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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 6 (2015), Issue - 3
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Cultural and ethnic variations in aspects of positive psychology
Page 219-225
Inna Reddy Edara, Holistic Education Center, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan

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As there is dearth of empirical research studies investigating the ways that cultural and ethnic contexts play a role in the variations of aspects of positive psychology, this project investigated the ethnic and cultural variations in some selected aspects of positive psychology among three ethnic groups: European Americans, Chinese Americans, and Asian Indian Americans. The aspects of positive psychology assessed were forgiveness, positive affect, satisfaction with life, and religiosity and spirituality. The results indicated significant group differences on forgiveness, religiosity, spirituality, and positive affect. These significant differences are discussed from various perspectives and research and clinical implications of the findings are highlighted.
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Spiritual intelligence, gender and educational background as related to the quality of life of college students
Page 226-232
Naveen Pant and S.K. Srivastava, Department of Psychology, Gurukula Kangri University, Haridwar, U.K.

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The present study is conducted on 300 PG level college students in Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India). The aim of the present study is to examine the level of spiritual intelligence and quality of life (QoL), to observe relationship between these two variables and also to identify the difference in QoL across gender and educational background (arts and science). The purposive sampling technique is used to select 300 college students of both disciplines of arts and science from the four different government degree colleges/ campuses in Haridwar. Integrated Spiritual Intelligence scale (ISIS) and WHOQOL-BREF are used to observe the level of these variables among college students. In the present study correlational design is employed. All the statistical analysis is done with the help of computer software SPSS. To observe relationship Pearson correlation and to identify the difference t- test is used. Findings of the study revealed that spiritual intelligence and QoL relates significantly among art students, male and female art students separately have significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and QoL. Spiritual intelligence and QoL relates significantly among science students, male and female science students separately have significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and QoL. No significant difference is found between male and female students in terms of QoL. No significant difference is found between art and science students in terms of QoL.
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Spiritual intelligence, self-esteem and mental health status among the school going adolescents
Page 233-237
B. Surchandra Sharma, Department of Clinical Psychology LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health Tezpur, Assam and Ali Arif Department of Psychiatric Social Work LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health Tezpur, Assam

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Spiritual intelligence can have positive impact on mental health and it can enhance the self esteem of the adolescent's. Further it can lead to better ability to solve problem, can attain goals and can improve overall quality of life of the adolescent's. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence, self esteem and adolescent's mental health. The present study was a cross sectional survey .The research was conducted in two English medium school of Imphal, Manipur .Forty male and forty female were selected from classes 8th to 12th standard .With the help of school authority and parental consent, school going adolescent were selected using random sampling technique. Socio-demographic details were filled and subsequently The Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory, Self Esteem Scale, and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered. Spiritual intelligence was positively correlated with self-esteem [r=.829, p≤ 0.01].Emotional symptoms [r =-.102], Hyperactivity [r =-.221], Peer problem [r =.109] and Conduct problems [r =-.046] were negatively correlated with spiritual intelligence. Pro social behavior [r =.492, p≤ 0.01) has a significant positive correlation with Spiritual intelligence. The present study suggested that spiritual intelligence has relationship with self esteem and mental health status of adolescents. So, enhancement of spiritual intelligence can be taken as a strategy for promotion and prevention of psychiatric problem among adolescents and for enhancement of quality of life.
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An investigation of instigating and consequent factors of emotional labor
Page 238-244
Garima Singh Department of Psychology, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh

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The changing scenario of today's organizational environment could be contributed to the inter-company competition and rivalry. In such scenario how emotions find their way in the organization is a matter of awe. Thus, this study aims to examine the process of emotional labor as performed by sales employees. In particular, this research investigates some of the hypothesized consequences of performing emotional labor such as job satisfaction, job performance and burnout; and attempts to determine how certain variables like affectivity (positive and negative) and empathy (emphatic concern and emotional contagion) affect emotional labor. The results of the study revealed a significant relation between negative affectivity and surface level acting of emotional labor, where negative affectivity positively predicted surface level acting of emotions. Further, deep level of acting of emotions positively predicted burnout in employees.
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Relation between materialistic value, spiritual oneness belief and physical oneness belief with happiness: A study on young professionals
Page 245-248
Esha Chakraborty and Ishita Chatterjee, Department of Applied Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal

