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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 3
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Development of emotion-focused couples communication program (EFCCP): A pilot study
Page 264-268
Joshy Jacob Vazhappilly and Marc Eric S. Reyes The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines

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The urge to belong to someone and maintain a relationship is one of the basic human needs. Marriage is a social institution that responds to this basic human need. But recent times witness an alarmingly rising rate of divorce and separation, making marital relationship a distressing factor rather than one that augments the well-being of the people. The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention program for enhancing couples' communication and marital satisfaction and to pilot test its feasibility and usability in the field of marriage therapy for enhancing marriage quality. Development of the program involved integration of qualitative and quantitative research designs. Primary Communication Inventory and Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to measure the level of communication and marital satisfaction among the couples; interviews and Focused-Group Discussions were carried out to get a better understanding. Basing on these, a nine modular intervention was developed integrating the communication and emotion constructs of Non-Violent Communication (NVC) and Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT). The program was subjected to expert validation by six inter-disciplinary experts and pilot tested with six couples. The intervention was positively received by the participants and the results of the pilot test showed improvement in the level of communication and marital satisfaction among the couples.
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Psychometric assessment of the karuna (compassion) scale
Page 269-278
Vijay Rangari, Department of Psychology University of Delhi, Delhi and Karuna Mehta Department of Psychology, Zakir Hussian College of Delhi, Delhi University, Delhi

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This study was conducted in two parts, part one textual analysis of Tripitka and development of theory of Karuna (Compassion) to answer the research question Psychological Dimensions of Karuna (Compassion) in Buddhism and its relationship with Peace and Well-being. The Concept of Karuna (Compassion) origin in pali language. The etymology of the word Karuna, stemmed from the Buddhist literatures in tripitka, Karuna (Compassion) defines, Karuṇā is one of the fourth qualities of character significant of a human being who has attained enfranchisement of heart (ceto vimutti), the desire of removing bane and sorrow and bringing that which good and welfare to one's fellow men as the exalted state of compassion for all beings (all that is encompassed in the sphere of one's good influence or all, directions,) . The 360 Degree Compass theory of Karuna (Compassion) has been developed after analysis of Buddhist literatures, The finding of this part one research was that Karuna (compassion) has four dimensions Wisdom, Morality, Loving Kindness, and Equanimity were lived in the day today experience of the peoples. The eighty four items was written out with reading several time jataka stories and literature review various Buddhist texts.
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Self-sufficiency among first-grade secondary students with employed and housewife mothers in Shiraz in school year 2014-2015
Page 279-282
Mehrnaz Mazarei, Department of General Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran and Hasan Haghshenas DeparDepartment of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of self-sufficiency among first-grade secondary students with employed and housewife mothers in Shiraz in the school year 2014-2015. To this end, a descriptive study with a causal-comparative method was performed. The research population included all 41300 seventh and eighth grade students in Shiraz, of whom 397 students were selected randomly as the research sample from four educational districts in Shiraz through multi-stage cluster sampling. Besides, inferential statistics (ANOVA and independent t-test) were used to analyze the data. The results showed there were significant differences in terms of self-sufficiency levels reported by male and female students in favor of the female students. In addition, there were no significant differences in self-reported levels of self-sufficiency between the respondents (students, parent, and teachers) in the districts under study. However, self-reported levels of self-sufficiency were significantly different in favor of eighth grade students. In addition, there were no significant differences in reported levels of self-sufficiency between students with employed and unemployed mothers. It was also noted that self-sufficiency levels were not significantly different among students in terms of mothers' work experience and their monthly income. The results showed that although the family conditions may affect the students' self-sufficiency levels, the personality traits of adolescents must be taken into account in order to strengthen their self-sufficiency.
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Comparison of personality traits and gender schemas in sexual and physical damage referred to a coroner with healthy girls in Shiraz
Page 283-286
Fatemeh Fathinejad and Ali Kamkar Department of Psychology, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran

