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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 6 (2015), Issue - 1
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Development of a religious cognitive-emotional therapy program in alleviating the psycho-spiritual crises of selected consecrated women
Page 1-9
Juliana Pinto and Julom Angelina Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, España Blvd, Manila, Philippines

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The research explored the effectiveness of Religious Cognitive Emotional Therapy (RCET) Program to alleviate psycho-spiritual crisis termed as; depressive symptoms and lack of religious meaning of consecrated women in India. The Psycho-Spiritual crises are experiences a person encounters in life that are distressing due to irrational beliefs, thoughts and emotions about consecrated life. These crises can affect their relationship with God, Religious vows, prayer, community life and ministry can lead to depression. This study was conducted in two phases: 1. development of the RCET program, 2. assessment of the effectiveness of RCETP in alleviating depressive symptoms and enhancing religious meaning of consecrated women employing true experimental research design particularly between subjects. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), Assessment of Religious Meaning was administered before and after the implementation of the program. Total number of 60 consecrated women randomly assigned to control and experimental conditions. Data analysis was done utilizing mean scores, paired sample t-test, MANOVA and Cohen's d. The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significant. The statistical analysis between pre, post and extended post test scores of the experimental group showed significant difference (P=0.00) revealed the significant effectiveness of RCET program in decreasing depressive symptoms and enhancing religious meaning.
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Effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy based intervention program (ACTP) on perceived stress and emotion regulation among alcoholics in Kerala, India
Page 10-18
Betcy George and RosalitoG de Guzman The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Department of Psychology, España, Manila, Philippines

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Alcoholism is the devastating fatal disease negatively affects the individual, family and society at large. It is progressive and harmful that dominates thinking and emotions of the alcoholic and produces severe consequences on physical and psychological well-being. Stress and disregulation of emotions is the important contributing factor of addiction and relapse susceptibility. Growing evidence suggests perceived stress, emotion regulation underlie clinically relevant behaviors and psychological difficulties among the alcoholics. In response to these problems researcher incorporates a focuseson reducing perceived stress, difficulties in emotion regulation developed an intervention program based on acceptance and commitment strategy along with mindfulness. The study has two phases; ACTP program development and assessment of the effectiveness program in reducing perceived stress and emotion regulation difficulty thereby total abstinence and replacement of addictive pattern of behavior through experimental methods.Total32 alcohol dependence randomly assigned to control and experimental situation. Two scales perceived stress (PSS-14) and difficulties in emotion regulation (DERS) were administered. The mean, paired sample t-test, MANOVA and Cohen's d were utilized for data analysis. The null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significant. Pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant difference (P=0.00) that revealed the effectiveness of ACTP program.
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Job Attitude in relation to perceived occupational stress, interrole-conflict and psychological well-being of women police
Page 19-25
Nandini and S. Karunanidhi, Department of Psychology, University of Madras, Chennai and T. Chitra, Consultant Psychologist Kodambakkam, Chennai

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The present study explored the role of job attitude in relation to perceived occupational stress, interrole conflict, and psychological wellbeing of women police. The study also examined the influence of demographic factors such as job experience, family structure, number of transfers, and number of dependents on all psychosocial variables studied. The sample was chosen from a sampling frame of 181 women constables, who satisfied the criteria of marital status. Data were obtained from a sample of 72 married women constables and head constables of the Chennai City police department. Data were analyzed by using correlation analysis and t-test. The sample was divided into two groups as low and high job attitude based on the mean scores in job attitude scale. Correlation analysis among the variables revealed that job attitude was negatively related to both occupational stress and interrole conflict. Moreover, job attitude was positively related to psychological well-being. Occupational stress was negatively related to psychological well-being of women police. It was found that interrole conflict did not significantly influence the occupational stress and psychological wellbeing of women police. Moreover, those with more job experience perceived low occupational stress and better psychological well-being. Women police with more number of dependents perceived greater interrole conflict than those with lesser number of dependents. Further, the number of transfers and type of family did not influence job attitude, perceived occupational stress, interrole conflict, and psychological well-being of women police. The study had implications for further research in police force and in developing effective interventions to reduce occupational stress and to enhance psychological well-being of women police.
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Spiritual intelligence, quality of life and length of service as predictors of organizational commitment among power sector employees
Page 26-31
Samina Bano, Upasana Chaddha, Sharnaz Hussain Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Organizational commitment is a positive construct and important for the organizational development. The need is to find out the factors responsible for organizational commitment especially when employees focus more on individuals' goal rather than organizational goals. In this context the paper is an attempt to understand the concept of spiritual intelligence and quality of life at the work place and whether they contribute towards organizational commitment or not? 120 employees power sector industry were selected for the study. Senior and junior employees were approached; Seniority was based on the tenure in the same organization and not the total number of experiences. The results exhibited positive correlation among spiritual intelligence, quality of life and organizational commitment and also found significant difference between senior and junior employees on all the three variables. It was noted that among the junior employees the variation of scores were wide on spiritual intelligence and organizational commitment whereas senior employees had very less variation and that also towards higher scores. Quality of life scores were reported to be high with lesser variations among both seniors and juniors employees. The study determined a significant positive relationship among spiritual intelligence, quality of life and organizational commitment. The findings also revealed, the tenure of service in the organization was related to higher spiritual intelligence which develops the connection at work place that leads to commitment towards organization.
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Role of resilience and sense of coherence in subjective improvement of psychiatric patients
Page 32-36
Kriti Gupta and Jyotsna Agrawal Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Indian Institute of Technology, Patna, Bihar and Vibha Sharma Department of Clinical Psychology Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences, New Delhi

