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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 4
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Understanding emotion regulatory effect of mindfulness: Role of differentiation and range of emotional experiences
Page 356-362
Satchit Prasun Mandal, Yogesh Kumar Arya and Rakesh Pandey, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The link between mindfulness and better emotion regulation (ER) has been well documented, but the mechanism through which it improves ER is still unclear. It is likely that the emotion regulatory effects of mindfulness might be occurring indirectly through other affective aspects (e.g., range & differentiation of emotional experiences). The said possibility was tested on a sample of 211 adults, using self-report measures of mindfulness, the use of ER strategies (reappraisal & suppression) and range and differentiation of emotional experience. Analyses revealed that mindfulness and its dimensions correlated negatively with the use of suppression and positively with reappraisal as well as range and differentiation of emotional experiences. The hypothesis that mindfulness influences ER indirectly through altering the range and differentiation of emotions is supported by the findings of structural equation modeling. Findings revealed that mindfulness was indirectly linked with enhanced use of reappraisal through improved emotional differentiation and reduced use of suppression through enhancement of both the range and differentiation of emotional experiences. Further, mindfulness was found to have a significant direct effect on suppression but not on reappraisal. These findings imply that mindfulness exerts its emotion regulatory effect indirectly by enhancing the range and differentiation of emotional experiences but it may also have some direct effect on some aspects of ER such as reduced emotional suppression.
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Expression of gratitude and subjective well-being among university teachers
Page 363-367
Nosheen Ramzan and Shabbir A. Rana, Department of Psychology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

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The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being amongst university teachers. It was hypothesized that gratitude is positively related to subjective well-being and that age, gender and gratitude would be positive predictors of subjective well-being. Data was collected from 206 teachers (129 males and 77 females) from GC University and University of Punjab, Lahore. The Gratitude was measured with Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item Form (GQ-6). Cognitive and affective aspects of subjective well-being were assessed with Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) respectively. Correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations among the gratitude, life satisfaction, positive affect and age of teachers. Regression analyses revealed that gratitude and age, not gender, are significant predictors of subjective well-being. Findings of this research provide meaningful insight about nature of association between gratitude and subjective well-being in Pakistani culture, which has remained unclear in our society.
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Structure of Rabindrik human values
Page 368-375
Hardik Shah, Department of Management, Indian Institute of Management, Shillong and D. Dutta Roy Psychology Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata

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Values are conceived of as guiding principles in life. It is the most striking fact about human life and as the core concept of human existence. Values are expressions of worth, likes or dislikes concerning things, persons, principles etc. It is hierarchical in nature. Therefore, one's behaviour is directed by relative preference of values. In existing research, preference to value is culture specific as value researchers intuitively thought of values and their approach was criticized. Reverend Rabindranath Tagore, Nobel laureate in literature composed several songs observing changes in nature, air, light, temperature etc. By analysis of his songs, Dutta Roy and Bandopadhyay (2010) explored 14 path and 14 goal oriented human values. These values are universal in nature. The values reflect the inner (Raag layer) and inner core (Saraswat layer) layers of consciousness. Some path oriented values are Self-awakening (Imagining positive power), Non-self-insulting (Not offending to self), Cleanliness (Neat and tidy), No work-family conflict (Maintaining balance between family and work demand), Niskam principle (Working without expectation of reward), Resolute (Determined in purpose and action), Active (Avoidance of laziness). And some Goal values are Peace (Free from conflicts with others), Universalization (Thinking for everyone), Enlightenment (Having true understanding), Positive Feeling (Feeling of happiness), Salvation (Saving self from bad effect), Self-Empowerment (Enabling power to self), Security (Protection from attack), Significance in Life (Finding meaning in life), Altruism (Considering good of others before own). This study aims at exploring latent relations among both path and goal oriented values. Data were collected from adolescent male (n=308) and female (n=211) students (N=519) of one of the reputed management institution in India. They had diverse backgrounds in terms of religion, castes, language, and native places. Value questionnaire wa
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Sense of humor and psychological health among health care professionals
Page 376-381
Urmila Rani Srivastava and Vandana Maurya Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP

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This study examined the relationships between the four dimensions sense of humor (humor generation, coping humor, appreciation of humor and appreciation of humorous people) and psychological health. A total of 240 healthcare professionals from two large public hospitals of Varanasi (U.P.), India voluntarily participated in the study. The participants included were Nurses (N= 80), Doctors (N=99) and Hospital administrative Staff (N=61). The respondents were asked to complete the measures of the Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS), developed by Thorson and Powell (1993a) and Warwick- Edinburgh Mental Well- Being Scale (WEMWBS) which is developed by Tennant, Fishwick, Platt, Joseph, and Stewart-Brown (2006). Demographic variables included in the study were: name of the organization, age, gender, marital status, salary, designation, education, nature of work, number of working hours, number of working days, organizational tenure and job tenure. The statistical analyses of data included the descriptive statistics, coefficient of correlation and hierarchical regression analysis. The results of regression analyses indicated that all the four dimensions of humor (humor generation, coping humor, appreciation of humor and appreciation of humorous people) along with overall sense of humor significantly positively predicted psychological health of the employees. Implications of the study and avenues for future research were discussed.
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A study on relationship between forgiveness, resilience and marital satisfaction among married individuals
Page 382-387
Gayatrivadivu, Poonguzhali, Ofelia and Vijayabanu, Madras School of Social Work, Chenaai