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The objective of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and gender schemas in the girls suffered from sexual and physical damages referred to forensics with healthy girls in Shiraz. The plan of the study was of comparative- casual kind. The statistical community was the girls suffered from physical and sexual damages referred to Forensics in Shiraz and healthy girls from March 2015 to July 2015. 50 injured girls were selected through the Available Random Sampling Method voluntary from the community list and 50 healthy girls who became counterpart with injured girls from the viewpoint of demographic features participated. NEO personality questionnaire (Revised version) and Bem Sex Role Inventory were applied as study tools. The raw data of the study was analyzed by using SPSS 20 software in two descriptive and inferential levels. The test of hypotheses was evaluated by independent t-test and multivariate analysis of variance test. the evaluation of the hypotheses `test showed that there was a significant difference between neurosis (P≤0/003), extroversion (p≤0/033) and accountability(p≤0/000) of two groups, but there was no significant difference between flexibility and desirability of two groups. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between male sexual schemas (P≤0/155). Also, there was no significant difference between female sexual schemas of two groups (P≤0/878).
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Predictive of organizational efficiency based on the quality of working life and personality traits among employees Hormozgan Province Gas Company
Page 287-291
Fatemeh Jafari Chahestani Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran and Aminallah Fazel and Seyed Ahmad Mirjafari Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The aim this was to evaluate the Prediction organizational productivity based on the quality of working life and personality traits among employees of Hormozgan province Gas Company. This study was applied research and correlation method. The questionnaires were distributed among 127 availability sample that selected among Gas personals. Instruments were personality traits (NEO- FFI) quality of working life (Walton, 1973) and organizational productivity (Jahed, 2006). The Data was analyzed through SPSS and AMOS software. The results showed that coefficient correlation between organizational productivity and quality of working life was -0.975 with reverse and meaningful and coefficient correlation between productivity and agreeableness was reverse and meaningful.
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Predict job burnout on organizational commitment and perceived social support in the Imam Khomeini relief committee for Shiraz
Page 292-296
Abolhasan Afshari, Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran and Mitra Mahmoodi and Aminallah Fazel Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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Burnout phenomenon spread to different people in various positions is, who suffered a high work pressure and satisfaction are low. This study aimed to investigate the burnout prediction based on organizational commitment and perceived social support the staff Imam Khomeini Relief Committee (RA) is Shiraz (Descriptive correlational). In this study, 150 employees of the organization were available for sampling. Research data Mezlach and Jackson job burnout questionnaire, organizational commitment of Allen and Meyer and perceived social support scale van der Hayden and colleagues were collected. Data using multivariate linear regression analysis using the statistical software at the same time SPSS18 were analyzed. The results showed that among the components of organizational commitment, emotional commitment can be variable Part of the changes burnout Committee staff Imam Khomeini, Shiraz predict. Also, variables, perceived social support from colleagues in the organization can be part of variables to predict burnout and variables supervisor support is not able to predict burnout. The results also showed that changes the committee staff burnout Imam Khomeini, Shiraz organizational commitment variables (total) and perceived social support (total) is explained.
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Psychological interpersonal needs and suicidal ideation among college students: The moderating role of social support
Page 297-301
Akansha Gautam, Scientist 'D', (Psychologist), Wing-3, West Block 6, Sector-1, Air HQ, R K Puram

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Suicidal ideation among college students may have a unique etiology because of developmental transitions that occur in college and young adulthood, including changes in family relationships and peer contexts. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between social support, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation among college students. In addition, this study was conducted to examine moderation effect of social support on the relationship between psychological interpersonal needs and suicidal ideation. The participants consisted of 350 students from NCR located colleges. The data was collected by using Social support Questionnaire; Interpersonal needs Questionnaire and Beck Scale for suicide ideation. The hierarchical stepwise regression analysis was performed. Results revealed that Social support is significantly negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Furthermore social support significantly moderated the relationship between the Interpersonal needs' two construct (perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness) and suicidal ideation. The findings of the study have important implications for the prevention of suicide, suggesting the suicide prevention programs, counseling centers, and psychology clinics in the colleges for their assessment and identification of individuals who may be at risk for engaging in suicidal ideation.
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Does intelligence influence social maturity in academic life?
Page 302-305
Arachna Satsangi and Aysha Begum Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra, Uttar Pradesh

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This research was made to study the difference in social maturity between high and low intelligence among science and arts students. The sample of present study consisted of 100 cases. Both Arts (25 Boys and 25 Girls) and Science students (25 boys and 25 girls), were randomly selected. Their age range was between 18-25 years. Social Maturity Scale constructed by Srivastava (1983) and Standard Progressive Matrices for measuring intelligence by Raven (1988) were used. 't-test' was employed to see the difference in social maturity between high and low intelligence and academic stream (science and arts). The finding of the present study suggested that there is a significant difference in social maturity between high and low intelligence (t = 3.14, p < .01). Therefore it can be concluded that the students who are high in intelligence are socially matured. It was also found that there was no significant difference between science and arts students related to social maturity.
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Perceived social support and psychological well-being in north eastern and non-north eastern girl hostellers
Page 306-311
Nandini Sanyal, Tina Fernandes and Rohlimum Infimate Department of Psychology, St. Francis College for Women, Begumpet, Hyderabad

