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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 2
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Spirituality as a predictor of positive mental health among adolescents with alcoholic addicted fathers
Page 98-108
Liliya John and Deepali Sharma Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore, Karnatak

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The role played by spirituality in promoting mental and physical health is widely established in the literature. Research on the relationship between spirituality and mental health among the adolescent population is an upcoming area of exploration and study. The present study aimed at assessing whether spirituality predicts positive mental health among adolescents with fathers who were addicted to alcohol. The participants of the study who were chosen using purposive sampling consisted of 60 adolescent children of alcoholics, aged between 16 and 19 years, pursuing pre-university and degree courses. Information on the spirituality of the adolescents was collected using the Spiritual Involvement and Belief Scale and mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory. The study employed a predictive correlational research design under the quantitative paradigm. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression. The results of the study partially refuted the hypothesis which stated that spirituality was a predictor of positive mental health among adolescents with alcoholic fathers. The findings identified spirituality as a predictor of various dimensions of mental health such as depression, loss of emotional/behavioural control, emotional ties and general positive affect. The results also showed that spirituality was a predictor of psychological distress and psychological wellbeing experienced by the sample. However, spirituality alone was not found to be a predictor of positive mental health among the adolescents. The limitations, implications and directions for future research were also discussed.
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Spirituality as a predictor of positive mental health among adolescents with alcoholic addicted fathers
Page 98-108
Liliya John and Deepali Sharma Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore, Karnatak

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The role played by spirituality in promoting mental and physical health is widely established in the literature. Research on the relationship between spirituality and mental health among the adolescent population is an upcoming area of exploration and study. The present study aimed at assessing whether spirituality predicts positive mental health among adolescents with fathers who were addicted to alcohol. The participants of the study who were chosen using purposive sampling consisted of 60 adolescent children of alcoholics, aged between 16 and 19 years, pursuing pre-university and degree courses. Information on the spirituality of the adolescents was collected using the Spiritual Involvement and Belief Scale and mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory. The study employed a predictive correlational research design under the quantitative paradigm. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression. The results of the study partially refuted the hypothesis which stated that spirituality was a predictor of positive mental health among adolescents with alcoholic fathers. The findings identified spirituality as a predictor of various dimensions of mental health such as depression, loss of emotional/behavioural control, emotional ties and general positive affect. The results also showed that spirituality was a predictor of psychological distress and psychological wellbeing experienced by the sample. However, spirituality alone was not found to be a predictor of positive mental health among the adolescents. The limitations, implications and directions for future research were also discussed.
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Development and effectiveness of mindfullness based cognitive restructuring program on psychache and hopelessness as signals of suicidal ideation among adolescents
Page 109-115
Xavier Bindu and Marie Ann Vargas The Graduate School, University of Santo Thomas, Espana, Manila, Philippines

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Adolescence is a unique period in life span with wide range of developmental issues regarding transitions and challenges. In this developmental stage, adolescents are experiencing various types of stressors from family, peers, romantic partners and physical dissatisfaction with oneself. Stressful life situations lead to psychache which aggravate the individual to think suicide as the only solution for their problem. Suicidal risk increases when this unbearable psychological pain is associated with hopelessness. Psychache and hopelessness are the key signals of suicidal ideation. Suicide ideation is the first level of suicidal behavior and it is followed by suicidal plan and act. So the present study is focused to develop and assess the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Restructuring (MBCR) program to reduce the signals of suicidal ideation among adolescents' in Kerala, India. This study was conducted in two phases; Phase I: development of MBCR program and Phase II: the assessment of effectiveness of the MBCR program employing the true experimental research method particularly Between-Subjects: Two Independent Group Design. A total of 36 female adolescents from public schools in Kerala were randomly assigned into both experimental and control groups. The data analysis was done utilizing mean scores, paired samples statistics: t-test for independent samples and the effectiveness was measured by Cohen's d. The statistical analysis between the pre test and post test scores of the experimental group showed significant differences (p=.000) at 0.05 level and the scores of the control and experimental group showed significant difference (p=.000) in all the dependent variables in the post test. The results of the study revealed the effectiveness of the MBCR program significantly reducing psychache, hopelessness and suicidal ideation of the adolescents in experimental group as compared to the control group.
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An interpretative phenomenological analysis of coping in rejection sensitivity
Page 116-124
Brinda B. Sharma Department of Applied Psychology, Centre for Studies in Behavioural Science, Dibrugarh University, Assam

