
Page 149-154
Behnaz Sadat Javadi, Student of Counseling International University of Imam Reza of Mashhad, Iran, Hamid Reza Hassan Abadi Department of Clinical Psychology, Mohaghegh Adebili University, Iran, Massoud Lashgari Student in Counselling Islamic Azad University Ghochan Branch, Iranss and Muhammad Ahangrkani Student in General Psychology Semnan, Iran

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The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship of differentiation of self and emotional intelligence with marital satisfaction of married women in Tehran. The descriptive design (non-experimental) of the study is correlative. Sample of the study includes 170 married women of Tehran selected by random-cluster sampling method among counseling centers. They completed Enrich questionnaire of marital satisfaction and Differentiation of self and emotional intelligence scale .The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, simultaneous regression. The results indicated that there is a significant positive relationship between differentiation of self and marital satisfaction and a significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and differentiation of self & between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction (p<0/01). The results also showed that 70 percent of marital satisfaction variance is explained by emotional intelligence and differentiation of self components.
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Role of positive emotions in the development of psychological well-being
Page 155-159
Fauzia Khatoon, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Emotion is Energy-in-Motion. It is a way of expressing oneself in life and the quality of how one relates to life. People vary widely in their typical emotional style that is whether they tend to feel generally positive or generally negative. The present paper discusses the role of positive emotions in the development of psychological well-being.Positive emotions form the experiential foundation for mentally healthy people. Positive emotions provide a foundation for growth and exploration and build the intellectual, social and physical capital for further growth and development. Positive emotion has been implicated as an important component in the link between religion and health. Experiencing positive emotions helps people to become more resilient, more creative, wiser, more virtuous, more socially integrated, and physically healthier. Psychological well-being, broadly defined as happiness, life satisfaction, and self-growth, represents one of the most important aspects of efficient psychological functioning. Indeed, much research reveals that happy people experience a number of benefits ranging from physical health to better relationships to high-level performance. Psychological well-being is the combination offeeling good and functioning effectively.
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The relationship between self-control and family function with social adjustment among high school students: Case study of Abadeh
Page 160-162
Zohreh Tavakkoli and Mahbobeh Chin Aveh, Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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This study was to investigate the relationship of self-control and family functioning with social adjustment among high school students in Abadeh, Fars Province. This cross-sectional correlation study was conducted on 350 students. A battery of questionnaires was used to collect the needed data including self-control, family, and social adjustment questioners. The collected data were analyzed by using independent samples t-test, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The results showed a significant relationship between self-control and social adjustment. Besides, self-control can predict 10.5% of the variances of social adjustment. It was also noted that the family functioning was correlated with social adjustment and can explain 11.4% of the variances of social adjustment .The consistency of findings shows that mean score of female students' social adjustment is significantly higher than that of male students. Based on these findings, it can be suggested that family dysfunction has undesired effects on the children's behavior. Given the important role of self-control skills in adaptive behaviors and prediction of social adjustment, these factors must be considered more by future research.
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Situation based moral evaluation
Page 163-165
Vatsala Saxena Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, New Delhi

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The paper discusses how the moral values are not universalistic in nature. The act is evaluated as right or wrong in the light of the prevailing situation in which it occurs. The paper presents an exemplary parent-child discourse revolving around the value of sharing. It is evident from the analysis that the mother in this context is not encouraging of her child's act of sharing, as according to her the other person's need was not genuine. The discursive method of analysis helps in understanding the moral value as embedded in everyday interaction, rather than studying it in a decontextualized fashion.
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Adapting to natural disasters: A potrait of resilience and psychosocial support to the people living in disaster prone areas of west Sumatra in Indonesia
Page 166-170
Wanda Fitri, Department of Psychology, IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang Jl. Prof. Mahmud Yunus, Lubuk Lintah Padang, Sumatera Barat and Zulrizka Iskandar, Rismijati and Zainal Abidin Faculty of Psychology, Padjadjaran University Indonesia

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A natural disaster is an event whose occurrence and impact cannot be predicted. The traumatic events of the disaster may trigger biological and psychological disorders, which may emerge as a result of Post-Trauma Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, since natural disasters are destructive, traumatic and endanger lives, disaster hit communities should be encouraged to be optimistic and also maintain a strong desire to revive from the divastating events. Being optimistic and having a strong spirit to revive is referred to as resilience. Resilience during disaster times, is a situation whereby communities are able to revive from the worst situation, rebuild their communities and are also able to develop the ability to think positively in relation to the disaster experienced. Resilience is one of the characteristic that can help survivors to overcome the shock and trauma they face after a disaster. An analysis towards survivers' capacity of resilience shows a strong relationship with the social support offerred to victims of a disaster. Psychological intervention, by means of psychosocial support in a group, also reveals that psycho-therapy is a very useful approach and it can help survivors return to their normal life situation. It tames emotional unrest and also arouses optimism among the groups faced with difficulties during or after the event has taken place.
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Emotional intelligence: A key factor for self esteem and neurotic behavior among adolescence of Karachi, Pakistan
Page 171-174
Ziasma Haneef Khan, Kausar Ilyas and ZaibUnNisa, Karachi University, Karachi, Pakistan and Batool Fatima Bahria University, Karachi, Pakistan