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In the field of mental health, there is an increasing acknowledgement of the role of human strengths and potentials, which helps most people to not only manage their lives with its limitations but also flourish in their lives. Thus, it becomes imperative to study the role of such strengths in the clinical population. Therefore, the current study investigated the role of resilience and sense of coherence in subjective improvement and quality of life in people diagnosed with common mental disorders. A sample of 30 patients (15 males & 15 females), diagnosed with either anxiety, depression or obsessive-compulsive disorder and undergoing psychotherapy along with pharmacotherapy for the last one year, were selected for the study. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Antonovsky's Orientation to Life Questionnaire were administered to assess resilience and sense of coherence, respectively. Visual Analogue Scale for assessing subjective improvement in illness symptoms, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Abbreviated Questionnaire for the assessment of quality of life were used. Results indicated that patients with high resilience and high sense of coherence reported higher levels of improvement in their symptoms and quality of life. However, resilience was a better predictor for both improvement in illness and quality of life.
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The impact of the principals' leadership style on teachers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment: An Indian perspective
Page 37-43
Joseph M. Shila and Aleli V. Sevilla The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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Today there is much attention given to effective leadership, that without which organizations will find it difficult to survive. To be effective, leaders not only need technical skills but also people skills that can motivate the followers with understanding, sensitivity and prudence. There are very few studies done in India regarding these aspects from the educational perspective. There for the objective of this study is to determine the influence of leadership styles of the principals as perceived by the teachers on their job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study made use of Linear Regression to identify the impact of administrators' leadership styles on teachers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The collected data shows a significant impact of transformational leadership on teachers' job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
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Janam kundli: A religious tradition and a medium of value sustentations
Page 44-51
Bhagyashree Joshi and Aradhana Shukla Department of Psychology, Kumaun University Campus Almora