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One of the most intense needs in human beings is the need to be accepted by others. This need is severely thwarted among individuals high in rejection sensitivity. Rejection Sensitivity is the disposition to avidly anticipate, recognize and over-react to perceived rejection by others. Quantitative research and experimental observations have long supported a link between self-regulation as a coping mechanism and rejection sensitivity. However less is known about the process of how this comes about and little qualitative research has been conducted in the area. The current study aimed to gain an in depth understanding of the expression of self in countering Rejection Sensitivity. The study focused on the use of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) in order to find super ordinate themes from the account of four women, subjected to a semi-structured interview schedule. Through purposive sampling, the subjects were selected on the basis of being high in rejection sensitivity, having administered the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire (Downey & Feldman, 1996) on a sample of twenty-four women. Content Analysis of the transcripts of the interview saw the emergence of 4 major themes. These themes were then interpreted in light of Bandura's Self-efficacy theory. The results suggest-1) personal self-efficacy beliefs have significant implications on psychosocial outcomes in interpersonal situations 2) positive dynamics of self-efficacy emerge as an antecedent to the individual's adjustments in interpersonal relationships following secondary change 3) self-control, an important requisite in countering rejection in RS is founded on self-efficacy. The present findings suggest that the implication of self-efficacy on commitment and confidence work together to increase our persistence in the face of rejection and increase health behaviour by perceiving cues that counter self-fulfilling maladaptive responses to perceived rejection.
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Role of emotional responses in marital adjustment and satisfaction in couples undergoing infertility treatment
Page 125-130
Anubhuti Dubey and Shilpi Singh Department of Psychology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, UP

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The study tried to explore role of emotional responses in marital adjustment and satisfaction in couples undergoing for infertility treatment. Using quantitative approach, 74 infertile couples (74 IVF & 74 ICSI) (Total N=148) had rated their emotional responses, marital adjustment and satisfaction during infertility treatment. The findings of multiple regression analysis revealed that in IVF group and in male group of participants, particularly, positive affectivity and intensity of positive emotions and intensity of negative emotions emerged as best predictors of marital adjustment. Furthermore, positive emotion responses were emerged as best predictors for marital satisfaction in both IVF and ICSI groups. The findings are discussed in the light of the role of positive affectivity and intensity of positive emotions in stressed situation like undergoing infertility treatment.
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Gandhian virtues: The mantra for peaceful co-existence and spiritual growth
Page 131-136
Shruti Sharma Department of Psychology, SUS College of Research and Technology, SUS Group of Institutions, Tangori, Mohali