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The objective of the present study is to determine whether there is a relationship between perceived social support and psychological well-being North Eastern and non-North Eastern under-graduate girl hostellerls. Anon-probability purposive sampling was used to select a sample of 100 under-graduate girl hostellers, among whom 50 were North Eastern students and 50 were non-North Eastern students. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (Cohen, Mermelstein, Kamrack, & Hoberman, 1985) and Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale (Ryff, 1989) were administered to assess perceived social support and psychological well-being respectively. The findings revealed that there were significant differences between Northeastern and non-Northeastern girl hostellers with respect to the environmental mastery, positive relations and self-acceptance dimensions of psychological well-being (p<0.05). Perceived social support and psychological well-being were found to have positive correlated in non-North Eastern girl hostellers (p<0.05). The current study provides insight into the importance of social support and its relationship with an individual's psychological well-being. Such an understanding could help educators, counsellors and psychologists to design and develop suitable intervention strategies to reduce psychological problems among students.
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Gender differences in character strengths and virtues of teachers in higher education
Page 312-317
Sushila Pareek and Nirmala Singh Rathore Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Education in general and higher education in particular play an important role in facilitating technological, social and human resource development. Quality in education is generally applied to signify the positive and considerable inputs from teachers and students. In this regard, positive education program (Seligman et al., 2009) has been discovered which comprises the key elements viz., character strengths and virtues, resilience, happiness, interpersonal relationships for consistent well-being and success. In accordance with the concept, the present piece of work aimed at studying character strengths and virtues of teachers in higher education. The institutional case study approach was undertaken for profiling the character strengths and virtues of teachers. The sample for the present study was taken from Maharishi Arvind College of Engineering and Research Centre, Sirsi Road, Jaipur on the purposive sampling basis. The Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) (Peterson et al., 2006), was administered to 60 faculty members (20 female and 40 male). The results pointed out that the mean score of male and female teachers on character strengths and virtues was found to be significantly different and female teachers scored higher mean than their male counter parts. The significant positive relationship between the rank order of female and male teachers indicated the similar pattern of character strengths and virtues.
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Impact of daily spiritual experiences and private religious practices on social well-being among different religious community
Page 318-324
Nitin Kumar Verma and Girishwar Misra Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Research has indicated the role of daily spiritual experiences and value and belief as a social phenomenon and one of its striking functions is to integrate people into social groups. Groups adhere to their established systems with a given conviction that in return affects their sense of perceived well-being. The present study tries to identify the impact of daily spiritual experiences, values and beliefs on the social well-being status of major religious communities in the Indian setting. Social well being scale was used to measure social integration, social acceptance, social isolation, social coherence and social contribution. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Value and Belief were measured by Fetzer's scale of religiosity. Sample includes 100 participants equally selected from Hindu, Muslim, Christian and Sikh communities. Findings of the study show significant differences in relation between Daily Spiritual Experiences of Religious Value and Belief, and social well-being among different religious communities.
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Passion types and subjective well-being for Saudi women: Exploratory study
Page 325-334
Samia Bakri Abdelati, Department of Psychology King Saud University, KSA and Marei Salama-Younes Department of Psychology Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt

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A growing literature is emerging about passion types and subjective well-being. No studies were interested in exploring passion types and subjective well-being for Saudi women. Three studies were conducted. Data was collected from Riyadh (n = 474, n = 241and n = 329). The first and second studies have been conducted to test the psychometric properties of passion scale for Saudi women. The goal of the third study was, however; twofold: (i) testing the mediation of subjective vitality in the relationships between HP, OP and life satisfaction and (ii) testing the effect of selected variables such as the marital status, the couple relationships conflict, the age and the leisure activities differences on passion types and life satisfaction. Passion scale (11 items) had a satisfaction validity and reliability (Study 1 and 2). HP predicted positively the subjective vitality, which directly predicted the life satisfaction, whereas OP was none significant predictor of vitality and direct negative predictor of life satisfaction. In general, the family status, couple relationships conflict, leisure activities and age had no effect neither on passion types nor on life satisfaction. Subjective vitality was partially a mediation between only harmonious passion and life satisfaction. In addition, selected variables have no effect on passion types and life satisfaction for Saudi women.
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Understanding the relationship between resilience and psychological well-being among adolescents in single and mixed shelter homes
Page 335-338
Sharika Verma, Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangaluru, Karnataka

