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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 1
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

The effectiveness of healthy lifestyle on psychological well-being and academic motivation among female students
Page 1-4
Mahsa Ghadiri Khorzoghi, Department of Counselling, Marvdasht Branch Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran and Hossein Aflakifard Department of Educational Sciences Farhangian University, Iran

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This study examines the effectiveness of psychological well-being of healthy lifestyle and motivation of high school students in Isfahan four regions was. The study of quasi-experimental, pretest - posttest control group design was used. The population consisted of all secondary school students in four districts Isfahan in 2013-2014 was, the first 100 patients were randomly selected and then 40 students (20 girls in the experimental group and 20 girls in the control group) who had more problems on a scale of motivation and psychological well-being were selected as sample. To collect the data, and psychological well-being in Zanjani Tabasi (2004), academic motivation Harter (1981) was used. To analyze the data from the analysis of covariance was used. The results showed a significant effect on psychological well-being and healthy life style education and their students' motivation has increased.
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Forecast welfare psychological wellbeing of children based on child rearing methods by parents and family communication patterns
Page 5-8
Elham Amirshamsi and Aminallah Fazel Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran and Seyedeh Maryam Hosseini Department of Psychology, Marvdasht Branch Islamic Azad University, ‎ Marvdasht, Iran

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This study examined the anticipation of parenting styles and family communication patterns for psychological well-being in young children of employees of Islamic Azad University of Marvdasht. The study population included 196 young children of employees. In correlational study 100 young children with the mean age 16 were selected through available sampling. Instruments included short form of Reef psychological well-being scale, Alabama parenting style questioner (1997) and family communication patterns of Koerner and Fitzpatrik. Correlation and multiple regressions were used for data analysis. Results showed that psychological well being had positive significant relationship with conformation pattern and negative significant relationship with communication pattern. Also psychological wellbeing had significant relationship with positive parenting and cooperation of father and significant negative relation with physical punishment and authority of parents.
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Subjective well-being of tribal and non-tribal people in relation to psychological needs
Page 9-14
Kazi Nur Hossain, Department of Psychology Jagannath University, Bangladesh, Muhammad Alamgir Hossain and Lisa Paul Department of Psychology,University of Chittagong Chittagong, Bangladesh, and Rumana Ferdousi Siddique Department of Psychology University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

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The present study investigated the relationship between psychological need constructs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and various dimensions of subjective well-being. The sample consisted of 200 participants (52% male; 48.5% tribal) conveniently selected from Khagrachari. The instruments used were: (1) Bangla Version (IIyas, 2001) of Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), (2) Bangla version (Ilays, 2002) of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, and Tellegan, 1988), and (3) Bangla version (Hossain, 2013) of the Psychological Need Satisfaction Questionnaire (Deci & Ryan, 2001). The findings revealed that all the psychological need constructs were significantly correlated among themselves for both tribal and non-tribal people, with one exception that relatedness and competence were not significantly related for non-tribal people. As expected, all of the need constructs were significantly associated with positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction for tribal people, with two exceptions: autonomy and competence were not significantly correlated with positive affect and life satisfaction respectively. Again, findings showed that the relatedness need was significantly correlated with positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction for non-tribal people. And, autonomy was significantly related with life satisfaction. The group type analyses revealed that levels of the outcome measures were not different within tribal compared to non-tribal except for negative affect. Simultaneous regression analyses indicated that the three needs were differentially related to the different dimensions of subjective well-being indicators, and also suggested that relatedness may be the most important need of subjective well-being.
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An effective innovative intervention program (combining emotion-focused cognitive therapy and acupuncture) for the treatment of patients with depressive symptoms
Page 15-20
Zunxia Zhang and Rosalito de. Guzman, The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Espana Boulevard, 1015 Manila, Philippines