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Forgiveness is described as the ability of letting go of transgression leading to positive feelings. Resilience is the ability to successfully adapt and cope through challenging situations. Thereby Forgiveness and Resilience helps in resolving problems successfully in any relationship including marriage. Resolving problems and reconciliation of relationship enhances Marital Satisfaction. Today the divorce rates are increasing. Statistical data about divorce rate in India is alarming. One of the reasons could be lack of the ability to accept and face challenges and couples reluctance in asking and granting forgiveness during the tough courses of their relationship leading to a decline in Marital Satisfaction. Hence the present study intended to find out the influence of Forgiveness and Resilience on Marital Satisfaction. Using purposive sampling method a sample of 233 married individuals was selected. Tools used for data collection include i) Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Connor & Davidson, 2003) ii) Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson, Snyder, & Hoffman2005) iii) ABC Scale of Marital Relationship (Swaminathan & Napinai, 2009). Statistical analysis included Karl Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Students 't' test. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a significant correlation between i) Forgiveness and Resilience ii) Forgiveness and Marital Satisfaction iii) Forgiveness and Marital Relationship. It also revealed that there is no significant correlation between Resilience and Marital Relationship. There is no significant difference between Men and Women in i) Resilience ii) Forgiveness iii) Marital Satisfaction iv) Marital Harmony. There is a significant difference among Men and Women in i) Marital Adjustment ii) Marital Relationship. The study emphasized on factors that contribute to a satisfied Marital Relationship aided by factors like Forgiveness and Resilience.
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Self-efficacy as a moderator between empathy and forgiveness relationship
Page 388-399
Samya Baghel and Madhurima Pradhan Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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The study examined association among empathy, forgiveness and self-efficacy. Empathy has been discussed as a factor of ability to forgive (Enright et al., 1998). Unless people believe they can produce desired effects by their actions , they have little intention to act . A number of studies have implicated the role of perceived efficacy in a person's efforts to change (Schwarzer, Lippke, & Mazurkiewicz, 2011). As forgiveness involves a conscious decision to forego the role of a victim, it is possible that self-efficacy influences the strengths of relationship between empathy and forgiveness. Present study included self reported measures of empathy, forgiveness and general self-efficacy on a sample of 100 young adults in the age group 18-25. Bivariate correlations were calculated to study the relationship between variables. As expected, empathy & forgiveness and self-efficacy & forgiveness were found to be significantly and positively correlated. However self-efficacy did not moderate the relationship between empathy and forgiveness significantly. The study also discusses possible reasons for the results.
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Exploring college student's conception of happiness
Page 393-397
Parnika Sharma, Amity Institute of Psychology and Allied Sciences Noida, Uttar Pradesh and Swati Patra School of Social Sciences IGNOU, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi

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Happiness is a state we all want to achieve,but what exactly is happiness and how to be in that state is very subjective and depends upon person to person. The present study was aimed to explore the meaning and conception of happiness among College students. Total 48 college students (ages range 18 to 24 year old) were selected from private universities of Greater Noida. The study employed qualitative-descriptive research design. Findings showed that happiness is a multifaceted construct as: Self orientation, Enjoyment, Other oriented, Positive Thoughts, Achievements, Work Life Balance, Purpose in Life, satisfaction, Determination, Spend time with love ones. Self orientation as components of happiness was found difference on the level of age. The findings of the research conclude the several of happiness and provide further research suggestions in the psychology of happiness.
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Healing of chakras meditation on psychological stress
Page 398-402
Balaji Deekshitulu P. V., Department of Psychology, Dravidian University and Alt. Medicine Practitioner, Sri Balaji Clinic, Tirupati

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The present study assess the chakra meditation affects of psychological stress among contract employees. In this study conducted on a sample of Sixty (60) contract employees of Chittor district, Andhra Pradesh. In order to realize the objective of the study, two hypothesis were formulated (1) There were would be significant impact of chakra meditation on stress among contract employees with regard Pre test and Post test. (2) There were would be significant impact of chakra meditation on relaxation of stress among contract employees with regard Pre test and Post test. Occupational stress index developed by Srivatsava and Singh (1984), Relaxation questionnaire developed by Pattabhiram and Deekshit and Nomusankhar (2009)was administered to the sample. The age range from 25 to 55 years. Data ware analyzed using Means, SD'S and t values. Results show that chakra meditation training reducing the stress and increase the relaxation among contract employees.
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The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral group training on stress management style resiliency and glycemic hemoglobin levels in diabetic patients
Page 403-406
Masoome Ezadpanahi, M.A. Student of General Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran, Mitra Mahmoodi Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran, Morteza Latifian Department of Education Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran and Gholamreza Pishdad, Department of Medical Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

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The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Training on Stress Management Style Resiliency and Hemoglobin Levels in diabetic patients of Shiraz city has been done. Research method was experimental and the design of pretest-posttest-with-control group kind been. Statistical population consisted of nearly nine hundred and fifty diabetic patients from the Diabetic Center of the City of Shiraz one year before and filling the case. The research community consisted of 60 people was randomly selected from the member patients of Shiraz diabetic association who were available from the sample. They were randomly bringing in two groups of experimental and control. At first pre-tests were performed by both groups and then the experiment group were trained stress management, cognitive - behavioral therapy with relaxation in 10 sessions of two hours and a half every week and during this term control group was under training other unrelated stress management programs such as drug educations. After the end of the term, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Also glycemic control index (HbA1c) test was repeated after 3 months from the first test. The research tools include resiliency questionnaires and glycemic control index (HbA1c) testing. Also, data obtained from research using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency, maximum and minimum) and the covariance method Manova inferential statistics and independent T-test and analysis software SPSS-18 case. The findings indicate that cognitive style group training, stress management - treated diabetic patients by increasing resiliency and decrease of the glycemic hemoglobin in the blood of diabetic patients.
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Positive attitude towards environmental conservation: The role of secondary education
Page 407-410
Babli Choudhury, Department of Education, Gauhati University, Guwahati