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This study was designed to investigate the relation between Materialistic Value, Spiritual Oneness Belief and Physical Oneness Belief with Happiness. Positive psychology define happiness as nothing else than an emotion, a long-term sense of emotional well-being and contentment - a broad "feeling" that one is happy. The sample consisted of 100 (50 males and 50 females) young professionals (public and private sectors), selected randomly from various organizations of Kolkata and Howrah districts. 3 adapted scales namely- Materialistic Value Scale by Richin (2004), Oneness Belief Scale by Garfield, Drwecki, Moore, Kortenkamp and Gracz (2012) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire by Michael Argyle and Peter Hills (1998) were administered to the selected respondents. The results revealed that Materialistic Value was negatively and significantly correlated with Happiness and Physical Oneness Belief was positively and significantly correlated with Happiness. Spiritual Oneness Belief showed a mild positive correlation with Happiness. Linear regression revealed Materialistic Value to be a negative predictor of Happiness and it could predict only 11.5% of the variance. The study has applications in the field of positive psychology.
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Role of social support as a mediator in negative stressful life event and somatic complaints of managerial personnel
Page 249-254
A. P. Singh and Anand Prakash Dubey, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of social support as mediator in negative stressful life events and somatic complaints relationship of managerial personnel. Stress is inherent condition of human experiences and nature of stress may be positive or negative. The present study was conducted on 210 managerial personnel of various private sectors organizations. The results reveal that person social support partially mediated the job negative, personal negative (dimensions of stress life events) and total negative stressful events and somatic complaints relationship. The findings of this study will add emphasis of social support in work environment and life events course that may be helpful to reduce the somatic complaints of individuals.
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Ways of coping among the HIV infected individuals: An analysis
Page 255-259
Anjana Bhattacharjee and Sukriti Banda, Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura(W), Agartala, Tripura

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Life is full of challenges; either accept it or reject it. It is good to say, accept the life as it is and move on. But how far human beings can apply this mantra in real life situation is a question. In Psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict. The effectiveness of the coping efforts depends on the type of stress and/or conflict, the particular individual, and the circumstances. The objective of the present study was to determine the coping strategies of HIV infected persons and also to compare their coping mechanism with their non HIV counterparts. The study also intended to see the gender differences in the coping mechanism of HIV infected persons. Results of the present study found significant impact of HIV infection and gender on the different coping mechanisms of the individuals.
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Belongingness among different age groups
Page 260-265
Shagufta Afroz and P. S.N.Tiwari Department of Psychology, D. D. U.Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh

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This study was planned to conceptualize the concept of belongingness among Indian people. The study aims the three basic objectives- what is the concept or what is the Indian population's sense of belonging among the people of different ages, genders and environments? When these people feel that they belong to someone or something and why these people belong to groups? A sample of total 262 respondents was taken with the representation of four ages groups. A semi structured open ended interview schedule was uses to get responses and content analyses of the responses were done. The analyses revealed that 'love and affection', 'sharing of feelings', 'love for family' and 'Connection' were emerged as the most frequent responses for the concept of belongingness with little variations in different age groups. The next analyses revealed that the following situations on the 'loss of something or someone they loved', when 'they felt love and affection for someone', 'which is useful for them' and for whom 'who helped them in difficulties', made them felt that they belonged to someone and something. The last analyses showed that with little variations in the percentages, all the groups of respondents revealed that group belongingness is necessary for 'attachment', to 'help each-others', to learn 'good morals' and to 'gain identity, happiness and satisfaction' from groups.
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Striving for harmony at home: A qualitative inquiry
Page 266-275
Kakul Hai and Manju Agrawal Amity Institute of Behavioral and Allied SciencesAmity University, Lucknow, Uttat Pardesh