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The aim of this research was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Program to treat depression, by combining emotion-focused cognitive therapy with acupuncture. A total of 30 patients, suffering from depression was selected and randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental (15), who received the innovative intervention program; and a control group (15), who just continued to receive their usual care. Three psychological tests (BDI-II, Zung SDS, and HRSD) were administered to both groups both before and after the implementation of the program. The pre-test and post-test scores of the experimental group showed significant differences (p=0.000) at 0.05 levels. The scores of the control group and experimental groups showed significant differences (P=0.000 or 0.001) in the post-test. This Innovative Intervention Program (CEFCTA) had a significant influence in reducing the level of depression for adult sufferers.
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Relationship between organizational culture and innovation with the mediation of job enrichment in the Fars governor's staff
Page 21-25
Hojjat Ali Salimi and Mahbobeh Chin Aveh Department of Psychology, Arsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arsanjan, Iran

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The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational culture and innovation with the mediation of job enrichment in the Fars governor's staff. The sample of 175 employees with sampling was available in Fars governor. Participants completed Denison organizational culture questionnaire, Hackman & Oldham job enrichment and Kimer Siegel organizational innovation. Using simultaneous and regression method by using the theoretical model proposed by Baron and Kenny were analyzed. The results are based on the hypothesis that organizational culture is a predictor of innovation. Organizational culture is also a predictor of job enrichment. Job enrichment is as predictor of creativity and innovation. The findings support the mediating role of job enrichment between the relationship of organizational culture, and innovation.
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The role of attachment styles and components of emotional intelligence to predict rational intelligence in the applicant's intellectual development certificate referring of forensic medicine in Shiraz
Page 26-29
Elahe Zakerinia and Ali Kamkar Department of Psychology, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran

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The aim of this study was to predict the rational intelligence based on attachment styles and emotional intelligence components in the applicant's intellectual development certificate referring of Forensic Medicine in Shiraz. This research was descriptive. For this purpose, the sample was selected 150 patients referred to Forensic Medicine in Shiraz. Collins and Reid attachment styles questionnaire, emotional intelligence questionnaire and Raven General Intelligence was used. Data was analyzed by regression. The results showed that anxious attachment was significant able to predict negative rational intelligence in the applicant's intellectual development certificate referring of Forensic Medicine in Shiraz. But the other two dimensions of attachment (approaching and dependency) were not able to predict the rational intelligence. In addition, evaluation of emotions was significant able to predict the rational intelligence. But two other components of emotional intelligence (emotional regulation, utilization of emotions) were not able to predict the rational intelligence. So can be conclude that through some attachment styles and emotional intelligence components can be predicted rational intelligence in this group and by emotional intelligence training and attachment styles, will be promote the rational intelligence.
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Perceived choice as a mediating factor between self-awareness and obsessive-compulsive symptoms among emerging adults
Page 30-33
Prachi Bhavesh Sanghvi and V. Premanand St. Agnes Centre for Post-Graduate Studiesand Research, Bendoor, Mangalore

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Obsessive-compulsive symptoms generally have an onset prior to age 25. If they exist in evident degree, they are by and large, hampering. Self-awareness is associated with good clinical outcome in case of obsessive-compulsive disorder. It gives a person an opportunity to choose different ways of being. People with increased self-awareness are more likely to accept themselves and the responsibilities resulting from their choices as well as actions. As result of it, past literature suggest that obsessive-compulsive symptoms reduce. In this context, it was assumed that perceived choice will mediate between self-awareness and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Therefore, the current research aimed to study the role of Perceived Choice as a mediating factor between Self-Awareness and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms among emerging adults. Two hundred and eighty seven emerging adults(M= 133, F=154) participated in this study. Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and Self-Determination Scale were used to measure the study variables and mediation analysis was done. The results revealed that Perceived Choice partially mediates between Self-Awareness and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms with statistical significance level of χ2 (0) =.000, p > .000. Implications of the study include understanding the way in which these variables influence the symptoms and incorporating them in the therapeutic procedures accordingly.
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The effectiveness of a couple's reality therapy on increasing education of couples performance in the Isfahan
Page 34-38
Akram Ghorbani and Nazanin Honarparvaran Department of Counselling, Marvdash Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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This study was going to effects reality therapy on increasing Couples performance the education in Isfahan city. in order to access the upon purpose 30 person outwardly selection as a sample among all of the Esfahan city education ladies for answer to the research questionnaire, that outwardly 15 person were in the experiment group and 15 person were in the control grouped. The respect witness to importance and shallow of research means (we watch in the 3 article) impress that importance and shallow of searched means was acceptable the search obtain analyze with using of statistic method of covariance analysis. The result if search demonstrate that treatment reality instruction author the improvement of ladies revenue and the treatment reality instruction author the improvement of stamp and duty of family members, improvement the resolving of families member problem and improvement of families sentiment analysis.
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Resilience and psychological well-being among destitute adolescents
Page 39-43
Jesline Maria Martin Mamen, Department of Psychology, Kuriakose Elias College Mannanam, Kottayam, Kerala and Anju Dias Department of Counselling Psychology Loyola College of Social Sciences, Sreekaryam, Kerala