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Adolescence period is reported to be a demanding, transitional and in some cases turmoil phase in one's life. Therefore knowledge of one's own feelings and understanding other's feeling referred to as Emotional Intelligence plays a vital role for meeting the demands of life at this stage. After detailed literature review following hypotheses was formulated, (1) Emotional Intelligence would be positively correlated with self-esteem (2) Neuroticism would be negatively correlated with Emotional Intelligence and self- esteem in young students of Karachi, Pakistan. The sample comprised of 116 students of ages 10 to 16 year old from a private school in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Adolescent short form (TEIQue-ASF), Scale of Emotional Arousability (SEA) and State self Esteem Scale (SSES). In order to interpret the results in statistical terminology Pearson Moment Correlation was computed between the variables. The results were consisted with the formulated hypotheses as Emotional Intelligence was significantly correlated with State self esteem(r=.515, p<001).Neuroticism was found to have non-significant inverse relationship with Emotional Intelligence(r= -.073 ;p<0.01) and an inverse significant relationship with State self-esteem(r=-.241;p<0.01) respectively. The research findings offers evidence that Emotional Intelligence is positively associated with self-esteem but only state self esteem was inversely associated with neuroticism. The implications of the study are further discussed.
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Hope and spirituality as portals to subjective well-being among geriatrics
Page 175-177
Ankita Budhiraja and Punam Midha, Department of Psychology, Maharishi Dayanad University, Rohtak, Haryana

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Population aging is one of the humanity's greatest triumphs. India is facing the biggest challenge because of alarming rise in elderly population. So the concern about the psychosocial well-being of geriatrics is a key research agenda for researchers. The present study is an attempt to explore the level of hope, spirituality and subjective well-being of elderly. A purposive sample consisted of 200 old people of both sex (male and female) age 60-80 years was selected from the urban area of Rohtak city. Descriptive statistics was calculated to find out the levels of hope, spirituality and subjective well-being. Results revealed that high level of hope and spirituality and average level of subjective well-being among geriatrics. Further stepwise multiple regression revealed that hope than spirituality emerged as a robust predictor of subjective well-being. The manifest psychological strengths may serve as a cause of longevity among contemporary geriatrics.
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Models of emotional intelligence: Similarities and discrepancies
Page 178-181
Soni Kewalramani, Amity University, Lucknow Uttar Pradesh, Manju Agrawal, Amity Institute of Behavioural and Allied Sciences, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus, and Mukta Rani Rastogi, Department of Psychology (Retd.) University of Lucknow, Lucknow, UP

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The importance of emotional intelligence in different domains of life has resulted in increased interest to apply the wisdom of Emotional Intelligence in day-to-day life practices. The result is that there are several models popular today in terms of which nature and functions of emotional intelligence are discussed. Taking into consideration the theoretical developments and researches done in the field there seems to be five main models which have gained importance for conceptualizing emotional intelligence namely the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso conceptualization, Daniel Goleman's Model of Emotional Intelligence, Bar-On's Model of Emotional Intelligence, Cooper and Sawaf Four Cornerstone Model and Six Seconds' Model of Emotional Intelligence. This paper mainly deals with the discussion of these five models and an attempt is made to reveal some similarities and discrepancies among the various models.
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Relationship between positive emotions, adult attachment style and life satisfaction among adults
Page 182-185
Mohsina Nabi and Touseef Rizvi Department of Psychology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir

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The present study investigates the relationship between positive emotions, adult attachment style and life satisfaction among adults. A purposive sample of 100 adults (50 males and 50 females) aged from 23-34 years was taken. Dispositional positive emotions scale DPES (Shoita, 2006), Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991) and Satisfaction with life scale (Deiner, 1985) were used to assess positive emotions, adult attachment style and life satisfaction respectively. Results revealed positive and significant correlation between positive emotions and life satisfaction. Adult attachment style showed no significant correlation with life satisfaction. However positive emotions and attachment styles showed differential association. In case of gender, positive emotions showed significant difference. Also only one attachment style showed significant difference with gender. Finally life satisfaction did not show any significant correlation with gender.
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An investigation of the correlation between happiness and emotional intelligence, hypnotic susceptibility and gender
Page 186-188
Sepideh Iranfar Department of Speech Therapy, Student's Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran