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This study was carried out with 100 standard 8th and 9th pupils in ten secondary schools in the Kamrup (Metro) district. It evaluated their attitude towards environmental conservation. A descriptive research design was used and data was collected using the Pupils' Environmental Education Attitude Questionnaire (PEEAQ). Data analysis included tabulation of percentages. The study found that most pupils had positive attitude regarding environmental education, environmental conservation, interdependence between man and other organisms, conservation of natural resources, management of solid wastes and protection of forest lands. This data was used to explore ways by which environmental education (EE) in secondary education might capitalize on pupil attitude, and hence progress towards protection of local environment; and how this might occur through secondary school pupils being nurtured into the role of informed decision-makers and action-takers. The authors recommended that EE implementations in secondary education to be contextualized so as to inculcate environmental attitudes and values that provoke learners to think about local environmental issues and make decisions regarding protecting their local environment.
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Conceptual definition and standardization of the spiritual values scale
Page 411-414
Fauzia Nazam and Akbar Husain, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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The present study is to give operational definition of spiritual values and standardization of Spiritual Values Scale (SVS). The objectives of the study are: (1) to determine the reliability of the scale, particularly internal consistency of the scale, (2) to determine the validity of the scale, particularly obtaining the factorial validity with the aim of finding factorial structure of Spiritual Values Scale, and (3) to determine the inter-factorial validity of the scale in order to ensure that all the factors are measuring the same hypothetical construct that is spiritual values. Four hundred Muslim adolescents were selected from main stream schools and Madaris of Aligarh City. Of these, there were 200 female and 200 male adolescents. The Mean age and SD of the participants were 15.88 (minimum 12 and maximum 19) and 1.84 respectively. The main findings of the study were: (1) the internal consistency of the scale was found to be 0.911 for the overall scale, showing the scale is highly reliable, (2) the factorial validity of the scale revealed 5 factorial structure of the Spiritual Values Scale. They are: (1) Altruistic Values (2) Humanistic Values (3) Personal Values (4) Divine Values, and (5) Affective Values. (3) The inter-factorial validity of the scale ranged between 0.444 to 0.646 among the extracted 5 factors. All factors were found significant at .001 level (2-tailed). The scale was found reliable and valid for the measurement of spiritual values.
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A comparative study of emotional maturity and values in Bhagavad Gita readers and non-readers
Page 415-419
Geeta Balodi, M.K.P (P.G) College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand and Divya Raina Pacific University, Udaipur, Rajasthan

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Bhagavat Gita has been recognized all over the word as not only a holy scripture but also as a book which contains the knowledge of entire universe in itself. If the depths of it are understood, the individual can overcome all tensions, worries and conflicts in life, moving towards a life of fulfilment, self-realization and actualization. In this world of growing doubts and conflicts within the self and outside, the present study attempts to understand the difference in the emotional maturity and values, between two groups of college going student, those who have been reading Bhagvad Gita (from Gurukul Dehradun) and those who are Non- Bhagavad Gita readers(from different college), aged between 19-21yrs. Purposive random sampling technique was used to select the sample belonging to Dehradun district of Uttarakhand State of India. The emotional maturity scale measured dimensions like Emotional Maturity (E.M), Emotional Progression (E.P), Social Adjustment (S.A), Personality Integration (P.I), Independence (I), while the value scale measured dimensions like Aesthetic Values, Social Values and Religious Values. The data was analysed using 't' test, which revealed that Bhagavad Gita reading group was better in emotional maturity and values as compared to Non-Bhagavad Gita reading group.
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Impact of REACH forgiveness therapy on students hurt in relationship
Page 420-424
Shanmukh Vasant Kamble, Department of Psychology, Karnatak University Dharwad, Karnataka

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The present study is conducted to find out the impact of REACH forgiveness therapy among Post-Graduate students who are hurt in relationship. One hundred and twenty eight students were selected using Purposive Sampling Technique from various departments of Karnatak University, Dharwad. Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations (TRIM) Inventory by McCullough et al. (2006), The Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness Scale developed by Everett L. Worthington Jr, et al. (2007) and Batson's Empathy Adjective scale (1986) were used to collect the data.The impact of REACH forgiveness therapy was found from the obtained results. Students have shown less avoidance and revenge motivation after undergoing by the therapy and more conciliation and benevolence motivation towards the person who hurt them. At the same time the decision to forgive and emotional forgiveness was high after undergoing the therapy and also students have expressed more empathy towards the person who hurt them. This study will help to reduce negative effect, leads to conflict management, stress relief and improved relationships. This can bring long-term health benefits for our heart and overall health.
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Passion and psychological skill usage among professional sports players in Goa
Page 425-429
Vijay Viegas, Abbé Faria P. G. Department of Psychology St. Xavier's College, Mapusa, Goa and Shanmukh V. Kamble, Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka

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The present study titled 'Passion and Psychological Skill Usage among Professional Sports players in Goa' was intended to study sports passion and psychological skill usage among professional sports players and to understand whether the age of the professional sports players influences their passion and psychological skill usage. The objectives of the study were; to investigate whether passion of professional sport players is significantly related to their psychological skill usage (Dimension wise and Overall), to investigate whether there exists significant difference in passion and psychological skill usage with regard to the age. The study was conducted on a sample of 237 professional sports players (between the age of 15-45 years). The tools used for data collection comprised of the Passion scale by Vallerand et al. (2003) and Test of Performance Stratégies (TOPS) by Thomas et al. (1999). The tools used for statistical analysis were Karl Pearson's Product Moment Correlation and ANOVA (One Way Analysis of Variance). The findings of the study revealed significant correlations between passion and psychological skill usage, the dimensions of goal setting, emotional control, automaticity, relaxation, self-talk, imagery, positive thinking, and activation correlated significantly and positively to harmonious passion. Significant differences were observed in harmonious and obsessive passion with regard to age of professional sports players. Significant age differences were also observed in overall psychological skill usage and the dimensions of goal setting, emotional control, automaticity, relaxation, imagery.
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Resilience, academic motivation and social support among college students
Page 430-434
Hannah Paul, Sadhana Sriram Su. Subalukshmi and Vyjayanthi Mala, Madras School of Social Work, Chennai

