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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 8 (2017), Issue - 1
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Occupational stress as a function of type of school and gender
Page 1-5
Kehkashan Hashmi and Basheer Hasan School of Studies in Psychology Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur and Khan Abraruzzaman Khan Department to Psychiatry All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Raipur

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WHO defined as occupational stress is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Several studies reported that occupational stress influenced by certain psychological, organizational and demo-graphical factors in western context (Jeyaraj, 2013; Morrison, 2005; Berhem et al., 2004; Lewis, 1999). On the other hand in Indian context studies are lacking. The aim of current empirical research work is to examine that whether or not type of school, and gender work independently or interaction with each other are capable of generating variance in occupational stress in case of school teacher. Employing a (2)2 ex-post facto, non-experimental factorial design (fixed model) the two levels of type of school, i.e., residential and non-residential, the two levels of gender, viz. male and female were manipulated in the study. Employing the incidental cum random sampling technique, finally 120 teachers (60 males & 60 females) within the age range of 30 to 45 years were drawn randomly from different school run by Govt. of India at Chhattisgarh state to serve as subjects in the current research work. All the two independent variables were found to be potential enough in generating variance in occupational stress. Interaction was found significant for almost four components of occupational stress. Theoretical interpretations have been given.
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Comparative efficacy and coping strategies in women with dependent spouse (being treated) and normal women
Page 6-10
Mohammad Reza Askarianzadeh Department of General Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran and Mitra Mahmoodi and Seyed Ahmad Mirjafari Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The aim of research is comparison the self-efficiency and the confrontation with stress strategies in women having addicted husbands (in curing) and normal women in Isfahan in 2014.This review is a descriptive and correlation research according to subject and goal. The reviewed sample includes 100 women with addicted husbands and 100 normal women that referred to abuse centers in Isfahan and chose according to available sampling technique. The participants completed the sherer self-efficiency questionnaire (SES, 1982) and confrontation with stressful situations (clss, 1990) and personal information questionnaires. This research used Gotman reducing to half and Kronbachalfa techniques for stability of tools. The tools showed good validity and stability. This research has used Pearson correlation and multi variable variance analysis statistical techniques. The results showed that quantity of F in variance analysis with P=0/35% is meaningful and define that the average of avoiding confrontation mark is higher in women with addicted husbands than normal women and it shows women with addicted husbands use more avoiding techniques than women with normal husbands. Difference between the average of self- efficiency in two groups of women with addicted husbands and normal husbands is meaningful with P<0/003,T=3/02 .So the hypothesis is confirmed and defines that the average of self- efficiency mark in normal women is higher than women with addicted husbands.
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Prediction of psychological welfare based on defensive mechanisms and coping strategies in people with positive HIV
Page 11-14
Fatemeh Keshavarz, Department of General Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran and Seyed Ahmad Mirjafari and Aminallah Fazel Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The present study aimed at prediction of the psychological welfare according to defensive mechanisms and coping strategies in people with positive HIV. The study was correlational. The population of the study included all people with diagnosis of positive HIV repering in Psychological Counseling Center in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 1393, that 100 people were selected for available sampling. Tools used in this research were defense style questionnaire (Andrews, Singh, & Bond, 1993). Reif's Psychological welfare questionnaire, and Parker and Andlers' coping strategies questionnaire (1990). The obtained results from these questionnaires were analyzed by Pearson correlation and regression. The results indicated that psychological welfare had a positive and significant relation with problem-focused strategies and developed defense style. It had a negative and significant relation with avoidant coping strategies, undeveloped defense style, and neurotic defense style. However, it had no significant relation with emotion-focused coping strategies. In addition, only neurotic defense style had the predictive power of psychological welfare. Furthermore, problem-focused and avoidant coping strategies have the predictive power of psychological welfare in these patients.
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Relationship between personality traits and self-concept sexual with marital intimacy married people in Tehran
Page 15-18
Zohreh Hoshmand and Nazanin Honarparvaran Department of Counselling, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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This study has investigated the relationship between personality traits and sexual self-concept with marital intimacy of married people in Tehran. Therefore, this study is descriptive and correlational. The study focuses on all married people in the north of Tehran who referred to counseling services in the second quarter of the year 2014. For this purpose, using a multistage cluster sampling, samples were selected. The information and data on which this study has been based upon have been gathered through the Five Factor questionnaire (NEO), sexual self-concept questionnaire (MSSCQ), Snell and Walker and Thompson's intimacy questionnaire. The SPSS-20 software analyzed the step by step regression of the data with the help of correlation. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between marital intimacy and sexual anxiety, sexual awareness, sexual optimism, schema and depression and also between neuroticism, extroversion and conscientiousness of personality characteristics.
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The relationship between personality traits and emotional intelligence among high school teachers in Nourabad Mamasani
Page 19-22
Zeynab Ghasemi Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The aim of this study was to assess the personality traits and emotional intelligence and resilience in between is a high school teacher. The study population, Nourmamasani all high school teachers who are teaching in 2010,Among them, for example by sampling loop And 150 were selected for research. Research tools include: emotional intelligence questionnaire, Resilience Scale, the NEO Personality Inventory. For data analysis descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient and multi variate regression through SPSS was used. The findings show that between conscientiousness aspects of personality traits, emotional intelligence there and there is no relationship between other dimensions and personality characteristics between emotional intelligence and resilience are related. Other results showed that between personality dimensions (Neuroticism, extraversion) and resiliency are related. And between the components of personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness & agreeableness) and resiliency relationship existed. Resiliency can be predicted by variables (personality traits & emotional intelligence) be predicted.
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Prediction of life quality in relation with psychological capital and mind happiness in teachers
Page 23-27
Sedigheh Hassannia, Department of General Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran. and Mitra Mahmoodi and Mansoreh Amirianzadeh Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran.