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Thematic network analysis was conducted on the in-depth interview responses of a sample of 40 participants to explore and conceptualize the concept of domestic harmony. Following the growth model of positive psychology, the concept of domestic harmony tries to determine 'what works' in family functioning. A newly-coined term, domestic harmony can be explained as a measure of the experience of perceived harmony in family functioning and home environment. 20 indicators of domestic harmony were identified, which were further clubbed into 7 themes. A detailed explanation of each indicator of domestic harmony is provided.
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The effect of a training program based on positive thinking in reducing test anxiety among tenth grade Jordanian students
Page 276-278
Adnan Yousef Atoum and Atheer Halal Hadad Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a training program based on positive thinking in reducing test anxiety among tenth grade Jordanian students. To achieve this aim, the researchers developed a training program based on positive thinking strategies and a scale measuring test anxiety after reliability and validity procedures were conducted. The sample of the study consisted of (60) female students from the tenth grade. Two classes were selected randomly and assigned to the experimental and control group. The results of ANCOVA showed that there was a significant statistical difference in the post-anxiety test attributed to the group and in favor of the experimental group. Furthermore, results of the paired sample t-test showed no significant statistical difference between means of the post scores and the delayed follow up scores for the experimental group.
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Role of spiritual intelligence in emotional intelligence and mental health
Page 279-282
Manaswini Dash and Puspita Patnaik P.G. Department of Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

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The present research studied the role of spiritual intelligence in emotional intelligence and mental health. A total of 150 adults within the age bracket of 30 to 40 years, with equal number of males and females were administered the Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (King 2008). On the basis of their performance on the inventory, persons scoring one standard deviation above the mean and those scoring one standard deviation below the mean constituted the high and low spiritual intelligence groups respectively. These two groups were then administered the Emotional Intelligence Scale (Hyde, Pathe & Dhar 1971) and the Mental Health Inventory (Jagdish & Srivastav). Data were statistically analyzed with the help of independent group t test. Findings revealed significant differences between the high and low spiritual intelligence groups in all the dimensions of emotion intelligence as well as mental health, suggesting that the person who are high in spiritual intelligence are emotionally more intelligent and have better mental health than those with low spiritual intelligence. Results are discussed in the context of Indian cultural values.
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Hope's relation with self-esteem, optimism, and life satisfaction in engineering students
Page 283-287
Kaustubh V. Yadav, Department of Psychology University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra and Nutankumar S. Thingujam Department of Psychology Sikkim University, Gangtok, Sikkim

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The objective of the present study was to examine if the hope of the engineering students is related to their self esteem, optimism, and life satisfaction. Three hundred (150 males; 150 females) students in the age group of 19 to 25 years in different engineering colleges in Pune responded to the standardized measurements of hope, self esteem, optimism, and life satisfaction. Result showed that hope was correlated positively with self esteem, optimism and life satisfaction. Besides, all the four scale were internally consistent (alpha >=, 70). It is suggested that present findings provide initial evidence for the applicability of Snyder and colleagues' two factor hope scale in Indian context.
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Work stress, general well-being and coping strategies: A comparative study on medico couples
Page 288-290
Arvind K Birdie IIMT School of Management (Now Vedatya), Gurgaon, Haryana, Madhu Jain Department of Psychology University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and Sarita Kulhari Research Scholar Rajasthan University, Jaipur