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In these days considerable attempts have been made to explore the pattern of personality related to various areas of life experiences. The studies have laid their significant impact by revealing the relative efficacy of personality surrounded by many experiential factors. Most of the studies have followed western concept and Indian concept are still to be explored. In additions to its personality have not been studied in Indian perspective whether it is present or past.
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Effectiveness of mindfulness based psycho-educational program on parental stress of selected mothers of children with autism
Page 52-56
Joseph Lilly and Joy R. Tungol The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the second most prevalent neuro-development disorder among children. Mothers of children with autism experience higher level of stress in their parenting work caused by the persistent illness of the child, anxiety about the child's future, and social isolation. Parents need the means to cope with such stress in dealing with their children with autism. This study done in Kerala, India, aimed to develop and assess the effectiveness of the Mindfulness Based Psycho-educational Program (MBPEP) among mothers who have children with autism to reduce mothers' stress related to parenting. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1: the development of the intervention program MBPEP, and Phase II: the assessment of the effectiveness of the newly developed intervention program (MBPEP); it employed a true experimental research method. A total of 40 mothers from semi-urban areas were randomly assigned to both control and experimental groups. The data analysis was done utilizing mean scores, independent sample t-test, and paired sample statistics. The pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant differences (p= 0.000) at 0.05 levels; the scores of the control group and experimental group showed significant differences (p=0.000) in the dependent variable in the post-test.The result of the study reveals the effectiveness of the MBPEP in significantly reducing the stress of mothers of children with autism.
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Balancing social network sites usage among teenagers with parental involvement: Effects on academic motivation
Page 57-62
Kaniyarakath T. Minimol and Julom M. Angelina The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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Discussion about the risk of online activities among teenagers is an emerging issue among researchers. This article observes the role of parental involvement in balancing Internet andsocial network sites(SNSs) usage among teenagers and how it affects their academic motivation. The data collected through a survey analyzedthe relationships between 1) parental involvement and SNSs usage, 2) SNSs usage and academic motivation, and 3) parental involvement and Academic motivation. The study found that parental involvement exerts a significant effect on SNSs usage and academic motivation. SNSs usage has a negative correlation with academic motivation. This study recommended future intervention program for parents to enhance their involvement in their teenagers' daily activities.
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Relationship between forgiveness, gratitude and resilience among the adolescents
Page 63-68
E. Manchula Mary Counselling Psychologist, IAF (WAC) Subroto Park, New Delhi and Swati Patra Department of Psychology IGNOU, New Delhi

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Role of positive psychology is to nurture values and strengths in individuals and society. Forgiveness trait of temperance, and Gratitude trait of transcendence, are criteria of character strength (Christopher Peterson, Martin Seligman, 2004). Resilience is the ability to spring back from adversity and successfully adapt to any situation. These three traits play a significant role in deriving satisfaction and making life meaningful. These values need to be nurtured in children from the beginning. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess forgiveness, gratitude and resilience among the adolescents and find out the strength of their inter-relationship. The sample consisted of 150 Grade XI students from the schools of Delhi. The tools used were Heartland Forgiveness Scale by Thompson et al., 2005, Gratitude Questionnaire-six item form by McCullough et al., 2002, and Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) by Ungar and Liebenberg (2011). These tools have been used in various studies in the Indian context. The statistical analysis showed a correlation of 0.23 between forgiveness and resilience, a correlation of 0.27 between gratitude and resilience and a correlation of 0.24 between forgiveness and gratitude. Though the correlation values were low, they were found to be significant. Interestingly, school-wise analysis showed different results for different schools; thus indicating a probable role played by the school environment, and socio-economic status of the students. Further, gender difference was seen with regard to gratitude having more correlation with resilience in case of girls; whereas forgiveness was related more to resilience in case of boys. Further study is suggested taking into account the above variables.
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Yoga practices for adolescents' adjustment in relation to their gender and inhabitance difference
Page 69-74
Himmat J. Narke V.P.S.P.M.S. Arts, Commerce and Science College Kannad, Maharashtra and Anita M. Daryanani Psychologist, Central Public Sr. Sec. School Udaipur, Rajasthan

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As children grow from year to year, they develop greater complexity in their behavior. During adolescence period an individual acquires certain beliefs, values and social skills which determine their level of adjustment. The concern of present research was to investigate the effect of yoga practices, gender and inhabitance on students' adjustment. The initial sample comprised of 80 students from various sr. schools through random sampling technique. The whole sample was equally divided into two groups namely with yoga practices (n=40) and without yoga practices (n=40). These both groups constituted with equal number of students belong to urban (n=20) and rural (n=20) settings. All four subgroups were made with equal number of male (n=10) and female (1=20) students. To obtain the data Adjustment Inventory for School Students (AISS) by K.P. Sinha was administered on selected sample. As per requirement the present investigation deals with 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design and data was analyzed using 3 Way ANOVA. The obtained result revealed that yoga practices, inhabitance and gender individually as well as interaction with each other to determine level of adjustment among students.
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Optimism, adjustment and appraisals among adolescents
Page 75-78
Sonia Dangi and Radhey Shyam Department of Psychology, M.D.U, Rohtak, Haryana