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The present study has been performed with purpose of predicting life quality in relation with psychological assets and mind happiness in teachers of Shiraz city. Methodology was correlation and descriptive. Studied sample included 313(131 men & 183 women) teachers of Shiraz city in high school in 2014-2015 and were selected in a random cluster method. Participants filled a 36 questions life quality questionnaire (SF-36) and a 24-question Oxford mind happiness questionnaire (OHI). In the present, study a Cronbach alpha instrument used for determining instruments reliability. A suitable validity and reliability was reported for tests. In the present study pearson correlation coefficient statistical test and multi variable regression statistical analysis and an independent t-Test were used for hypothesis testing. Results showed that positivism variable could predict physical health of teachers' life quality. Moreover, the teachers who have better psychological health have also better physical health, meanwhile, positivism variable predicted psychological health. Results also indicated that psychological assets and mind happiness variables could predict a portion of teachers' life quality. Results also indicated a meaningful difference of life quality between men and women. Considering to the meaningfulness level of regression test, studied sample can be extended to the society.
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The comparison of mental health and coping styles of injured women with those who are not injured
Page 28-31
Raha Ramezani, Seyed Ahmad Mirjafari and Aminallah Fazel Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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Present research was done with the purpose of comparison of mental health and coping styles of injured women referred to social emergency in 2015 with non-injured. Research methodology is comparison. Sample population includes 152 women (half were injured & half not injured) in Shiraz which were selected by targeted sampling method and with the same age and education. Data was gathered by Goldenberg mental health questionnaire and Parker and Andler comparison method. Analysis and assessment of data were done by using multi variable variance analysis and independent T-test. Findings indicate that mental health of injured women is lesser than non-injured ones. The amount and physical claims, tension and depression in injured women are more than the other group. Furthermore, there is meaningful difference between injured women and the other group in terms of emotional-focused coping, avoidance-focused coping and problem-focused coping.
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The relationship between the desire to stay in work according to organizational posts and job stress in staff of industries and mines organization of Fars province
Page 32-35
Zahra Dorostkar, Department of Psychology Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran , Fereshteh Mostafavi Rad Department of Educational & Psychological Science, Sepidan Branch Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran and Mahbobeh Chin Aveh Department of Psychology Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the desire to remain in work based on job stress and organizational position in staff of Industries and Mines Organization of Fars. This study was a descriptive correlation and statistical population were about 150 people, using census sampling all of them have been chosen as research sample. For data gathering the Inventory of Job stress, Rasooli, and Wiener Inventory of desire to remain in work were used. Validity by face validity and reliability of the questionnaire through Cronbach's alpha coefficient determined. Data analyzed by Pearson and Spear man correlation coefficient and SPSS 16 software was used. The finding showed that there is a significant and negative relationship between job stress and desire to remain in work, also a significant relationship between organizational position and desire to remain in work. Job stress could predict the desire to remain in work but organizational position couldn't predict the desire to remain in work.
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A pilot study of compassion based emotion management program for the medical students in Kerala
Page 36-40
Alex Nottan Rappai and Marie Ann S Vargas The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Espana, Manila, Philippines