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The present study aims to explore and compare the work stress, general well being and coping strategies in medico and non medico couples .For the purpose of study, a random sample of 50 couples out of which 25 medico and 25 non medicos were taken from the area of Jaipur city. Data were collected by using Cohen's Perceived work stress, PGI General Well Being by Santosh Verma and Anita Verma and Coping strategies Scale by Folkman and Lazarus. Mean, Standard deviation were employed for all variables and compared the different groups on the different variables. Results revealed that there was no significant relationship in medico and non medico couples , whereas medico couples were found to have poor general well being and non significant difference were found on coping strategies.
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Death anxiety, coping and spirituality among cancer patients
Page 291-294
C. R. Satish Kumar and Neha Parashar, Department of Clinical Psychology, Post graduate Institute of Behavioral and Medical Sciences, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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Suffering comes in many ways to cancer patients; one of these is an unspecified fear about death. The present study was aimed to evaluate the death anxiety, coping and are correlated significantly with death anxiety, whereas, no such significant correlation was seen with coping mechanisms and spiritual quotient. spirituality among scale (Kavita koradia, 2008). Results showed that 71.2% of the sample cancer patients. 70 cancer patients from private in-patient facility were assessed in Death anxiety scale (Templer, 1970); Brief COPE (Carver, 1997) and Spiritual quotient population had high spiritual quotient. Religion, Instrumental support, Self distraction and planning were found to be the most used coping strategies by the sample population. Coping mechanisms like venting, positive reframing and humour
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Well-being: Role of psychological capital among employees
Page 295-298
Poonam Singh Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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In today's scenario, well being of employee is in the best interest of organizations. Since the workplace is a significant part of an employee's life that can affects his/ her life. Well being has implication to employees very deeply-at mind, body and soul. The aim of present study is to examine the role of positive psychological capital on well being of employees. The study is concerned to see the relationship between psychological capital (such as self efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) and employee psychological well being. The sample consists of 60 employees working in public sector banks. Well being of employees is being measured by the scale of psychological well being (Ryffs, 1995) which consists of 18 items. The result of the study is showing that optimism and resilience (dimensions of psychological capital) emerged as significant predictor of employee well-being.
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Caregiving burden and hope among caregivers of patients with epilepsy
Page 299-302
Nidhi Singh Clinical Psychologist PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, Vibha Sharma Department of Clinical Psychology IHBAS, New Delhi and Ravinder Singh Department. of Medical Anthropology IHBAS, New Delhi

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The present study is an attempt to study the caregiver burden and level of hope among the primary caregivers of the patients diagnosed with epilepsy for more than one year. Study was exploratory in nature. A sample of 30 primary caregivers of patients with epilepsy was selected. Both males and females between age ranges of 25 to 55 years were selected from neurology OPD of IHBAS, Delhi by using purposive sampling technique. Zarit Burden Interview and Adult Hope Scale were administered on the participants to study their caregiver burden and levels of hope. All participants were psycho-educated about their family members' illness. Results showed that caregivers had poor perceived social support and mostly they were experiencing moderate to severe levels of care giving burden and average levels of hope. Results are discussed in the light of the need of such studies which can professionally help caregivers to deal with their physical, mental and social problems and thereby also help patients with epilepsy in many ways.
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Sources of happiness: A comparison of male and female scholars
Page 303-305
Mohd. Altaf Paul and Mudassir Hassan Department of Psychiatry Govt. Medical College, Srinagar and Waheeda Khan Department of Psychology Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Happiness is a concept which means many things to many people. Sources of happiness again vary from person to person. So in order to understand the phenomena from the perspective of research scholars, the present study was conducted on a sample of 60 research scholars in a central University, equally divided in two groups of male (n=30) and females (n=30). The Subjective Happiness Scale developed (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) was administered along with few open ended questions on sources of happiness. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data revealed that mean happiness scores were not statistically significant between male and female scholars. Content analysis of open ended questions yielded main sources of happiness for females in terms of importance of friends, family support, achieving goals, positive thinking, success, money, peace of mind and entertainment. While males reported belief in almighty, religious activities, honest work, achieving goals, family support, positive thinking, money, good health, friends and less responsibility as main sources of happiness. Some unique sources of happiness for females were internet surfing, going out to restaurants, self confidence, on the other hand, sports, less family burden, and accepting change easily were reported by males. The findings of the present study highlight the importance of directing more systematic research, particularly in the context of cross cultural understanding of happiness in youth.
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Family environment and psychological well-being among adolescents
Page 306-308
Salma Kaneez Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Adolescence is a pivotal period between childhood and adulthood. The adolescence years are crucial for life course development because this time individuals make choices and engage in a variety of behaviors influencing rest of their lives. It is a critical period for achieving optimal progress in respect of psychological, physical, cognitive and emotional realms of life. Family is the foremost in determining psychological health of its members. The influence of other agencies is built upon the ground work furnished by the family enabling individuals to cope with normal stresses of life, work productively and make a fruitful contribution to the community. The objective of the present investigation was therefore to examine the association between family environment and psychological well-being of adolescents. A sample of N=60 adolescents (30 male; 30 female) in the age of 16 to 19 years was designed. Family Environment Scale (FES) by Bhatia and Chaddha (1993) and Psychological Well-being (PWB) Scale of Bhogle and Prakash (1995) were administered to the subjects. Results revealed a positive and significant association between psychological well-being and cohesion, expressiveness, acceptance and caring, and active recreational dimensions of family environment. Gender differences were also observed in PWB. The conclusions highlight the importance of child-parents-educators relationship for all-round growth of adolescents.
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Orientations to happiness and Big Five personality factor among business students
Page 309-310
Nutankumar S. Thingujam, Department of Psychology, Sikkim University, Gangtok, Sikkim