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Peaceful Co-existence is one of the fundamental norm guiding international relations and providing a practical way in solving disputes as it compasses Mutual respect for each other, non-aggression, non-interference and equity, thus it incorporates Gandhian philosophy to promote peace and Harmony. Gandhism is a body of ideas and principles that describes the inspiration, vision and the life work of Mahatma Gandhi. It is particularly associated with his contributions to the idea of Non-violent Resistence. The term "Gandhism" also encompasses what Gandhi's ideas, words and actions mean to people around the world, and how they used them for guidance in building their own future. The pivotal and defining element of Gandhism is satya, a Sanskrit word usually translated into English as truth, whose literal meaning is 'what actually is' (deriving from the root verb as meaning 'to be'). Gandhism is more about the spirit of Gandhi's journey to discover the truth, than what he finally considered to be the truth. The relevance of Gandhian virtues like Ahimsa, Sarvatra Bhaya Varjana (fearlessness), Sarva Dharma Samanatva (Respect for all Faiths), Brahmacharya(Discipline), Aswada (Control of the palate), in modern context is found in the form of Gandhigiri. Gandhigiri is a relatively new term in India which is used to express the tenets of Gandhism, the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi which include Satyagraha, Non-violence and Truth) in contemporary terms. The term became popular due to its usage in the 2006 Hindi film, Lage Raho Munna Bhai. As a colloquial expression in various languages in India including Marathi, Hindi and Tamil, "Gandhigiri" refers to the practice of the ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. It is a colloquial form of Gandhism. Gandhism (or Gandhianism) is a term which attempts to summarize the philosophies of Mahatma Gandhi. Ghandhigiri denotes modifying one's principle and lifestyle reflecting the moral principles of Satya, Ahinsa and Ekta as practiced in real life by Mahatma
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Biopsychology of positive mental health: Biological substrates of human flourishing
Page 137-144
Vandana Gambhir Nee Chopra Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The trend of neurobiology and physiology predicting and causing behavior is not a new fact. Many physical and mental illnesses and diseases have been attributed to biological mechanisms. However, with the advent of positive psychology, empirical research has now been shifted from mental ill health to positive mental health. Of critical importance in this view is mapping the biological substrates of dimensions of positive health and human flourishing. This article documents some of the recent developments in the field of biopsychology and positive mental health states. It examines the causes and consequences of positive behaviors from biological and neuroscience perspectives. A brief summary of conceptual understanding on the topics of biopsychology and positive psychology with recent research endeavors in the two domains are presented. Amidst diverse formulations of what constitutes positive mental health, the key components of positive mental health states are reported. Various categories of illustrative studies linking neuropsychological processes with positive states are described along with future directions for understanding the biology of positive health. The article hopes to stimulate additional work and lead to new insights concerning interplay between positive psychology and neuroscience and, in so doing, enrich both areas of inquiry.
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A study of the effect of marital status, employment status and religion on psychological well being of Hindu and Muslim females
Page 145-149
Chinky Upadhyaya Department of Psychology, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, U.P.

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of marital status, employment status and religion on psychological well being of Hindu and Muslim female subjects. The sample was consisted of 160 Hindu and Muslim female subjects of age range 25 to 35 years taken from different localities of Meerut city. A 2x2x2 factorial research design was employed in the study. The data was collected with the help of Hindi adaptation of Ryff's Psychological Well being Scale. Obtained data were statistically analyzed by mean, SD and ANOVA. The result indicated that marital status, employment status and religion were found to be effective on psychological well being of female subjects. The results were discussed in the light of empirical studies.
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Effect of personality on working memory capacity
Page 150-154
Shalini Dubey and Indramani L. Singh Cognitive Science Laboratory, Department of Psychology Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P., Sudha Srivastava Department of Psychology Vasant Kanya Mahavidyalai, Varanasi, U.P.

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The present study was conducted to investigate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and the constituents of EPQ-R, especially trait measures relating to neuroticism and extraversion.125 participants volunteered (Mean age= 20.96, SD= ± 1.33), out of which 59 were female and 67 were males, to participate in the present study. EPQ-R questionnaire was used to measure personality and modified Automated operation span task (AOSPAN) was adapted to measure working memory capacity of participants. It is a dual task condition in which participants were required to perform memory task as well as simple mathematical equations. Participants had to recall letters in order of presentation in each set with maintaining minimum 80% accuracy on mathematical portion of the task. Results revealed that extravert participants showed superior working memory capacity than introvert and ambivert participants. Moreover, high neuroticism group perform shoddier on WM task in comparison to low and intermediate neuroticism group.
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Time for a change: Appling Gandhian perspective for a fulfilling and contented life
Page 155-159
Nisha Chaudhary and N.K. Chadha Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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India is a land of Buddha and Gandhi. It has given birth to intellectuals like Ambedkar and Swami Vivekananda. Morals, values and tradition of this country has made every resident to be proud of been an Indian. But the time is changing rapidly, leading an average Indian to move away from its traditional values of love, peace, contentment and empathy. This paper is a journey, leading to understanding of problems been build on by the current generation and how the solutions could be searched from our Vedic tradition. The thinking process called Hinduism and its perception by Mahatma Gandhi, could lead to practical solutions of the existing 21st century problems and can even teach human being to live a peaceful co- existence with other beings.
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Happiness in IT professionals: Does it depend upon organizational role stress or stressful life events?
Page 160-162
Anindita Mukherjee Clinical Psychologist, CUIIPP Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, Atanu Kumar Dogra and Saranya Banerjee Department of Psychology University of Calcutta, Calcutta