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This study aims to find a relationship between the three variables, namely Resilience, Academic motivation and social support. This study is based on a survey research among 200college students and Convenience sampling method was used to draw the data; Tools used are RS 14 Resilience scale (Wagnild & Young, 1993), Academic motivation scale (ams-c 28) College (cegep) version (EME, Vallerand et al., 1989) and Berkman-Syme Social Network Index (SNI) to measure their social connectedness. Karl Pearson product moment correlation was used to study the relationship. The study found out significant relationships between various dimensions of the AMS and resilience.
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Subjective well being of elderly in relation to their happiness level: A comparative study
Page 435-438
Princy and Tejpreet K. Kang, Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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General well being may be defined as the subjective feeling of contentment, happiness, satisfaction with life experiences and one's role in the world of work, sense of achievement, utility, belongingness, and no distress, dissatisfaction or worries etc.. Happiness is a nebulous term, which to date has different meanings to different people. To some it is synonymous with “joy” while others accept the standard dictionary definition that happiness is a state of well being or contentment- a condition dominated by pleasurable satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to find out the relationship of subjective well being with state of happiness among elderly males and females. For this purpose 360 elderly (180 males and 180 females) of Punjab state, ranging from 65 and above were taken as sample. To measure subjective well being, Cornell Medical Health Index questionnaire by Wig, Parshad and Verma was used and Oxford Happiness Inventory developed by Argyle was used to measure the happiness among elderly. Results indicated that significantly more happiness is perceived by elderly males as compared to their female counterparts. In case of Subjective Well Being gender differences were found to be non significant but females were facing greater health problems in comparison to the males. Subjective well being was negatively and significantly correlated with happiness indicating as the problems related to well being increases, happiness decreases.
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Nurturing values of citizenship responsibilities in elementary school children
Page 439-442
Ram Kalap Tiwari, Department of Psychology, K. S. Saket P. G. College, Ayodhya, Faizabad, UP

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India is currently facing the problem of incivility and immorality in children. The need has arisen to seek informal approaches to the inculcation of desirable values and civic responsibilities in the children of young age in view of the apparent fading of the formal school system to inculcate desirable values and responsibilities of citizenship. The present study was conducted for nurturing values of citizenship responsibilities among 100 elementary school children at Faizabad city of Uttar Pradesh. The study was a quasi-experimental research involving a pre-test of the children's levels of civic knowledge or knowledge of responsibilities before exposing them to series of instructions/programme related to values of responsibilities of citizenship after which the post-test was give to the children participated in the investigation. The post-test mean score was found to be greater than that of pre-test implying that the program implemented in post-test had significant impact on the children's knowledge about citizenship responsibilities. The need to encourage regular involvement in civic activities for elementary school children during school time was remanded.
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Role of collectivism as a moderator in the relationship between organizational stress and mental health of managerial personnel
Page 443-447
A. P. Singh and Vinod Kumar Gupta, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of collectivism as a moderator in the relationship between organizational stress and mental health among managers in private sector organizations. Manager's mental health contributes in enhancing the production, effectiveness of organizations as well as psychological well-being. The present study was conducted on 210 managerial personnel and results reveal that organizational stress (total) is significantly negatively correlated with mental health. The results of stepwise multiple regression analysis show that organizational stress (total) emerge as a significant predictors to influence the mental health. Results also show that collectivism moderates the relationship of organizational stress and mental health among managerial personnel. The finding of this study will help in reducing the disability, absenteeism, job loss and subsequent unemployment of managers so that organizations will success in getting their goals.
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Relation of happiness and coping strategies among adolescents and adults
Page 448-450
Sandhya Rani Hawbam, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The present paper attempts to study relationship between happiness and coping strategies among adults and adolescents. The Subjective Happiness Scale and Ways of Coping Questionnaires were administered to 80 individuals consisting of 40 adolescents and 40 adults. Statistical analysis was done by computing mean, standard deviation, t-test and correlation. The result shows adults are happier as compared to adolescents. A significant difference in coping strategies was seen between adolescents and adults. In adolescents' positive relationship were seen between seeking social support, planful problem solving and happiness and in adults a positive association was found between self control, positive reappraisal and happiness. On the other hand a negative association was seen in both the groups between happiness and escape avoidance.
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Resilience and happiness: Source of coping in mothers with mentally retarded children
Page 451-455
Sudha Rathore and Roopa Mathur, Department of Psychology, IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The study was conducted to find out the relationship and interaction between resilience and happiness with coping strategies in mothers of mentally challenged children. Coping strategies are actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors they can include both behavioral strategies and psychological strategies. Resilience is tied to the ability to learn to live with ongoing fear and uncertainty, namely, the ability to show positive adaptation in spite of significant life adversities and the ability to adapt to difficult and challenging life experiences. Happiness is commonly understood as how much one likes the life one lives. The sample size of the study was 100. The participants were mothers of educable mentally retarded children (between the age group of 7 to 15 years) studying in special schools. Tools used were Oxford Happiness Inventory, Coping Response Inventory Adult form and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Correlation (Bivariate Pearson) and Regression analysis (Linear) is computed using SPSS 16. Findings suggest that there is positive and significant relationship between happiness and resilience with approach coping strategies in mothers with mentally retarded children. Resilience as a better predictor of approach coping strategies. There is paucity of research in this area in context with mothers of mentally challenged children therefore further studies are required for strong theoretical evidence using efficiency modal rather than deficiency modal.
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Impact of hypnotherapy in mitigating the symptoms of depression
Page 456-460
Sachin K. Dwivedi and Anuradha Kotnala, Department of Clinical Psychology, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidhyalaya, Hardwar, UK