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The aim of the present study was to find out the gender differences on optimism, adjustment (physical and psychological) and appraisals (primary and secondary) in a specific stressful situation (examination) among the school students. For this purpose a sample of 200 students appearing for 12th pre-board examination were selected on the basis of availability. Out of which there were 100 males and 100 females. The data were collected from different states of India i.e. Haryana, Chandigarh and Mumbai. Life orientation test- revised (LOT-R) was used to measure optimism, Satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for measuring psychological adjustment and Pennebaker Inventory of limbic languidness (PILL) was used to measure physical adjustment. Whereas appraisals were measured using six separate items those used by Ptacek, Smith and Dodge (1994) in his study. Data were analysed using Mean, SD, t- test and correlation. Results revealed that there were significant gender differences except satisfaction with life scale and secondary appraisal. Results also revealed positive correlation between optimism and adjustment.
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Exploring psychological capital among bank employees: Exploring human potential
Page 79-83
Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and Firdos Jahan Rehabilitation Psychologist, Aligarh, U.P.

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The aim of the present study was to examine Psychological Capital (PsyCap) among Private Bank Employees in Aligarh. The main objectives of the present research were to (i) Examine Psychological Capital in a group of senior and junior managers working in Private Banks. (ii) Examine the differences between the different dimensions of Psychological Capital (Self-efficacy, Hope, Optimism and Resiliency) in a group of senior and junior Managers. A sample of 74 bank employees in the age range of 29-52 years and a mean age of 37.30 years and SD of 3.9 were selected using purposive sampling of which 40 were junior managers and 34 were senior managers working in private banking sector. 12 item Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007) was used to examine the Psychological Capital and its dimensions in a mentioned sample. The Questionnaire was administered individually to the respondents. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like mean, SD and inferential statistics like t test .The findings revealed no significant difference in both the group on the overall measure of PsyCap, means being 48.35 and 49.13 of Senior Managers and Junior Managers respectively. The results also revealed insignificant differences between the groups on 3 of its 4 dimensions. On the dimension of Optimism, however, significant difference was found between Senior and Junior Managers. The major limitation of the research was its small sample size.
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Beyond autonomy exploring euthanasia and abortion in contemporary urban educated Bengalis
Page 84-89
Soma Pramanik and Deepshikha Ray Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal

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The 21st century has witnessed the rise of alternative voices regarding human dignity and worthwhile existence. Such advocacies of eudaimonia debate on issues of almost repugnant artificial prolongation of life over an autonomous and decorous existence; and also the contention of woman's identity as a tool of procreation versus her own will and self-direction. The present research has endeavoured to explore these apparently paradoxical issues which share a common underlying theme of human dignity and good living. Two 5 point scales for reviewing the attitude towards 'euthanasia' and 'abortion' were constructed following the initial directions of Thurstone and Chave (1929) and followed by relevant judgement by 11 experts. The sample consisted of 130 graduate, Hindu, urban / semi-urban individuals, aged between 21 to 40 years; who were further categorized into two groups “Believers” and “Non-believers” based on the proposition of Bevacqua and Robinson-Kurpius (2008) that “it is not necessarily a particular religious affiliation that is of most importance, but instead any belief in a greater power might be the driving force behind a lower acceptance of one ending his or her life”. The study reveals that non believers as well as women tend to have a more favourable attitude towards euthanasia as well as abortion. The results have been discussed keeping in mind that the contention of morality has contextual and feministic ramifications.
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Altruism: A pathway for psychological well-being
Page 90-92
Lawrence Soosai-Nathan Anugraha Institute of Social Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu

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Altruism/selflessness is not an issue of religions and moral teachings alone. Various researches within positive psychology have shed light on the rich potential of altruism for one's health, happiness and well-being. In line with the previous works, this study aims to explore the potential of altruism in enhancing a crucial dimension of psychological well-being: meaning in life. To this end, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) was used along with the Altruism Questionnaire (AQ). Data was collected from 432 participants from two different countries; India (N=216, 50% women) and Italy (N=216, 50% women), aged between 30 and 60 (Indian Mage = 44.48, SD = 8.66; Italian Mage = 44.24, SD = 7.73). The sample was balanced for education and profession. Findings show that across cultures a higher perceived level of altruism leads to higher level of presence of meaning. However, there was no corresponding negative correlation to search for meaning, as often found in previous studies. Findings show that altruism is a promising pathway towards psychological well-being, underscoring the need of altruism promotion strategies.
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Teenagers' perception of social network sites in relation to academic motivation and interpersonal relationships: A focus group approach
Page 93-97
Kaniyarakath T. Minimol and Julom M. Angelina The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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In the present era of globalization teens are more fascinated with Social Network Sites (SNSs). The extensive use of SNSs may have various impacts on students especially in their academic motivation and interpersonal relationships. Taking into account the above mentioned scenario, this research aims to evaluate the teenagers' perception of the usage of social network sites in relation to their academic motivation and interpersonal relationships with parents and peers. For this study the researcher used qualitative method with focus group discussions and personal interview sconducted in three higher secondary schools in Kerala, India.
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Emotional intelligence in relation to satisfaction with life: A study of govt. secondary school teachers
Page 98-102
Pankaj Mehta and Bindia Mehta Department of Education, Govt. of Haryana, Haryana