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Happiness which is an important component of wellbeing is an important aspect of every individual and business students are not exception. The present study investigated if an individual's happiness is related to his/her personality patterns. One hundred and eighty nine students (males = 139; females = 50) enrolled in post graduate diploma in business courses responded to Orientation to Happiness Scale (Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (McCrae & Costa, 1992). Age of the students ranged from 20 to 35 years (M = 22.70; SD = 1.55). Results showed that certain aspects of orientation to happiness were associated with personality. Specifically, life of meaning was positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Life of engagement correlated negatively with neuroticism but positively with extraversion. Life of pleasure was not significantly correlated with any personality dimensions.
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Developing Indian human resource: Role of psychological capital and protean career orientation
Page 311-314
Chandrani Sen and Himangini R Hooja Department of Psychology, IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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In the 1980's and the 90's, it was not common for individuals to leave their current jobs and opt for a career change. They were dependent on their organisation to create new opportunities and guide them towards career goals. With globalization, the current scenario has seen a change in such attitudes and orientations. The individuals have come to realise that they have their own goals regarding their career and how they see their lives with a long term perspective and satisfaction. Such career orientation requires an intrinsic positive push for the individual with makes him/her reach the goals. This positive approach (psychological capital) may help them to orient themselves for the challenges that may come their way in order to achieve their career goals. Keeping this in mind, the research paper looks to build a relationship between protean career orientation and psychological capital. The paper will be focusing in the importance of these two variables in the Indian context, where the status and remuneration of the job still holds a lot of importance over the satisfaction of achieving one's career goals. The population of India is very young, with around 48% of the population between 15-45 years (Census, 2011). It is important that such individuals be guided and directed towards carving the path towards a fulfilling career.
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Impact of emotional intelligence on life satisfaction of university employees
Page 315-317
Saima Hafiz and Meenakshi Chouhan, Department of Psychology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab

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The present study intends to investigate the impact of emotional intelligence on life satisfaction among university employees in which each group is divided in to high and low group. A sample of 40 employees (20 males and 20 females) in the age group of 25-50yrs, was taken from the central university of Jammu and were administered the emotional intelligence scale by Singh and life satisfaction scale by Diener, Emmans, Larsen, and Griffen (1985). A 2×2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. The results revealed that those who scored higher on emotional intelligence have higher life satisfaction than the low scorers. Moreover the results reported that the main effect of gender on life satisfaction was also significant, i.e., males scored higher on life satisfaction scale than females. The interactive effect of gender and emotional intelligence on life satisfaction was statistically non-significant.
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Impact of emotional intelligence on life satisfaction of university employees
Page 315-317
Saima Hafiz and Meenakshi Chouhan, Department of Psychology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab

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The present study intends to investigate the impact of emotional intelligence on life satisfaction among university employees in which each group is divided in to high and low group. A sample of 40 employees (20 males and 20 females) in the age group of 25-50yrs, was taken from the central university of Jammu and were administered the emotional intelligence scale by Singh and life satisfaction scale by Diener, Emmans, Larsen, and Griffen (1985). A 2×2 ANOVA was used for data analysis. The results revealed that those who scored higher on emotional intelligence have higher life satisfaction than the low scorers. Moreover the results reported that the main effect of gender on life satisfaction was also significant, i.e., males scored higher on life satisfaction scale than females. The interactive effect of gender and emotional intelligence on life satisfaction was statistically non-significant.
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Why are some people more anxious than others? The role of neuroticism and extraversion personality traits on anxiety
Page 318-320
Sana Akhter Department of Psychology Kolhan University, Chaibasa, Jharkhand and MD. Firoz Ibrahimi Department of Psychology Karim City College, Jamshedpur, Odisha