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Medicine is an emotionally challenging profession. Emotional quality of the medical students is a significant element for the effectiveness of training and professional practice. This study aims to develop and test 'Compassion Based Emotion Management Program' by improving emotional intelligence and reducing the perceived stress of medical students in Kerala, India. This study was used mixed research design: qualitative and quantitative study used to assess the pre and post pilot intervention design. Qualitative study used semi structured in depth interview and focus group discussion to explore the needs of medical students. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) and Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) used to measure the efficacy of the newly developed compassion based emotion management program. Compassion Based Emotion Management program was designed based on Compassionate Mind Therapy, Emotional Intelligence Theory and Broaden build theory of positive emotions. This program was arranged in to ten modules for five weeks. The program was validated by the experts and conducted the program for seven medical students. The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon sign rank test .The pretest and post test scores of the pilot study showed significant difference (p=0.018) in both scales which is below at 0.005. The finding of pilot study shows that Compassion Based Emotion Management program is an effective intervention tool for enhancement of emotional intelligence and reduction of perceived stress.
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Effect of yoga on stress management among adolescent girls
Page 41-43
V. Premanand and Disha Mallya Department of PG Psychology, St. Agnes Centre for PG Studies and Research, Mangalore

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Wolman points out that adolescent's experience conflicting and frustrating situations. Studies have shown that physical exercising helped in the improvement of self-control and increased tolerance to stress. Present study aimed to find the effect of Yoga, an ancient Indian form of exercise on the Stress Management factor of Emotional Intelligence as conceptualized by Bar-On. The Youth Version of Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory was used as the tool. Sample for the study consisted of two groups of adolescent girls drawn into Experimental and Control groups respectively. The results showed that practice of Yoga improved the Stress Management factor of Emotional Intelligence.
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Educational intervention for reducing parenting stress of mentally challenged children
Page 44-47
Narmada Hidangmayum Women Scientist B Department of Anthropology Manipur University, Imphal, Manipur and Pushpa. B. Khadi Department of Human Development and Family Studies Rural Home Science College, University of Agricultural Sciences Dharwad, Karnataka

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A Quasi experiment with interrupted time series design was employed to know the impact of educational intervention to parents of 65 mentally challenged children for reducing parenting stress. An educational package was developed to provide knowledge regarding ability of mentally challenged children, the importance of early intervention and various therapies for the children and techniques of stress management to reduce parenting stress. Paired t-test and effect size was used to know the effect of intervention. Comparison of mean scores of parenting stress between pre and post test revealed statistically significant (P<0.05) differences indicating that at post intervention, parents were significantly lower on Parenting stress (79.96), the dimensions of parent child difficult interaction (26.24) and difficult child (33.76) but not in parental distress. Significant differences on dimensions of parental stress were noticed in parental distress. The effect size ranged from 0.36 to 0.80. The knowledge index was 81.45 percent with a range of 68.18 to 95.45 per cent. Thus the programme was highly effective in reducing the parenting stress and in enhancing the knowledge regarding management of mentally challenged children.
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The Short Depression-Happiness Scale: A Russian translation
Page 48-50
Christopher Alan Lewis, Department of Psychology, Glyndŵr University PlasCoch Campus, Wrexham, LL11 2AW, Wales, UK and Department of Psychology, Bashkir State University, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, Mikhail Khukhrin and Svetlana Galyautdinova Department of Psychology, Bashkir State University Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan Russia, Sadia Musharraf National Institute of Psychology Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan and Mary Jane Lewis Department of Psychology Glyndŵr University, Plas Coch Campus Wrexham, Ll11 2AW, Wales, UK