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The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and satisfaction with life among the govt. secondary school teachers of Haryana. The participant were150 govt. secondary school teachers selected from different govt. schools of Haryana. Teacher self-efficacy has been examined with help of Emotional Intelligence Scale by Schutte et al. (1998) and Satisfaction with Life has been measured with the help of Satisfaction with Life Scale by Diener et al. (1985). The findings from regression analysis show that emotional intelligence positively correlated with satisfaction with life and emotional intelligence is good predictor of life satisfaction
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Happiness and peer pressure among adolescents
Page 103-105
Sangeetha, V. Department of Psychology, M.E.S. College of Arts Science and Commerce, Malleshwaram, Bangalore and Chetan, S. V. Free-lance Researcher Jayanagar, Bangalore

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The study aimed at investigating the relationship between happiness and peer pressure among adolescents as well as gender differences and differences middle and late adolescents in happiness and peer pressure. The sample comprised of a total of 120 adolescents from Bangalore. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire by Hills and Argyle (2001) and Peer Pressure Scale by Singh and Saini (2010) were administered to the sample. The obtained data were analyzed using Perason's 'r 'and 't' tests. The findings revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between happiness and peer pressure among adolescents. Also, Middle and late adolescents did not differ significantly in happiness and peer pressure, and there were no significant gender differences among adolescents in happiness and peer pressure.
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Resilience, academic motivation and social support among college students
Page 106-110
Hannah Paul, Sadhana Sriram, Su. Subalukshmi and Vyjayanthi Mala Madras School of Social Work, Egmore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

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This study aims to find a relationship between the three variables, namely Resilience, Academic motivation and social support. This study is based on a survey research among 200 college students and Convenience sampling method was used to draw the data; Tools used are RS 14 Resilience scale (Gail M. Wagnild & Heather M. Young, 1993), Academic motivation scale (ams-c 28) College (cegep) version (EME, Vallerand et al. 1989) and Berkman-Syme Social Network Index (SNI) to measure their social connectedness. Karl Pearson product moment correlation was used to study the relationship. The study found out significant relationships between various dimensions of the AMS and resilience.
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Adverse relationship between altruistic behavior and stress among rheumatoid arthritis patients
Page 111-113
Ira Das and Poonam Sharma Department of Psychology, Dayalbagh Educational Institute( Deemed University), Agra, UP

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Altruistic acts can improve one's quality of life in several ways, and can actually help in relieving stress. Studies showed that altruism is good for emotional well-being, and can enhance peace of mind. In the present study a correlational design was used to determine the role of altruistic behavior in determining Stress among Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. The sample of the study consisted of 32 Patients (male and female); with the age range of 20-60 years. The sample was taken from different hospitals of Agra city. Altruistic behavior was measured by Life Style Scale by Das and Chaudhary. Stress was measured by ICMR Psychosocial Stressor Questionnaire by Srivastav. Coefficient of correlation between Altruistic behavior and Stress indicated a significant negative relationship (r= -0.557). Further, Regression Analysis indicated that Altruistic behavior has high contribution (b= -2.661) in the determination of stress. So, it can be concluded that as the altruistic behavior increases stress level of patients' decreases. If one wants to gain a more positive perspective towards life events that reduces stress then they are advised to start helping others.
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Self-esteem and forgiveness in PG students
Page 114-116
Shruti P. Soudi, Deepti Duggi, Sahana Bhandari and Shanmukh V. Kamble PG Department of Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnatak