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The purpose of this investigation was to assess impact of hypnotherapy in mitigating the symptoms of depression. 50 Participants were selected through accidental sampling from various psychiatric clinics of Delhi (India). Educational, economic and age related factors treated as control variable. For the obtaining the score on depression, MDS (Mental Depression Scale) was used, which has 50 items, based on Yes/No response of participants for assessing level of Depression. Research was based on Pre-test and Post-test research design. Statistically analysis was done by paired t test. Results indicate that the “t” value, 14.21, which is significant at 0.01 level of confidence, shows that hypnotherapy mitigates the symptoms of depression.
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Immediate effects of cyclic meditation on state mindfulness in normal healthy volunteers: A controlled study
Page 461-464
Suhas Ashok Vinchurkar, Deepeshwar Singh, Naveen Kalkuni Visweswaraiah and H. R. Nagendra ANVESANA Research Laboratories, Department of Yoga and Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore

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Meditation is known to influence higher mental functions by inducing a state of low physiological arousal and alertful rest. Improvements in cognitive functions following meditation are being expressed as a result of enhanced mindfulness in meditators. We evaluated the immediate impact of meditation practice on state mindfulness using a short Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Ninety participants with ages ranging from 21-34 years (group mean age ± SD; 24.2 ± 7.2 years) were randomly assigned to a meditation group (n=44) and a control group (n=46). MAAS was administered anonymously in a classroom setup and two of the project coordinators were present to supervise the administration and to assist the participants where necessary. We executeda matched controlled design with assessment performed before and after the practice of meditation. Participants had no prior experience of meditation practice. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 20. The data were checked for normality. Paired samples t-test was applied for pre-post comparisons for both the groups. State MAAS scores were significantly higher following the practice of meditation as compared to control group. A single session ofCyclic Meditation calms the mind and helps to develop a better level of mindfulness. This signifies the individuals heightened attention on body, breath andmind, whichis known to further enhance the higher mental functions.
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Gratitude and health among young adults
Page 465-468
Manju Singh, Waheeda Khan and Meena Osmany Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Gratitude is held in high esteem by virtually in every society. From ancient religious scriptures through modern social science research, gratitude is viewed as a desirable human characteristic with the capacity for making life better for oneself and for others. Gratitude as an action may be in response to something either material (e.g., gift) or non-material (e.g., a spiritual or emotional experience). In this context, the present research was designed to study gratitude among young adults. For this purpose, data was collected from 80 young adults with equal number of males and females and were administered Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002) and General Health Questionnaire-12 (Goldberg & Williams, 1988). Group differences were analyzed by t-test; Pearson product moment method of correlation and multiple regression analyses were also performed. Results revealed significant gender differences on gratitude, i.e. females showing high level of gratitude, however, differences were not significant on two dimensions of health. Significant negative correlation was observed between gratitude and dimensions of health i.e. depression/anxiety, social dysfunction. Overall health scores yielded significant but negative correlation with gratitude. Gratitude was significantly predicted by overall mental health for the total sample, explaining the role of gratitude as positive emotion in promoting mental health. Thus, highlighting the benefits of being grateful in maintaining the quality of life among the young adults.
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Psycho-therapeutic process for prevention of recidivism in sexually violent predators
Page 469-473
George Mariadoss Gandhipuram, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu

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It is a descriptive research Ex Post Facto Research, studying the phenomenon of Sexually Violent Behaviors (SVB) carried out by Sexually Violent Predators (SVP) and its underlying philosophical nature and psychological factors under the light of scientific reasons. It also makes an attempt to discover the right Psycho Therapeutic Process for prevention of recidivism in SVP. It proposes a triadic Psycho Therapeutic Process: 1. Experiential Conditioning. 2. Modeling. 3. Conscience Development (EMC) reflecting upon psychological and guidance and counseling theories. This study can also be a hypothesis for further scientific research explorations: to find out the causal relationship between SVB and SVP with the help of statistical approach, to formulate additional theories and concepts, to have an experimental research to measure the success rate of the process EMC, to lay down specific interventions based on this research and to offer suggestions, recommendations, and directions to the Government and to the community regarding the prevention, prevalence and rectification of the problem of SVB by SVP.
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Inculcating gratitude: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective happiness in daily life
Page 474-476
Bhavana Arya and Shrutika Khandelwal ICG, The IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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This study attempts to explore the relationship between expressing gratitude and positive emotions. The sample of the current study comprised 60 college girls pursuing graduation. The main purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of gratitude intervention. The current study also tested for the main effects of Gratitude on Positive Emotions. Results confirmed that counting one's blessings within early adolescence is, indeed, related to well-being and other positive emotions. Findings also support that gratitude induction (i.e., counting blessings) is related to greater positive emotions when compared to those participants who serve as controls.
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Quality of life in relation to health of female asthmatic patients
Page 477-480
Vijendra Singh Rastogi, Deepak Pandey and Swati Mishra SoS in Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhatisgarh

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The purpose of the present research work was conducted to examine the relationship between quality of life and health of female asthmatic patients. The sample consisted of 100 female participants selected from the different hospitals in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. The emotional and physical distress was assessed by CMI Health Questionaire (Wig, Pershad, & Verma, 1973) and to measure Quality of Life the P.G.I. Quality of life scale (Moudgil, Verma, & Kaur, 1998) was used. Regression result indicated that the quality of life is a significant predictor of emotional distress also demographical variable, i.e., education and occupation of participants is significant in this study, in the case of physical distress the quality of life is significant predictor and the physical distress also predicted by the demographical variable education of the participants.
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Leisure motivation amongst tourists
Page 481-483
Soumya Sharma, DRDO, Timarpur Delhi, Amit Abraham Department of Psychology, St. John's College, Agra, U.P. and Priyanka Masih, St. John's College Agra, U.P.