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The current study focuses on the role of gender in predicting the relationship between resilience and psychological well-being in early adolescents from shelter homes. Main Hypotheses was that predicting a significant difference in the level of resilience and psychological well-being between single and mixed-sex shelter homes. The sample included 120 early adolescents (M age 14. 2 years, SD = .9). Data was analyzed using regression, two way ANOVA and mediation analysis. Results showed that resilience and psychological well-being showed a significant predictive relationship. Males and females showed a higher level of resilience in mixed-sex settings; male adolescents showed a higher level of psychological well-being in mixed-sex settings compared to single-sex settings, female adolescents showed a higher level of psychological well-being in single-sex settings compared to mixed-sex settings. Further, mediation analyses found that gender showed a strong trend as a mediator between resilience and psychological well-being but was not significant.
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Personality and resilience: A critical analysis
Page 339-342
Smita Mohanty, District Sub-Registrar, Dhenkanal, Odisha

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Resilience is something, in which people do better than expected given chronic and/or acute conditions that put them at risk. Both sociologists and social psychologists are striving very hard to dive deep into the dynamics of the subject. The paper makes an attempt to understand the concepts of personality and resilience. It analyses the theories and approaches to personality and resilience in a systematic manner. It also links these two concepts functionally and operationally.
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Exploring effectiveness of communication based strategies in countering the rigid schematic effects of gender stereotypes
Page 343-347
Shivani Datta, Neeru Singh, Bhavya, Komal and Shivangi Department of Psychology, K.N.C., University of Delhi, Delhi

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In the present study, an attempt was made to test the impact of schematic augmentation using techniques of verbalization and labeling on primary recognition for schemas inconsistent information. Overall the results indicated a significant effect of different communication techniques focusing on cognitive elaboration on the resultant augmentation of schematic structure.
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Well-being, happiness and interpersonal relationship as correlated components of job satisfaction among the public sector employees of India: A brief detail focused into gender difference
Page 348-352
Priyankar Singha and Sauvik Raychaudhuri Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

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The present study deals with gender difference in job satisfaction among the employees of public sector. Attempts were also made to assess their sense of well being, level of happiness and quality of interpersonal relationship. The sample size was 350 divided into 2 groups (male- 175 and female- 175). Each group was consisted respondents age ranging between 22-35 years and having minimum 2 years of job experience. The data were collected from several public sectors (educational sector, banking sector, railway sector, medical sector, non IAS-IPS sector, clerical sector and defence sector). Subjective well being inventory, Oxford happiness inventory, interpersonal relationship inventory and job satisfaction scale were administered to assess the sense of well being, level of happiness, quality of interpersonal relationship and Job satisfaction of the employees. No significant difference between the two genders has been revealed in the selected variables. Furthermore, significant correlation has been found between job satisfaction and the other selected variables for the present sample. The results of the present study can be fruitful for further research studies.
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Stress and life satisfaction among college students
Page 353-355
Prerna Puri, Kiran Yadav and Laxmi Shekhawat Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Life satisfaction is the cognitive aspect of subjective well-being; it possesses unique importance in the understanding of a number of mental health concerns. Multiple individual factors can exert influence on individuals' life satisfaction judgments; perceived stress is one of those individual factors that involve subjective judgmental process influencing life satisfaction). In college years, students experience various changes in physical, social and cultural environments, some students may adapt these changes well, some others may negatively appraise the changes, and experience increased stress and lower satisfaction with life. The study aimed to investigate whether satisfaction with life is related to perceived stress on students of Rajasthan University, Jaipur. Specifically, we hypothesized that college students' satisfaction with life would be negatively correlated with perceived stress.80 students enrolled for the study from University of Rajasthan, They were administered the stress scale for students by Puri et al. (2011) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) by Denier et al. (1985), 77 Subjects filled the Performa. Stress and life satisfaction were significantly negatively correlated (coefficient of correlation was -0.368, 'p = 0.001). The study found that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life among the students.
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Relationship between mindfulness and spiritual intelligence among bank employees
Page 356-358
Sonal Agarwal and P. C. Mishra Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Although the components of mindfulness and spiritual intelligence may converge conceptually, few empirical researches have been conducted quantifying the relationship between these two constructs. This study aimed to find out the extent of association between mindfulness and spiritual intelligence among bank employees. It was hypothesized that the relationship between mindfulness and spiritual intelligence will be positive. The sample consisted of 120 bank employees working at a managerial position in various branches of State Bank of India, from the city of Lucknow and nearby districts (India). The minimum job experience of the participants was sixteen years,. Mindfulness was measured using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale developed by Brown and Ryan (2003). The level of spiritual intelligence was assessed using the Spiritual Intelligence Self Report Inventory developed by King and Disico (2009). The data thus collected was analyzed using the Pearson product moment correlation analysis. Results revealed a statistically significant positive relationship between mindfulness and spiritual intelligence (r=0.28) (p value 0.01). Correlation analysis between mindfulness and the four sub scales of spiritual intelligence namely critical existential thinking, personal meaning production, conscious state expansion and transcendental awareness all revealed a low to moderately positive statistically significant relation. Thus, as the level of mindfulness increased, the levels of spiritual intelligence also increased and as the levels of mindfulness decreased, the level of spiritual intelligence also decreased. Future researches in this domain can attempt to find out the effect of mindfulness based intervention in enhancing individual's level of spiritual intelligence.
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The essential aspects of building a therapeutic relationship
Page 359-361
Sanah Rizvi, Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Boston