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At present within the Russian-speaking world, there is much interest among social scientists in positive psychology. Practically for researchers and clinicians interested in positive psychology in the Russian context, there are presently a growing a number of scales available in the Russian language. The present aim was to introduce the Russian translation of the Short Depression-Happiness Scale to facilitate research. Matters raised during the translation process are noted. Suggestions for further research with the Russian translation of the Short Depression-Happiness Scale are provided.
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The role of family health and psychological well-being in the prediction of the students' quality of life
Page 51-54
Minoo Khalaj Asadi, Department of Psychology, Payame-Noor University Tehran, Iran

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This study is conducted in order to evaluate the role of family health and psychological well-being in the prediction of the students' quality of life. This study is conducted with the cross-sectional method and correlational design on the community of Guilan University students in the academic years of 2016-17. A sample of 200 students has been selected by using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. In order to collect the data, the main family scale, the Psychological well-being scale of Ryff and the quality of life questionnaire of World Health Organization have been used. The SPSS-18 software has been used to analyze the data and the results have been reported in the form of descriptive and inferential statistics. The results have shown that the psychological well-being and family health variables with the correlation value of 0.415 and 0.404 have a positive and significant correlation with the quality of life variable at the P<0.01 level of significance. The results of the Stepwise regression analysis to predict the variance of the students' quality of life have indicated that only in one step the psychological well-being variable with (6.245) t coefficient has a high and significant correlation with the quality of life variable.
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Assessment of workplace environment for sewing machine activity
Page 55-58
Neha Gahlot, Manju Mehta and Kiran Singh Department of Family Resource Management, I.C. College of Home Science, CCSHAU, Hisar, Haryana

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A comfortable and well managed work environment without much clutter allows employees to focus on their goals. This paper describes the results of a study conducted to assess the workplace environment of the female sewing machine operators. A comfortable work environment is very important to perform the task easily and to increase the productivity with reduced number of errors. Hence, the workplace environment of the sewing activity was assessed with environmental parameters which include temperature, light, humidity, and noise. The mean temperature of the workplace was 28.59 which was above the recommended level and the mean illumination level at workplace was found 228.56which was below the recommended level which was contributing to headache and eye strain for the female sewing machine operators. Workplace assessment for ventilation facility, storage of garments, storage of tools, proximity of clothes and tools, clearance of traffic lanes, hazardous things at workplace, workplace hygiene and workplace management also performed. The results of the study showed that only one fourth sewing machine operators had good storage facility for storage of stitched and unstitched garments.
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To study the mental health among school students
Page 59-63
Dinesh Niak N.V.P. Mondal's Arts, Commerce & Sciences College Lasalgaon, Nasik, Maharastra and Ashok Parasar SPPU Pune, Maharatra

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"School mental health" in recent years has taken on a much broader meaning, with an increasing emphasis on the host of possibilities that schools provide for clinicians, teachers, administrators, students, families, and community members to collaborate in promoting the overall well-being of all students (ESMH). Mental Health is a state of well being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively and is able to make contributions to his or her community (Leonard, 2005). To study the mental health among school students 100 students were selected as the sample group, in the age range between 13 to 18 years were taken from 2 schools of Dharmpuri, Indore. Samples were selected purposively for the study. who were fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected for the present study. The tools used for assessing the variables are Socio Demographic Data Sheet & family details (Self made), PGI Health Questionnaire (Verma, Wig, & Pershad, 1985). This study revealed that the frequency and percentage of the subject about their total mental health on both areas healthy and poor health were 57% and 43% respectively.
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Development and standardization of Mindfulness Qualities Scale for college students
Page 64-67
Arunya B. and Thamilselvan P. Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Affiliated to Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

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With the increasing demands, we are put on a 24x7 clock running behind goals, weekend targets. Mindfulness provides an opportunity to open doors to the beauty of present moment. With empirical evidence supporting the benefits of mindfulness, an indigenous scale is essential. This study focused on developing an indigenous scale to measure the various affective and cognitive qualities that fosters mindfulness as conceptualized by Jon Kabat-Zinn and Shauna-Shapiro, Jeffrey-Schwartz. An intensive set of focus group discussion, trial run and expert reviews were done. Post expert reviews, a sample of 105 college students were given the scale to assess the Internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha 0.796) and Test Retest reliability of 0.548 respectively. Concurrent validity of the scale based upon its relation with Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (Greg Feldman, Adele Haves, Sameet, Kumar, Jeff Greeson, & Jean Philippe Laurenceau, 2006) is found to be 0.576. Item were reduced throughout the standardization procedure and a final version of 30 item scale with the response category- Never, Sometimes, Often, Always was formulated along with norms. The scale shall be extended further beyond college population.
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Evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on development of autonomy in adolescent students: A comparative study
Page 68-72
Ayub Ghasemian and Venkatesh Kumar G. Department of Studies in Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore