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The purpose of this research was to comparatively study the leisure motivation, stress and anxiety amongst Indian and Foreign tourists visiting the Taj Mahal and also see gender differences between these variables. Purposive sampling was done and data collected from a total of 60 tourists (30 Indians and 30 Foreigners) visiting the Taj Mahal during the hot and sultry month of July. The Leisure Motivation Scale (Beard & Ragheb, 1983) was used to measure motivation for participating in leisure activities and the Stress and Anxiety levels was measured from items taken from the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Six hypotheses were examined to test different relationships between Indian and Foreign tourists with reference to the three variables taken for this study. Gender specific relationships were also tested. The results indicate that: (1) There is no significant difference in leisure motivation scores between Foreign and Indian tourists visiting the Taj Mahal. (2) There is a significant difference in stress levels between Foreign and Indian tourists visiting the Taj Mahal. (3) There is no significant difference in anxiety levels between Foreign and Indian tourists visiting the Taj Mahal. (4) There is no significant difference in leisure motivation scores between male and female tourists visiting the Taj Mahal. (5) There is a highly significant difference in stress levels between male and female tourists visiting the Taj Mahal. (6) There is highly significant difference in anxiety levels between male and female tourists visiting the Taj Mahal.
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Gender differences in stress and social support among Kashmiri cancer patients
Page 484-487
Matloob Ahmed Khan, Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Muzamil Ahmad Government Degree Collage Ganderbal, Kashmir, J&K

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The purpose of the present study was to assess the gender difference in stress and social support among cancer patients. Sample consisted of 200 cancer patients selected randomly, undergoing treatment in the department of Radiotherapy and Oncology in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences Srinagar Kashmir. The Questionnaire on stress in cancer patients revised version(QSC-R23), and The Questionnaire Interpersonal Support Evaluation List Short Form (ISEL-SF) were administered on patients. Data was analysed using t-test and One Way ANOVA followed by Post-Hoc Analyses. The results indicate significant gender differences in mean scores of stress while no significant gender difference was found in terms of social support. These findings have implications for understanding the psychological problems of male and female cancer patients.
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Role of positive psychology intervention on self-regulation
Page 488-492
Jayashree Sanghani, Reach Beyond NGO, Hyderabad, Andhra Pardesh

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Self-Regulation failure is a root cause of criminality, academic under achievement, compulsive sexuality and fiscal irresponsibility (Voh & Schmeichel). Self-Regulated operations are costly in the sense that they consume a limited resource. People cannot regulate their own actions indefinitely because the energy required for such regulation is finite and get depleted on usage. Hence there is need to replenish this energy to build the lasting strength. Self-Regulated children can delay gratification and suppress their impulse long enough to think ahead of possible consequences of their actions. Consider alternative action that would be appropriate. It has been found that the more we can work with children and very young ones to understand “why they do what they do” then they are better able to articulate the difficulties they get into with relationship and the better they can work beyond those. Hence children should be encouraged to commit themselves to meaningful educational goals, strive to benefit from their educational experiences, monitor their progress towards their goals, make adjustment in their effort when necessary, and establish new, more demanding goals as they accomplish earlier ones. There are different strategies used which are short term lasting. positive psychology Intervention of exposing the children to mindful awareness in what they are doing and why, also giving a gratitude and forgiveness as techniques of thinking and feeling may have a lasting impact on self-regulation which can be proved through further research.
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Depression, cognitive distortion and health among college students
Page 493-495
Dhanalakshmi, D. Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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College years, though expected to be the most fun period in a student's life, many students do not have a smooth sail. The relationship problems encountered at that stage append to the stress experienced due to transition from school to college and complex psychological histories. Such complexities may often lead to distortions in thinking and in most severe form lead to depression and poor health. The current study explored the relationship between depression, cognitive distortions and general health among college students. The sample consisted of 125 undergraduate college students (62 boys and 63 girls) studying in different colleges in Chennai and aged between 18 to 20 years. The participants responded to the items on Depression taken from the Depression and the Anxiety Scale (Newcomer et al), Cognitive Distortion Scale (Briere) and General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg). Correlational analysis showed that general health was positively related to dimensions of cognitive distortion and depression. Girls were found to be more depressed and high in self-criticism as when compared to the boys. Girls have more problems in their general health as when compared to the boys. Regression analysis revealed that depression predicts general health. The results of the study draws the attention of researchers and practitioners in the discipline of psychology to explore the various causal factors for depression during late adolescence and to provide appropriate psychological interventions so that they are able to face the future challenges. Interventions to enhance the assertiveness and to change the dysfunctional thinking associated with helplessness among girls are crucial.
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Relationship between psychological well-being and values among adolescents
Page 496-498
Rajesh Kumar Department of Psychology, Government College, Bapauli, Panipat, Haryana

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The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship and significance of mean difference between Psychological well-being and values among adolescents. The sample of 200 adolescents of IX and X classes with age range between 14 to 16 years who were administered psychological tests, i.e., Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale (PWB), 1989b and Value Test (Ojha, 1992). Product Moment Method was used to see the relationships between Psychological well-being and Values. Results reveal that psychological well-being is significantly positive correlated with theoretical, social and religious values and significantly negative correlated with economic, aesthetic and political values. To see the significant mean difference, t- test was used. Results show that boys are high on autonomy and environmental mastery the measures of psychological well-being and theoretical and economic values where as girls are high on aesthetic and religious as compared to their counterparts.
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Power motivation and value orientations among graduates
Page 499-501
Sonia Kapur Department of Sports Medicine And Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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The study is an attempt to investigate gender differences on need for power and values and also examines the relationship between need for power and values. Five hundred college going students (250 males and 250 females) comprised the sample of this study. The Thematic Apperception Test and Study Of Values were used to assess need for power and values among students. The comparison of means reveals significant gender differences on need for power, male students have significantly scored higher on need for power than females. The pattern of values also differs significantly for male and female students, male students emphasize more on theoretical and political values whereas female students give more priority to social and religious values. The correlational analysis reveals insignificant relationship between need for power and values for male students, however significant positive relationship between need for power and economic values and negative relationship with political values has been obtained for female students, which implies that women high in need for power are more practical in nature and less interested in political power.
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Why do elderly have to be grey and brown?
Page 502-504
Aparna Bhattacharya and Archana Shukla Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P.