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Adolescents undergo a lot of crisis during their developmental stage. Early separations from parents, deprivation of parental care, love, security, acceptance and discipline during adolescence have a detrimental effect on the psychological well-being of adolescents. This study explores the relationship between resilience and psychological wellbeing among destitute adolescents. The participants (N=160) consisting of both male (N=80) and female (N=80) adolescents in the age range of 13-17 years, were conveniently selected from various destitute homes in Thiruvananthapuram city, Kerala. Brief Resilience Scale and Psychological Wellbeing Scale were administered to collect the data from the participants. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's Rank Correlation method were used to analyze the data. Results revealed statistically significant relationship between the resilience and psychological wellbeing among destitute adolescents. The findings of the study show that adolescents living in destitute homes have low resilience and psychological wellbeing. The study also suggests implications to improve the coping mechanisms and well-being of adolescents in destitute homes.
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Depression and treatment under Islam
Page 44-47
Hena Fatma, Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP and Munawwar Husain Department of Forensic Medicine Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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''In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful'' “What does Islam say regarding self-hatred and self-harm? Does Islam condemn situational depression? What about clinical depression? What about depression over our limited human knowledge -our inability to fully understand everything- is it a trust issue with Allah (SWT)?” This is a very interesting issue, because according to psychological studies, in modern era a considerable percentage of people alive are subject to several kind of depression including small children. There are many reasons for depression such as personal, social and economical matters. In present competitive world, people are continuously struggle for achieving success in their life. Sometime, they achieve their goal while defeated and feel defeated, helpless and depressed. The Islamic system aims to create balance in a Muslim's life, by putting life matters into perspective, rearranging our accordingly, harmonizing all circles of relationships between the individual and his inner or outer environments.
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A study on marital quality of couples from urban area
Page 48-54
Papia Mukherjee, Anindita Chaudhuri and Sonali De Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

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The joint family system has been one of the salient features of the Indian society since a long era. The enormous changes in the family system has documented over a period of century which increases the freedom of marital choice, greater involvement of females in decision making regarding family matter, rises level of education among women, greater conflict between husband and wife, incidence of separation and divorce. Changes in the traditional family system are steadily diminishing the joint family structure from the urban scene. Thus, the present study explores how the love attitude, feeling of security and motivation to acquire relationship threatening information of couples contribute to the marital quality of spouses from urban area in the present era. The sample consisted of 15 couples from joint family and 15 couples from nuclear family. The age of the participants ranged from 30 to 50 years, with minimum five years of length of marriage, from middle to higher socio economic group, at least graduate and having at least one offspring. The participants completed Love Attitude Scale, Indian Adaptation of Maslow's Security-Insecurity feeling Inventory, Motivation to Acquire Relationship Threatening Information Scale and Martial Quality Scale. The data were analyzed using Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis (SMRA) separately for females from joint family, females from nuclear family, males from joint family, and males from nuclear family. Result showed that Erotic Love contributes 20.8% to marital quality for the group of female from joint family and 15.9% to marital quality for the female from nuclear family. Thus, erotic love contributes to marital quality as a whole for the wives from joint as well as nuclear family. On the other hand Pragmatic Love contributes 19.9% to marital quality in case of male from nuclear family. In case of male from joint family, Feelings of security contributes 18.8% to the marital quality but, the result signifies that feeling o
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Exploring connections between students' psychological sense of school membership and their resilience, self-efficacy, and leadership skills
Page 55-59
Bhumika Kapoor and Aakanksha Tomar Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi