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The aim of the present study was to enhancement of autonomy through life skills training among adolescent students. A conceptual analysis of different theoretical perspectives has resulted in an integrative model of attitudinal, emotional, and functional autonomy. Attitudinal autonomy refers to the cognitive process of choosing and defining a goal. Emotional autonomy refers to the affective process of feeling confident about one's own choices and goals. Functional autonomy refers to the regulatory process of developing a strategy to achieve these goals. Adolescent Autonomy Questionnaire by Noom et al. (1999) was used to measure adolescent students' autonomy and each component. After the pre-test a total of 200 adolescent students who measured low on autonomy were selected and divided into experimental and control groups (50 boys & 50 girls in each group). Life skills training program designed by World Health Organization (WHO) was administered to the experimental group in 8 training sessions of 120 minutes and the control group was kept under observation. The results showed that life skills training has significantly increased autonomy of the intervened sample than non intervened sample. We also found positive effect of life skills training in increasing all the sub-components of autonomy-attitudinal, emotional and functional autonomies.
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Beyond the Freud's pleasure principle: The Indian perspective to pleasure
Page 73-75
Priyanka Behrani Department of Psychology, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat

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The present paper focuses on the comparative perspective of the concept of pleasure as described by Sigmund Freud founder of Psychoanalysis and the Indian view. The Psychoanalytic theorists suggest that the reduction of tension by the satisfaction of needs leads to happiness or Pleasure. It is theorized that happiness is because of achievement of goal which leads to satisfaction, so satisfaction is happiness. Humans are pleasure seeking creatures; Freud called this need for satisfaction, the Pleasure Principle which can be defined as the desire for immediate gratification of needs with no regard for consequences. The nature of pleasure as discussed in Indian literature maintains similarity and contrast with the psychoanalytic view. Madhusudana maintains that pleasure and pain are modes of mind (Antahkarnavrtti). Prasastapada (400 A.D.) defines pleasure as an agreeable feeling, pleasure arises from the conjunction of the mind with the self. It brings about an experience of agreeable feelings, inclines the self in its favor and produces its satisfaction .There is no pleasure apart from self it is a quality of the self, it is a subjective feeling and is affected by desirable objects. Vardhamana (1250 A.D.). Pleasureis a subjective experience the same object produces pleasure in one person may not in the other person. It is ultimate end of all our prudential action it is not a means to some other end. According to Samakhya and the Yoga , Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas produce pleasure ,pain and dejection respectively. They are the constituents of the mind . Pleasure is delight it is a mode of mind, and not a quality of the self and a function of sattva.
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A study of family relationship, altruism and aggression level of adolescents
Page 76-78
J. R. Patil, Department of Psychology Rajaram College, Kolhapur, Maharashtra and R. K. Adsul Department of Psychology, Smt. M.G. Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra

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The main aim of the study was to assess the family relationship of 10th grade students with Altruism and aggression. The sample of the study comprised of 60 students. (30 boys & 30 girls) selected randomly from Kolhapur city. Data collected from Family Relationship Scale, Altruism Scale and Aggression scale. The data was analyzed by 't' test. The results of the study revealed there is no significant difference between family relationship and altruism but family relationship has a significant influence on aggression.
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Spirituality and compassionate love in psychiatrists and psychiatric social workers
Page 79-82
Tarun Choudhary and A.V.S. Madnawat Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The present study aspired to investigate whether Spirituality is a significant predictor of Compassionate Love in Compassion Virtue Icons - Psychiatrists and Psychiatric Social Workers. It was hypothesized that Spirituality will be a significant predictor of Compassionate Love in Compassion Virtue Icons - Psychiatrists and Psychiatric Social Workers. A purposive sample of 400 Compassion Virtue Icons 200 Psychiatrists and 200 Psychiatric Social Workers from various Government and Private Hospitals and Psychiatric Centers located in Jaipur City of Rajasthan State was selected. The Predictor Variable (Spirituality) was measured by Underwood, Lynn et al. (2002) whereas the Criterion/Outcome Variable (Compassionate Love) was measured by Compassionate Love Scale (Sprecher & Fehr, 2005). The Correlational Research Design along with Regression Model was employed. The Multiple Regression Analysis was computed to investigate whether Spirituality was a significant predictor of Compassionate Love in Compassion Virtue Icons Psychiatrists and Psychiatric Social Workers. It was empirically proved that Spirituality is a significant positive predictor of Compassionate Love in Compassion Virtue Icons Psychiatrists and Psychiatric Social Workers. The results are interpreted in the light of existing researches.
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A correlational study on resilience and well-being among college adolescents in Kolhapur city
Page 83-86
Ashwini P. Patil, Department of Psychology Shivaji University, Kolhapur, Maharashtra and R. K. Adsul Department of Psychology, Smt. Mathubai Garware Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra