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The therapeutic relationship is one of the most important aspects of any therapy sessions. As times change and patient needs evolve, what are the most essential aspects of a therapeutic relationship? Here we look at relevant literature and discuss some of the aspects of a therapeutic relationship that are relevant and important today and elaborate on why they matter. We further provide a condensed list for therapists to use and incorporate in their practice.
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The process of meaning making from trauma generated out of sexual abuse in childhood
Page 366-370
Sudeshna Das, Clinical Psychologist, Tata Motors Hospital, Jamshedpur and Soma Pramanik, Deepshikha Ray and Mallika Banerjee Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

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The study tries to explore the process of constructing meaning from the experience of being sexually abused in childhood. The focus of this study is to explore the dispositional characteristics to identify what helped them sustain the integrity of their sense of 'self' and 'existence' subsequent to intense sexual abuse that they had faced during their childhood. This study is part of a larger study in which the participants were selected through the use of a specially designed 'screening questionnaire' which sought information about the participants' life experiences and demographics in a subtle, non-invasive and non-threatening manner. The purpose of this study was to tap the unique and personal process of coping with a trauma of this stature. Three individuals participated in the present research and they shared their tribulations and unique process of coping with the researcher in an intensive interview that lasted for two hours and thirty minutes. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach was used to interpret the data. Significant themes that emerged after analysis were- the ability to focus one's psychic energy on alternative pursuits like career and academics, the capacity to obtain sustenance from relationships, the inner strength to free oneself from the vicious cycle of anger and vengeance and to look beyond; practising forgiveness and the ability to consider each experience as learning. Thus the common point in the process of meaning making is the ability of all these persons to make use of the positive repertoire of personality.
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Mourning with social media: Rewiring grief
Page 371-375
Vani Kakar, National University of Educational Planning and Administration, NCERT Campus, Hauz Khas, New Delhi and Nanki Oberoi The Bitty Oberoi Foundation Noida, Uttar Pardesh

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The aim of the present paper is to two fold. First, to explore the emotion of grief by reviewing the most prominent approaches that have attempted to understand it, and secondly to explore the modernized ways of mourning through social media. Since the advent of technology and newer forms of digital platforms the utilization of networking sites have significantly increased. This has set the tone for the present discussion since interacting with the internet especially through social media have become an integral part of every individuals lifestyle. Social networking sites have become a common site for reaching out to others for a sense of support and connection - it has also become a site to express grief and bereavement. The present paper attempts to bring together existing literature on how digital spaces have proven to be extraordinarily therapeutic for grieving individuals. The commentaries and studies swing between conflicting forms of evidence - on the one hand, grieving through social media is pointing to becoming a formalized death ritual in the 21st century, while on the other hand highlighting certain morbidities that expressions on social media prove to be, which seem to trivialize the very emotion of grief. While the sincerity of such forms of expression continue to be questioned, the reality of mourning through digital platforms must be acknowledged.
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