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In the present study, researchers want to compare happy and unhappy IT professionals in terms of perception of stressful life events and organizational role stress. The study comprises a sample of 100 male married individuals, age ranging between 28-32 years, with an educational qualification of B.Tech and currently employed in IT sector. Each of the subject was individually assessed by Personal Information Schedule, Organizational Role Stress Scale (Pareek, 1981), Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale (Singh et al., 1984) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002). On the basis of median value of happiness, data of the sample are split into two groups- 1st group- below the median value and 2nd group- equal and above the median value. Inferential t-tests were done to find out the significant difference between the two groups on the basis of role stress and stressful life events. Results reveal that there is significant difference between the two groups with regard to four dimensions of organizational role stress, i.e., role ambiguity, role expectation conflict, self role distance and personal in adequacyat .05 level of significance but there is no significant difference in terms of stressful life events.
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Role of social support in combating psychological distress among senior secondary school students
Page 163-168
Fareeda Shaheen Post-Doctoral Fellow (PDF-ICSSR) Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P., Musaddiq Jahan Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh, U.P.

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Purpose of the study was to investigate the role of social support in combating psychological distress among senior secondary school students. The sample was comprised of 200 (100 male and 100 female) students from senior secondary school of Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) was used for measuring social support and PGI Health questionnaire N-1 (Werma, Wig, & Prashad, 1985) was used for measuring psychological distress. t-test and correlation was used for analyzing the data. Result showed that there was significant negative correlation between social support and psychological distress. In gender differences, it was found that male students scored significantly higher on social support in comparison to female students. Further it was also found that female students scored significantly higher on psychological distress in comparison to male students.
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Resilience and spirituality among sexually abused victims
Page 169-172
Komal Chandiramani Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Trauma is one of the most significant and unavoidable outcomes of a violent conflict. One such trauma in a conflict zone that may have multiple impacts on the mental, social and emotional functioning of the individual is sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is an abuse of a sexual nature on another person, or any sexual act committed without consent. Following a trauma such as sexual assault, an individual is confronted with extreme stress that requires coping with a new, unexpected, and unfamiliar situation. Positive psychological changes like resilience and spirituality help the rape victim to redefine self. So, the objective of the present study was to compare sexually abused victims and non abused individuals on the measures of resilience with its subtypes, spirituality and to examine their relationship. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relation among the measures of resilient with its subtypes and spirituality among female trauma victims with sexual assault and non-abused individuals. The sample consisted of 60 adult females out of which 30 were sexually abused and rest 30 did not report any incident of sexual abuse. The Spirituality and Resilience Assessment Packet by Kass (2000) was administered on both the groups and a two group design was incorporated to meet the objectives. The results revealed significant difference between the two groups indicating that the mean scores of sexually abused group were higher as compared to non abused group. Also significant correlations were found between the various types of resilience and spirituality indicating difference between means for both the groups. Hence, it can be concluded that an increase in these factors were associated with increases in self-reported positive life changes over time. Further research on related topics, based on the findings of the present and other studies, will undoubtedly advance our understanding of the positive psychological changes following sexual abuse.
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A study of forgiveness and empathy: A gender difference
Page 173-177
Savitri B. Marigoudar and Shanmukh V. Kamble Department of Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka