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There is a general consensus that children's experiences in school have a substantial bearing on various psycho-social outcomes in their lives. However, while much research has explored the impact of children's social experiences in school on their academic performance, there is relatively little empirical evidence that connects these with non-academic consequences. We contend that of the varied experiences that students have in the school context, their sense of belongingness or membership with their school, that is, the degree to which students feel accepted, respected, included, and supported in school, may be of prime importance. With this in the backdrop, this research aims to seek whether a relationship exists between students' psychological sense of school membership and their resilience, self-efficacy, and leadership skills. It was hypothesized that a high sense of school membership will be positively associated with resilience, self-efficacy, and leadership skills. To this end, standardized instruments to measure these four constructs were administered on a large sample of students (N=200) aged between 14 and 17 years, chosen from private English-medium schools in Delhi and NCR. The data was analysed using Pearson's r. Results confirmed the hypothesis. Both theoretical and practical implications of the same will be discussed.
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Dynamics of optimism, anxiety and coping strategies in residents of Vishakhapatnam affected by Hudhud Cyclone: An ex-post facto study
Page 60-64
Geeta Sunkarapalli, Neha Taparia and Tina Fernandes Department of Psychology St. Francis College for Women, Hyderabad and Aarti Nagpal Centre for Health Psychology University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad

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Optimism as defined by Scheier and Carver is the global generalized tendency to believe that one will generally experience good versus bad outcomes in life. The vague sense of being in danger is usually called anxiety. Coping strategies encompass cognitive and behavioural strategies used to manage stress situations or/and to attend negative emotions. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between Optimism, State and Trait Anxiety and Coping Strategies. A non-probability convenience sampling method was employed to select participants in the age group 20 - 60 years (men and women) from the city of Visakhapatnam. The Life Orientation Scale (Scheier et al., 1994), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adults by Charles D. Spielberger, 1977 and Coping Strategies Scale by A. K. Srivastava, 2001 were used to collect the data. The data analysis revealed significant positive correlations between Optimism and the five dimensions of Coping namely Behavioural Approach, Cognitive Approach, Cognitive Behavioural Approach, Behavioural Avoidance and Cognitive Avoidance and State and Trait Anxiety. The data analysis also revealed a significant negative correlation between State anxiety and Behavioural, Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioural Approaches of Coping and Trait anxiety and Behavioural and Cognitive Behavioural approaches of Coping. The within group design results show a significant difference between men and women in levels of Optimism and two dimensions of Coping namely Behavioural Approach and Cognitive Behavioural Approach. Providing psychosocial interventions to improve Optimism will facilitate anxiety reduction and effective coping.
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Effect of maternal employment on adolescents' development
Page 65-70
Nishat Afroz Department of Psychology, MMV, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the effect of maternal employment on the adolescents' development in terms of adjustment, achievement, emotional maturity and self-esteem.Sample consisted of 50 adolescents of employed mothers and 50 adolescents of Homemakers studying in 10th to 12th were selected randomly from the schools of Varanasi. Their age range was 15-17 years. Adjustment Inventory, Achievement Motive Scale, Emotional Maturity Scale and Self-Concept Scale were used to collect data. Data have been analysed by using descriptive analysis, t-test, and coefficient of correlation. Findings indicated that children's adjustment, achievement, emotional maturity are affected by maternal employment.
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The role of emotional intelligence on personality
Page 71-75
Anjali Edbor and Pankaj Singh N.K.P. Salve Institute of Medical Sciences, Digdoh Hills, Nagpur, Maharashtra