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This Study had been aimed to discover the correlation between happiness and other variables such as emotional intelligence, Hypnotic susceptibility, gender difference and happiness in a simple of 40 undergraduate and graduate with the cluster sampling in the Abadan Oil College in Iran. Data was collected with three questionnaires such as; oxford happiness questionnaire, schutte self report of emotional intelligence and Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, modified by Kihlstrom. The correlation between happiness and gender difference was 0.111 and emotional intelligence was 0.432 and hypnotic susceptibility was -0.177. This relation in 0.01 significance level has been reported significant just between happiness and emotional intelligence. t-test was done and data analyzed, analysis were shown significance difference as well as it was found there are difference between means of variables. And chi square has been done and shown the distribution difference just in happiness and hypnotic susceptibility. It was discover, with increase of happiness, hypnotic susceptibility drop out and (this correlation was too straw). And emotional intelligence grows up with growing up the happiness. There is difference between score of men and women in happiness questionnaire. Women are happier than men, and women can get upper score than men. (This correlation was too straw).
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Mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation: A potential tool for mental health and subjective well-being
Page 189-196
Neeti Rana, School of Management, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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An attempt has been made to study the integration of Buddhist meditation practices into subjective well-being of healthy individuals engaged in formal meditation methods. Based on the Abhidhamma model of mental health (the primary mental factors of classical Buddhist Psychology), it was observed that from a full range of negative, unhealthy attitudes that stand in the way of healthy psychological development the individuals started flourishing healthy perceptual cognitive and affective states. The subjects practiced Buddhist meditation like Anapanasati (Mindfulness of Breathing), Metta Bhavana (Loving Kindness) and experienced a self-reinforcing degree of internal change along the continuum of mental states toward the healthy pole. The paper will discuss pre-post and follow up data on self report measures and meditation as a potential health promotion tool.
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Positive psychology and mental health
Page 197-202
Bhavna Mukund, Department of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Behavioural Sciences Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar, Gujarat and T.B. Singh IBS, Gujarat Forensic Sciences University Gandhinagar, Gujarat

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Positive psychology is a recent branch psychology primarily concerned with using the psychological theory, research and intervention techniques to understand the positive, adaptive, creative and emotionally fulfilling aspects of human behaviour. Mental health in India has become a priority for the people, community, and the state in the last two decades. In place of focusing and concentrating on the negative aspect of a person, a trend is developing to promote positive aspect of one's personality. This paper explores the possibility of application of positive psychology in the area of mental health, specifically in the Indian context.
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Positive psychology and its importance at workplace
Page 203-206
Minakshi Rana, Goswami Ganesh Dutta Sanatan Dharma College, Chandigarh

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Positive thoughts and feelings always act as a resource that preserve mental health during stressful times and protect physical health also. The focus of this paper is on positive psychology that target mental health rather than mental illness and on increasing happiness. Life at workplace can be stressful and disappointments and challenges are inevitable. There are some strategies and skills that allow people to navigate the challenges at workplace more effectively and enjoy work despite the upsets. The role of positive psychology in the workplace is the aim of this paper.
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Developing moral behaviors in children and adolescents: Psycho-quranic perspective
Page 207-210
Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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In recent years there is resurgence of spiritual and religious based training on moral behaviors. Psychologists have been involved traditionally in rectifying negative and health damaging behaviors. The current focus of psychologists has been to understand human strengths and positive traits which are often associated with positive health outcomes. Morality based behaviors are also become the focus of recent psychological investigations. Behaviors like being forgiving, having gratitude and other positive values like character building, having virtues and temperance are closely related to positive health outcomes, relationship building and positive mental health. The current paper will highlight the notion of moral behaviors, its theory, gender differences in moral behavior and psychological techniques to cultivate moral behaviors. The paper will integrate Quran and morality and attempts to incorporate psycho-quranic approach to cultivate moral behaviors in children and adolescents.
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Augmenting happiness by means of intentional activities
Page 211-214
Bani Narula, Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

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This paper provides an analysis of different activities as a new-fangled way of enhancing happiness. From older times to the present age, it is believed that inculcation of good habits requires both conscious effort and practice. Deliberate interventions, programs and workshops can encourage lasting happiness. Activities incorporated in such interventions are proposed by Positive Psychologists and are based on behavioural, cognitive and volitional exercises. Further, many positive psychology studies have implemented and tested specific interventions. Thus, the present research seeks to address the question whether it is possible to teach youth to be happier through a combination of education and practice of multiple exercises and activities.
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Impact of cognitive demand on vigilance decrement: An overview
Page 215-218
Anil Kumar Yadav, Department of Applied Psychology, Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, Amarkantak, M.P. and Indramani L. Singh and Trayambak Tiwari Cognitive Science Laboratory, Department of Psychology Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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Vigilance decrement has been the main focus of researchers over time. Increasing human-machine interactions and potential risks involved have aggravated researchers to investigate the vigilance phenomenon in various perspectives. Cognitive demand has been identified as an underlying cause of vigilance decrement. Task type and event rate are the important contributors to workload and stress in a vigil task. Successive tasks are more demanding than simultaneous tasks and high event rate more demanding than low event rate conditions. It is significantly important to pay cautious consideration on demand factors while designing systems and work environment involving vigilance functions.
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Sunil Saini, PhD
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