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The present study is carried out with the purpose of investigating the difference between male and female post-graduate students on forgiveness and empathy. One hundred and five post-graduate students were randomly chosen from social science departments of Karnatak University, Dharwad. Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness Scale developed by Worthington, Jr et al. (2007) and Batson's Empathy Adjectives developed by Batson et al. (1986) were used to measure forgiveness and empathy of the sample group. The results revealed that female post-graduate students found to have higher forgiveness and empathy compared to male post-graduate students. Further, the study also revealed that there is a significant positive correlation between forgiveness and empathy. Revealed results will give a prevailing picture of the status, in terms of students needs and through REACH therapy these students will be benefited for their personal and career growth.
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Story: An aid to positive child development
Page 178-182
Suvashisa Rana, Meera Padhy, Ruth Angiel Padiri, Durgesh Nandinee and Kallavarappu Vincent Centre for Health Psychology, University of Hyderabad, Central University, Gachibowli, Hyderabad

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This theoretical paper highlights how story plays a multi-faceted positive role on the developmental process of the child. Listening, reading and writing stories foster child's perception, memory, thinking, language, intelligence, feeling and emotion. Piaget and Kolhberg have used story to find out the aspects of moral development. Through stories the child also learns to communicate effectively and strengthens interpersonal relationships. By listening and reading stories about great personalities, the child involves in role-taking behavior where he/she puts him/herself into another person's (role-model) position and imagines how that person thinks, feels and behaves. Stories are also used for therapeutic purposes for all age groups. Widely accepted projective tests, like Children's Apperception Test, Thematic Apperception Test, analyse an individual's personality through stories. There are many indigenous examples, where we find the relevance of story and parables in shaping the behavior of the child and the overall development of personality. Story, as an aid to positive child development, has a wide implication for the physical, psychological, social, moral and spiritual development, not only during childhood, but also its ripple-effect could be observed during later phases of life.
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Impact of adverse childhood experiences on mental health: A retrospective study
Page 183-186
Ria Saha Department of Applied Psychology University of Calcutta, Kolkata, Anjali Giressan and Sibnath Deb Department of Applied Psychology Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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The study examined the impact of adverse childhood experiences on mental health of a group of 400 undergraduate students (221 females and 189 males) especially on self-esteem, satisfaction with life, feeling of security and suicidal ideation. Findings revealed that 70.8% (283/400) of the students experienced some form of adverse childhood experiences (57.5% males and 81.4% females). Out of the total of 283 subjects who experienced some form of abuse, about 49.5% (198/400), 37.8% (151/400), and 27% (108/400) of them experienced verbal/ psychological, physical, and sexual abuse respectively during childhood while 25.5% (102/400) witnessed violence in the family. A good number of them had multiple adverse childhood experiences. So far as impact of abuse on mental health is concerned, a direct link was found between childhood adverse experience and low self-esteem (p<0.001), and feeling of security (p<0.001). A significant difference was found between abused male and female students with respect to their self-esteem (p< 0.01), feeling of security (p<0.05) and life satisfaction (p <0.001) scores. Abused students, especially females were found to be more likely to develop a negative image about themselves and their lives than that of non-abused students. Suicidal ideation was more prevalent among abused students, irrespective of gender as compared to non-abused ones (p<0.05).
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Enhancing students' life through stress reduction exercises in yoga
Page 187-191
Divya Raina Pacific University, Udaipur, Rajasthan and Geeta Balodi M.K.P(P.G) College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

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Since the 1970's, meditation and other stress-reduction techniques have been studied as possible treatments for depression and anxiety. One such practice, yoga, has received less attention in the medical literature, though it has become increasingly popular in recent decades. Yoga in today's time has been recognized as the best possible approach towards stress reduction and as personality enhancement technique. Today the medical sciences too have recognized its importance and recommend the same in as practices for healthy lifestyle. The present study was conducted on 100 school going girls of Dehradun state of Uttarakhand, India, between the age group of 16-17yrs. Pre and Post-test were conducted on the students using an adjustment inventory and battery of stress scales measuring areas like academic, institutional, self- concept etc. After the pre testing conditions students were exposed to a well-designed three months yoga training sessions for stress reduction employing relaxation techniques and exercises after which the post-test was conducted. The study revealed mean adjustment levels going high in the categories of excellent and good on the scale after the training, while also moving from high stress to low stress in various stress areas as measured. Thus the study reveals the crippling effect of the increasing everyday stress which can easily be eradicated from our lives through simple and inexpensive approach of moving towards yoga.
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Efficacy of ABA programme for children with autism to improve general development, language and adaptive behaviour
Page 192-195
E. Sambandam Department of Clinical Psychology Aarupadai Veedu Medical College and Hospital, Vinayaka Missions University, Commune, Puducherry , K. Rangaswami Department of Clinical Psychology, Sweekar Rehabilitation Institute for Handicapped, Secundrabad and S. Thamizharasan Department of Audiology & Speech Pathology, SRM Medical College Hospital & Research Centre, SRM University, Kattangulathur, Kanchipuram