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Our internalized 'world' gets often reflected through our exteriors appearances, reactions, spoken words, postures, facial expressions, the way we walk and the colors that we wear, or else, avoid. Colors have a multitude of meanings and are an important aspect of our everyday experiences. The common observation of finding an elderly person dressed in white, brown and grey arouses a curiosity about the extent to which the processes of aging can render an elderly person as well as an elderly person's life achromatic or monochromatic. To understand the utility of colors in our healthy daily living achromatic or black and white photographs can be contrasted with photographs with life like colors, black dress of mourning with multihued flowery dresses, white hospital wards and dormitories with pastel colored rooms in our homes, achromatic times of the day dark cold nights or cloudy days- with warm, bright, sunny colorful days and a warm smiley face with another 'pale' face from which all colors seem to have drained. Nature is multihued. Nothing on earth is achromatic. Color characterizes a natural state of being. Colorlessness therefore brings to mind boredom, melancholy and lifelessness. This paper tries to explore the extent to which colors are or are not used in most elderly people's lives, personal choice or the societal expectations as the basic reason for a relative colorlessness, and the possible association of colorlessness with social isolation, hopelessness, reduced opportunities for useful productive work and also leisure activities, monotony in daily schedules, inability for humor and laughter and, most important of all, a substantial lowering of self esteem and life satisfaction. The paper also explores stereo typically negative ageist connotations of 'color' in the context of elderly.
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Gender difference in resilience among undergraduate boys and girls with broken-heart
Page 505-507
Sudha Katyal Department of Human Development and Family Relations, Govt. Home. Science College, Chandigarh

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The present investigation aimed to determine resilience among Undergraduate boys and girls with broken-heart. The study was carried out in Government as well as private co-educational colleges of Chandigarh. The sample comprised of 100 undergraduate students (50 boys + 50 girls) who were in the age range of 17- 21 years and had a heart-break in past 6 to 12 months. The findings revealed that 60% of the boys had heart break after being in non-committed relationship of 6-12 months duration. On the contrary, nearly 50% of the girls had heart break after being in committed relationship of 1-2 years. For more than 50% of boys and girls, nearly 6-12 months had passed after their break-up when the investigator collected the data. The results revealed that majority of boys had moderate to high level of resilience while majority of girls exhibited just moderate resilience. However, there was no significant difference in resilience of boys and girls.
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Educating positively: Quality enrichment in higher education
Page 508-512
Sushila Pareek and Nirmala Singh Rathore, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Education is conceived as a powerful agency, which is instrumental in bringing about the desired changes in the socio cultural and economic life of nation. In particular, the importance of the Higher Education System in addressing the economic prospects of a nation has never been in doubt. The contribution of the Higher Education System for the development of knowledge and skills and for the generation of wealth, growth of employment, improvement in productivity and enhancement of global competitive capabilities are well recognized. Further, higher education plays an important role in facilitating social, economical, technological and human resource development and changes and producing adequately trained manpower. Students now a days deal with many issues and peer pressures which subject them to drugs, depression, obesity, alcohol, eating disorder, suicide, bullying and peer group pressure. The high prevalence worldwide depression among students, the small rise in life satisfaction and the synergy between learning and positive emotion argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school and other education institutions. Martin Seligman, founder of the field of positive psychology is appreciated to begin the world's pioneering school; when he comes to employing the science of positive psychology to bolster good teaching practices as positive education program. According to Seligman and et al. (2009) positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. Thus, Positive education helps in identifying and utilizing character strengths rather than the traditional focus on student's weaknesses and helps in achieving a more positive attitude, interpersonal relationships, and happiness and develops resilience.
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Relationship between agression and religiosity among higher secondary school students
Page 513-515
Yousaf Jamal, Department of Psychology Government College Township, Lahore and Sayyeda Taskeen Zahra Department of Psychology University of Gujrat, Pakistan

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The current study aimed to explore the relationship between religiosity and aggression in school students. Human aggression is any behavior directed toward another individual that is carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm. Religiosity may be referred to as the state of one's belief in God, characterized by his piety and religious passion. A convenient sample of 100 higher secondary school students was selected by convenient sampling technique in a cross-sectional survey research design. Muslim Religious Personality Inventory (MRPI) by Steven Eric Krauss (2011) and Aggression Scale by Ana Kozina (2013) were used to assess the Muslim religiosity and aggression respectively. Permission to use the scales has already been obtained from authors of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were made by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Findings of Pearson Product Moment correlations revealed that there is statistically significant negative relationship between religiosity and aggression (p< .05) in higher secondary school students. In addition, Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis revealed that religiosity predicts 16% variance on aggression in higher secondary school students. These findings have implication that religiosity plays an important role in teaching moral values and teaching a person how to act responsibly and care for others.
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Stress and health: Symptoms and techniques of psychotherapeutic management
Page 516-520
Satyananda Panda Department of Psychology, Sikkim University, Gangtok, Sikkim