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Forgiveness has attracted the attention of researchers in the field of Psychology. Forgiveness is now being studied with sub components like self forgiveness, forgiveness of others and Forgiveness of the Situation. The impact of the Self esteem is often studied but this study explored the relationship of Self-esteem with self forgiveness, forgiveness of others and Forgiveness of the Situation. Sample of 200 (100 male and 100 female) students of Karnatak University were drawn and Rosenberg's Self-esteem scale and Heartland's Forgiveness scales were employed. The results revealed that Self esteem is significantly correlated with forgiveness of Situations and not with Self forgiveness and Forgiveness of Others.
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Resilience and readjustment of Indian migrant students
Page 117-118
Anjali Kedari Department of Psychology University of Pune, Pune and Shobhana Abhyankar Department of Psychology Fergusson College, Pune

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Of the many challenges that young adults face in their lives, a difficult one is to move away from home in the pursuit of higher education. The changes required to settle down in a new area and fulfill aspirations, are numerous and taxing. This readjustment process is affected by several factors like personality, academic motivation and stress of the individual. The positive approach can aid in understanding the role that some of its constructs, like resilience, play in adjustment. The present research was conducted to explore the relation between resilience and readjustment of Indian migrant students. The researchers developed Readjustment Scale. Item-analysis was conducted using item-total correlation. Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the scale is satisfactory (α = .92). An incidental sample (n = 156) of migrant students studying in traditional, non-professional courses at various colleges in the city of Pune, was selected and administered the Readjustment Scale. The age of the sample ranged from 18 to 22 years (mean age = 20.3 years, SD = 17.8). Pearson product moment correlation was used for statistical analysis of data. A significant negative correlation was found between resilience and readjustment (r = - 0.16, p < .05) meaning highly resilient migrant students showed less need for readjustment. Results are discussed at length and implications for counseling of Indian migrant students are given.
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Self-efficacy, emotional stability and health as related to marital status
Page 119-121
Puja Kumari Khilwani Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P.

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Marriage is considered as an important and necessary act in our society. Studies have reported a positive relationship between marriage and mental health. A focus on the most rigorous recent evidence reveals that marriage has positive effects on certain health outcomes. Do unmarried individuals really experience more emotional and health problems than their married counterparts? This paper examines the relationship of marital status with some positive characteristics like self-efficacy, emotional stability and health. The study compared married, unmarried and divorced participants. Results of the study revealed significant variations in self-efficacy, emotional stability and health status of married, unmarried and divorced participants. Married were found to manifest significantly lesser symptoms of physical and psychological ill-health as compared to unmarried and divorced people.
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Spirituality and positive view of ageing in modern society
Page 112-126
Priyanka Shukla Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Aging is part of the natural life cycle of an organism. From birth to death, aging is the element that ties all segments of life together. All over the world aging population is growing rapidly. Such a huge population which had been at the service of our society since so many previous years, cannot be ignored. Now the principles of Positive Psychology are captured in a new term specific to later life- namely, "positive aging." Positive ageing is a theoretical approach to gerontology that draws from both disease prevention and wellness literatures to emphasize the individual's attitudes used to enhance longevity and the quality of life (Ellor, 2005). The significance of spirituality and positive ageing is rapidly growing, with an increasing elderly population . Now researches on spirituality and aging have increased recently, owing to overwhelming evidence of positive health outcomes linked to spirituality and religious participation. Spirituality has direct and indirect influence on physical and mental well-being. Understanding individual spiritual perspectives becomes increasingly important, given the issues of loss, physical illness and mortality that are confronted in old age. This article reviews literature and research on spirituality, positive ageing as well as spiritual interventions to promote positive view towards ageing. In conclusion the practices of Positive Ageing, if adopted in early life and refined over the years as we age, will give us a strong foundation to support health and quality of life and may also promote well being for future generations.
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Psychological mindedness: An overview
Page 127-132
Sakshi Rai Department of Clinical Psychology Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi, Vikas Punia Consultant Clinical Psychologist MHCC, Faridabad, Sunayana Choudhury Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Pondicherry and K. J. Mathew Faculty member for Social Work in Mental Health, Dr. Guiselan Svastha Educational Trust, Mumbai

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Psychological mindedness (PM) is a construct which was heavily discussed and began with the Menninger foundation; however with evolution of other school of thoughts the term lost its essence. It was considered as the 'essential element' for psychoanalysis. The current literature dwells upon its use in practice, its role in different disorder as well its efficacy under different perspective. It also addresses the importance and techniques to measure this construct in day to day practice.
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Sunil Saini, PhD
President, Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
suneil.psy@gmail.com

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