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Applied behaviour analysis (ABA) refers to the basic theories of behaviour developed by Watson (1913), Thorndike (1921) and Skinner (1938) and later by other authors. Teaching methods based on ABA, include the research-based instructional strategies used with (1) Discrete Trial Training (DTT), it is effective for teaching academic and receptive language skills. (2) Pivotal Response Training (PRT), to teach expressive language, play, increasing generalization and social interaction skills and (3) Teaching Functional Routines (FR), daily routines and self-care skills are taught using this strategy (Arick & Falco, 1989; Krantz et al., 1993). The ABA strategies provide a powerful tool for enabling children with autism to meet important daily living skills and special educational aspects. The aim of the study was to conduct ABA programme on 15 children with autism to evaluate the usefulness of ABA based comprehensive treatment and to compare with a group of 15 children with autism receiving treatment as usual. pre and post intervention model was used. Instruments validated were used to assess the severity of the disorder, developmental levels, language and adaptive functioning before starting intervention and one year after treatment. Instruments used are Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II), Receptive Expressive Emergent Language Scale (REELS) and Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). Paired “t” test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data obtained. Results: the findings revealed that the intervention group showed significant improvement in relation to symptoms reduction and improvement in Specific behaviours compare to control group. The overall score on CARS showed that the severity level of the intervention group had shown significant changes in the positive direction. Improvements in various developmental areas were seen in DDST-II. Similarly significant improvements in receptive, expressive langua
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Self-disclosure of college students in context to their gender, educational stream and type of family
Page 196-198
Anjana S. Chauhan and Gandharva R. Joshi Department of Psychology, Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujrat

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In the present study an attempt has been made to study the effect of Gender, Educational stream and type of family of college students on their self disclosure. In order to pursue above objective Virendra Sinha's Self-Disclosure Inventory was used to collect data. The sample considered of 150 (75 male/75 female) College students selected from various colleges. 25 students were those who have Arts Stream 25 students were those who have commerce stream and 25 students were those who have science stream. Data were analyzed by 2X3 ANOVA, L.S.D. and t- test. Findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between self disclosure of male and female students. However there is significant difference found between educational stream on self disclosure of students as well as type of family and self disclosure of college students.
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Resilience in midlife
Page 199-201
Jayanthy P. Nair Department of Social Work, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala and M. I. Joseph and Anjana K.A Department of Psychology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala

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Recently, the field of mental health has seen shift in focus from a deficit oriented approach to a strength- based approach associated with healthy adjustment mechanisms ,such as resilience. Although stress affects people of all ages, it is during midlife that the effects become most apparent. When faced with small scale set-backs, some people pick themselves up and get on with life. Little focus is given to the positive outcomes, how people manage their stresses, how will they adjust to their adversities. The present study examined the relationship between resilience, anxiety and depression among middle aged. A sample of 100 middle aged people were randomly drawn from Aluva Taluk (50 males and females). The age of the respondents ranged from 40-60.The results revealed significant negative correlations between resilience, anxiety and depression and there was significant gender difference for resilience.
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Associating beck's cognitive behaviour therapy with progressive muscular relaxation technique in treatment of major depression: A case report
Page 202-205
Neharshi Department of Psychology, H.N.B. Gharwal University, Srinagar, U.K.