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Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived by the individual as threatened homeostasis and it is re-established by a complex repertoire of behavioural and physiologic adaptive responses of the organism. According to the World Health Organization, stress is a significant problem of our times and affects both physical as well as the mental health of people. Stress is defined as a situation where the organism's homeostasis is threatened or the organism perceives a situation as threatening. Stress can affect all aspects of your life, including your emotions, behaviors, thinking ability, and physical health. Stress coping methods are the cognitive, behavioral and psychological efforts to deal with stress. After a thorough literature review, the following techniques were identified and are presented and briefly discussed here: progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, relaxation response, biofeedback, emotional freedom technique, guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, transcendental meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction and emotional freedom technique. These are all evidence-based techniques, easy to learn and practice, with good results in individuals with good health or with a disease.
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Effect of values on family relationships
Page 521-524
Sumaira Islam, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Values as we all know play very crucial role in our family and society relationships, which further impact on our life, as every society and family had some set rules, norms for their members, values are important in order to live one's life systematically, happily and to own a 'feel good' factor. Values are based on one's experience in life and will impact on everything from which we are attracted to, one's political leanings, one's tastes, things we do in our spare time or that we have an interest in, our religious and social interactions, where we want to live, what we are passionate about and many more. Values work as boundaries which are our personal guidelines of what we are prepared to accept and where you have little or no bond. Values help us to know what is good (right) and bad (wrong) about life both in terms of morals and how one feels. The creation and teaching of a value system should be done with input from all the people who will be affected by it and especially it need to be taken care families having children as they are the part of the unit which will also be affected by the value systems which further decides their relationships with their family as values help solidify a family unit and bring family together.
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Shifting the motivational discourse by means of positum-approach and psychodrama
Page 525-527
Vitalii Klymchuk, Research Fellow in Institute of Social and Political Psychology, Kiev, Ukraine

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Positive psychotherapy is a psychodynamic humanistic resource-oriented conflict-centered and a transcultural approach, which was developed by Peseschkian. Psychodrama is an action method of psychotherapy that implies passing out of client's inner world and its correction by the dramatic means. The description of integrating psychodrama-approach and positive psychotherapy in application to the problem of personal motivational changes (by the example of solution of the motivational conflict) is presented in this article. The understanding of motivational discourse, motivational conflicts, their types and manifestation on different levels were defined. Five-step model of work with actual motivational conflicts was depicted. The model implies following steps: 1) observation and distancing from conflict, 2) inventory of all sides of conflict, 3) situational encouragement of client to solution of the conflict; 4) verbalization of every step of conflict solution, 5) broadening of goals or deeper understanding what to do after conflict solution. The description of each step is accompanied by example of clinical practice.
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Positive emotions, resilience, gratitude and forgiveness: Rrole of positive psychology in 21st century
Page 528-530
Heera Chaudhary, Jyoti and Sheetal Chaudhary, Department of Home Science, RBD PG College, Bijnore, Uttar Pradesh

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The objective of this paper is to find out how Positive emotions, forgiveness, resilience and gratitude play a very essential role for a society to act positively. These together are extremely important for mental health and an overall balanced personality. Chronic stress from negative attitudes and a feeling of helplessness & hopelessness can upset the body's hormone balance and deplete the brain's chemicals required for feelings of happiness as well as have a damaging impact on the immune system. This article brings out that how healthy attitude not only helps a person to cope up with the worst circumstances and negativity but to also overcome it with brilliance. Here we have shed light on the importance of positivity for an individual to have better living conditions and hence, a stable society, and we also have discussed how one can have a positive outlook for various difficulties in the current living conditions.
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Story reading: Tasks as tools to facilitate values among second language learners
Page 531-533
Shashirekha, S. M., Department of Education, Davangere University, Davangere, Karnataka

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Values are powerful determinants of human accomplishments, progress, and fulfillment. Due to advancement and development of technology, the face of the world is changing very quickly. Technology is influencing all aspects of human life, way of living, and therefore everything changing very rapidly. We observe more influence in the field of education, economy, social and cultural climate. Through mass and electronic medias, there is information explosion in every moment that one finds it very difficult to keep pace with this. We find change in the classroom conditions, change in the learner behavior, change in the style of learning, new innovations in teaching and learning process. Because of aforementioned changes, it is difficult kindle moral and aesthetic sensibilities of learners, to raise their level of value consciousness, stimulate them to think freely and critically, to develop the ability to judge actions and events rationally. Hence, the general tone and ethos of the school act as a powerful source of value education. Value education is not separate activity that is distinct from the teachers other academic activities. It is necessary to facilitate values with reference to the concrete realities in which children live and function. The value education should be rooted in realities of school and teachers. Teacher may facilitate different values directly via different classroom learning tasks. This paper presents some of the story reading tasks to facilitate values among second language learners. Teacher can select the stories such as “The Enchanted pool”, “The three questions”, and “Justice above self”, which are prescribed for 9th standard second language learners. Using these stories by giving reading task teacher can facilitate values like patience, sympathy, kindness, honesty, helpfulness, faithfulness, forgiveness, truth, conscience, and justice among second language learners.
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A study of well-being and its positive concomitants
Page 534-539
Roopa Mathura and Swati Sharma, Department of Psychology, The IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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College life is a transitional period which offers challenges and opportunities for cementing healthy lifestyle behaviour in students. The transition that young people make between school and university is for many an exciting, yet challenging time. These challenges may enhance or deteriorate their well-being depending on individual character strengths. The present study was designed on correlation pattern to appraise the contribution of positive concomitant factors, mindfulness and wisdom to the well-being of first year college students. Linear regression analysis was conducted to find contribution of these variables in predicting well-being. The sample of the study consisted of hundred first year students (male and female) of various faculties from different colleges. The scales used for assessment were General Well-Being Scale (Dupuy, 1978), Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (Brown & Ryan, 2003) and 3-D Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003). The results of correlation analysis showed that there exist a significant positive correlation of mindfulness (r = 0.445) and wisdom (r = 0.313) with well-being. Evaluation of regression analysis showed that reflective dimension of wisdom and mindfulness are good predictors of well-being. Further research is required for detailed and widespread investigation of practical implication of results of the study.
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