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Some people are more anxious than others. Is there any role of personality traits? Personality is a dynamic organization of different traits in a person. Anxiety is an emotional state arising in situations of impending danger and manifested in expectation of unfavorable events. Anxiety manifests itself as a feeling of helplessness, uncertainty of oneself, lack of sufficient strength in the face of external factors and exaggeration of their potency and strength. The aim of this study is to examine the traits of personality (Neuroticism and Extraversion) on anxiety whether personality is associated with anxiety among college students. The sample consisted of 40 college students of class 11 to graduate both males and females from different college in Jharkhand. Students from all streams (science, commerce and Arts) have considered for the study. NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), originally developed by Costa and McCrae (1992), and Sinha Anxiety Scale (Sinha’s Self-Analysis Form) is used to assess personality and anxiety. Statistical technique and the data are computed with correlation. Results have showed that neuroticism is significantly positively correlated with anxiety whereas Extraversion is significantly negatively correlated with anxiety and Neuroticism play an important role in anxiety and who have got Neuroticism Personality Traits there are more anxious.
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Standardization of employees spiritual values scale (ESVS)
Page 321-322
Akbar Husain and Shahin Zehra Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and Musaddiq Jahan Department of Psychology, Women's College Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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An employee has his own philosophy of life, values gives direction to his life. The main aim of the present study was to standardize an instrument for assessing spiritual values of the employees. One hundred non-teaching staff and one hundred school teachers from Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh served as participants in this study. Principal Axis Factoring method was used to standardize the Employees Spiritual Values Scale (ESVS). The ESVS consisted of 15 items with three factors, namely, Values foster high quality Work, Intrinsic qualities, and Natural Qualities. Factor 1 and 2 comprised of 6 items each and the factor 3 comprised of three items. The numbers of items in ESVS are 15 and it is a 5-point Likert scale. Reliability of the ESVS was determined by Cronbach's alpha and validity of the ESVS was determined by content validity.
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Spirituality in special education: A mirror of the ancient Indian society
Page 323-325
Saumya Chandra, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University Faculty of Disability Management and Special Education, Coimbatore Campus, Coimbatore

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Although traditionally not an area of service delivered by special educators, the area of spirituality for persons with disabilities is receiving more attention as a quality-of-life outcome. With reference to Indian culture and education system, this particular component was existing in olden times but in a different way. The literature review examined the extent to which ancient educators were given the responsibility of the holistic development of children irrespective of their cast, creed and ability with equal attention. The results indicated that in tune of curriculum adaptation and modification along with bringing changes in the instructional strategies would bring the outcome expected. It has become a need of today to design a framework in which special education professionals may look beyond a sole focus on academic outcomes and they impart the knowledge which is really worthwhile and more global in nature for their students. Many authors have conceptualized spirituality as a personal experience of an individual searching for meaning, a higher quality of life that is accomplished through regular chanting of sacred mantras for their inner peace, harmony and connectedness to others.
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Magnitude and effect of punishment on psychosocial development of urban and rural school children in Bangladesh
Page 326-330
Shaheen Islam Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh and Tanmi Akhter Department of Educational Psychology University of Dhaka, Bangladesh

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Childhood punishment is a persistent phenomenon of almost every corner around the globe. Existing socio-cultural context and lack of adequate systematic evidence surrounding punishment in Bangladesh left the issue almost unrevealed. This study addressed this gap by exploring the means, extent, reasons of punishment and its effect on psychosocial development of urban and rural school children. 300 children between 7-14 years of age were conveniently selected from four schools located in urban and rural area. A structured checklist related to experience of punishment and Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) were used. Punishment was found to be a universal experience with physical punishment as most common form of punishment. Significant difference in forms of punishment exists between urban and rural area. Urban parents were significantly more punitive than their rural counterparts. Multiple regression analyses shows that all models were statistically significant with varying effect of different forms of punishment on psychosocial development variables. (156 words)
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Sunil Saini, PhD
President, Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
suneil.psy@gmail.com

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