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The present study attempts to treat Major Depression in relation to Beck's Cognitive Behavior Therapy (BCBT) and Progressive Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT). The study attempts to diagnose and treat a 32 years male client. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the level of depression of client. The treatment proceed in certain steps such as in starting 12 sessions, the client was treated with PMRT along with Motivational Counseling to ready the client for CBT. Once it was assured that the client is motivated and ready for counseling. He was also given sessions of CBT. The sessions of both therapies that PMRT and CBT were given simultaneously to the client. The client had taken total 28 sessions of one hour of each therapy. After the completion of treatment (6 months), it was found that the persistence of positive changes in the patient's life like continuing his job, attending parties, taking inertest in those hobbies in which he lost interest before the CBT and PMRT.
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Attitude towards self and others as predictor of social adjustment
Page 206-208
Poonam R. Das and Anjum F. Shah Department of Psychology, St. John's College, Agra, U.P.

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The purpose of the study aims to explore the attitude towards self and others as a determinant of social adjustment. Social Adjustment Inventory by Roma Pal and The Self-Others Questionnaire by Dr. E.L. Phillips were administered on 150 subjects (75 boys and 75 girls) aged 16-20 years selected from different intermediate colleges of Agra. Data was statistically analysed by using chi-square. The study concludes that (a) adolescents having favourable attitude towards self and others are well and moderately socially adjusted (b) the study also concludes that subjects having favourable attitude towards self will have favourable attitude towards others also (c) boys have more favourable attitude towards self and others as compared to girls(d)girls were found to be better socially adjusted than boys.
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Emotional intelligence: Implications for counseling and psychotherapy
Page 209-212
Shaheena Parveen and M. Shafiq Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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In the last few decades, researchers have reiterated the importance of emotional intelligence as an imperative predictor of success at the academic, interpersonal, professional, and organizational levels. The scrutiny of this relationship has also been extended to the outcomes in domains of counseling and psychotherapy. However, further research must be conducted to accumulate evidence for such a relationship and decipher the mechanisms underlying it. Like self-awareness, emotional intelligence of a counselor or a psychotherapist has been regarded as an important dimension for a successful counseling process. Numerous empirical studies conducted in the West have examined the role of emotional intelligence in predicting the outcomes of counseling and psychotherapy in different settings. It has been found, for example, that emotional intelligence factors successfully predict counseling self-efficacy of both counseling students and practicing counselors. The objective of the present paper is to provide a review of the theoretical perspectives and empirical studies, which have been carried out worldwide, outlaying the importance of emotional intelligence in the fields of counseling and psychotherapy. In addition, the need for carrying out such studies in the Indian context along with their implications has also been discussed.
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Career and emotional self-awareness: Micro initiatives for macro impact
Page 213-215
Amir Prasad Behera and Prajna Pani Department of English, JITM, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Paralakhemundi

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The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of emotional self-awareness in career and success, explore the emotional self-awareness competency level of Engineering and Management students in Southern Odisha and suggest the strategies to enhance the prospects of career success with micro initiatives. Self-awareness is tuning in to what is going on with one emotionally: recognizing and acknowledging emotional state. By developing emotional self-awareness, one will be able to effectively guide one's behaviour, improve judgment, develop bonding and connection, and help to identify opportunities for professional development and personal growth. To find out the self-awareness literacy level, 80 students of Engineering and Management were randomly selected as participants who responded to a well-structured questionnaire based on one of the core competencies taken from intrapersonal factor of Bar On/EQ-i model. The result of the study is measured on a five-point scale. The study reveals the self- awareness scores of the student participants, and discusses the need to understand the inner values for macro impact. The emotions of confidence, self-esteem, capability, efficacy, and potentiality continually well up and flow from this deepest level of self-awareness.
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Internet usage in college: A comparison of users and non users in relation to self-esteem and satisfaction with life
Page 216-222
Deepika Shekhawat and Pushpa Singh Rathore Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Is it possible to differentiate between college students who are users and non users of internet services? Do the internet services have an impact on their satisfaction with life and self esteem? The present study aims to answer questions like these and more on the basis of data collected from a group of young college going students. Various questionnaires were filled by four hundred students from various colleges of Jaipur city, to assess the impact online activities have on their psychological being. Statistical measures like t test and ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences between students who used internet services as compared to those who did not with regard to their satisfaction with life and self esteem.
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