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The present study examined the correlation between resilience and well-being among adolescents. The sample consisted of 120 adolescents were selected for the study which includes 60 males and 60 females from Kolhapur city. Random sampling method was used for the data collection. Resilience was measured by Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (Deirdre Gartland, 2006) and well-being was measured by General Well-Being Scale (Kalia & Deswal). The Method of central tendency was used for data analysis and computes the Mean, SD and calculated 'r' values. The results indicated that the there is a positive correlation between resilience and well-being among adolescents whereas the mean score of males is more than females, its showed that the level of resilience and well-being of males is higher than that of females. The findings also indicated that significant positive correlation between various dimensions of resilience and well-being. The present study revealed that well-being was a valuable predictor of resilience among adolescents.
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Impact of psycho-education on burden and other correlates of caregivers of patients suffering from bipolar mood disorder
Page 87-91
Sankalita Mukherjee Department of Psychology, Victoria Institution, Kolkata, West Bengal

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Psycho education to family members has been emerged as an important prerequisite to modern psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation, since through psycho education many problematic areas related to patient care and compliance with the treatment can be successfully addressed. Being an indispensable adjunct to modern psychiatric treatment it is more efficacious in targeting all areas of patient's illness and functionality quite suitably than any single therapy based approach. Effects of bipolar disorder can be far-reaching, both into the lives of patients and those around them. Severe cognitive, emotional and behavioural dysfunctioning related to illness lead to burden, expressed emotion, life stress, avoidance coping, decreased quality of life and lesser social support in family members of patients because of their inability in understanding the meaning of psychiatric and neurological symptoms. Primary caregiver plays multiple role in care of the ill persons, not only they take day-to-day care of the patient, supervise medications, take the patient to the hospital and look after the financial needs but also they have to bear with the behavioral disturbances in the patient. Experiencing considerable stress and burden they might develop an unhealthy coping style which may adversely affect the caregiving function and their own health. Interventions techniques have proven efficacy in reducing relapse rates and negative impact of symptoms on caregivers and can diminish negative attitudes and increase the willingness in the caregivers in providing care to patients. Through intervention caregivers are imparted knowledge about illness, its course, etiology, warning signs and various ways of managing the patient during distress and dysfunctioning. Psychoeducational training is a way of offering help for caregivers, representing a forum for knowledge sharing, and in which the primary focus is on psychological themes aimed at carers developing coping skills and strategies.
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A study of economic background and mental health of adolescents
Page 92-94
Shashikant Sarjerao Pisal, Jeevan Prabhodhini Kanya Mahavidyalaya Vita, Sangli and R. K. Adsul Department of Psychology, Smt. Mathubai Garware Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra

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The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in mental health of adolescents from low, middle and high economic status families. Selected adolescents were from (Tasgaon & kavthemahankal taluka) sangli district in Maharashtra. 150 students from 10 and 12th std. were selected by random sampling method from rural area. High, middle and low economic status 50 students of each category were selected(N=150, male 75 & female 75).Their age range was 16to18 years. Data collected through mental health battery and economic status scale and analyzed by mean, S.D, and t' test. Results revealed that mental health of adolescent from middle economic status family is better than that of adolescents from high economic status family. There is no significant difference between adolescents of high and low economic status families on mental health. The middle economic status family adolescents are better than low economic status adolescents. There is difference between boys and girls on mental health. Boy's mental health is better than girls.
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