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The present paper is an attempt to examine the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and personality. It also examines the role of emotional intelligence in job performance. Sample for the study include 170 nurses' (55 male, and 65 female nurses') between the age group 22 to 30 years, at different medical institutions from central India Nagpur. The data were analysed with the help of compared “t” test, an analysis of variance showed a mean of male emotional intelligence 125.23, female 124.72, and t- value is 0.153, significant at p-value of 0.05 level. Based on this study it shows that, male & female nurse's high score of emotional intelligence they, can manage themselves strongly, focus on career, work in a team, have strong leadership quality, more focused and can maintain family / partner relationship, academic achievement, decision- making, and work positively.
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Character strengths and academic achievement in undergraduate college students
Page 76-83
Sabiha Alam Choudhury and Indranee P. Barooah Department of Psychology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam

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The present study aims to find the relationship between character strengths and academic achievement and thereby draw out the relevance of recognizing and utilizing character strengths for academic success of college students. Character strengths are the psychological ingredients for displaying human goodness and they serve as pathways for developing a life of greater virtue. While personality is the summary of our entire psychological makeup, character strengths are the positive components what is best in a person. The Value In Action (VIA) Classification is a widely used framework for helping individuals discover, explore, and use those qualities that are strongest in them their character strengths. The 24 VIA Character Strengths are universal across all aspects of life: work, school, family, friends, and community. The 24 character strengths fall under six broad virtues (wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance and transcendence) and encompass the capacities of individuals for helping themselves and others. A fertile setting for studying character strengths is the educational institute. Experiences in an educational institute are widely regarded as providing numerous opportunities for students to develop a variety of psychological dimensions including values, competencies, attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, identity, self-concept, and personality traits. Taking this relevant aspect into consideration the present study examined character strengths in relation to the academic performance among undergraduate college students of Guwahati city. In this study two colleges in Guwahati city affiliated to Gauhati University, were selected wherein a sample of 120 undergraduate students (60 males and 60 females) were included in the investigation. It was found that out of the 24 character strengths, a few strengths had a positive relation with academic achievement and resulted in good performance.
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Happiness and satisfaction with life among adults
Page 84-87
Jaisri M., Department of Psychology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kerala

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Happiness is a pleasant, transient, and blissful experience that everyone can feel but cannot define. Whereas, life satisfaction is the way a person evaluates his or her life and how he or she feels about where it is going in the future. Both happiness and life satisfaction are firm basis for the development of psychological as well as subjective well-being throughout the life span of an individual. In view of the above, the present study was an attempt to understand the level of happiness and life satisfaction among adults. The participants were 1513 adults belonging to the age range of 20 to 60 years, selected from Trichur and Ernakulam districts, Kerala. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills & Argyle, 2002), and The Satisfaction With Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) were administered to the adults and the obtained data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Duncan's post hoc test , and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results revealed no significant difference among the different groups of adults in their level of happiness. However, the late young adults had highest satisfaction with life while the early young adults had the least life satisfaction when compared to the other groups of adults. The results revealed significant relationship between happiness and life satisfaction.
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Evaluate the effectiveness of training imago-therapy on willingness to forgive in betrayed couples
Page 88-92
Ladan Ardalani, Zhaleh Refahi and Nazanin Honarparvaran Department of Counselling, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of communication illustration on willingness to forgive infidelity in couples had seen. A quasi-experimental design pretest - posttest with experimental and control groups, respectively. The population consisted of couples who divorce Justice Isfahan Due to the betrayal of wife Is. Sampling Samples are available for use. A sample of 10 couples who were who were divided into two groups: experimental and control. Groups in 6 sessions One hour (every week a meeting) were imago therapy intervention. Both interventions once before and once after the intervention Pollard family and co-workers responded to questions from the scale amnesty. Data using descriptive and inferential statistics including multivariate analysis of covariance were analyzed. Results showed that training in improvement imago therapy total score of forgiveness in women and in component recognition, Pay and compensation and to appease and women feel the impact of a significant act. The components will feel better and realistic understanding has not been effective. But imago therapy to improve the comfort and sense of forgiveness and its components except the action is not effective in men.
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Gender difference on emotional competence in reference to CBT intervention among depressed subjects
Page 93-96
Renuka Joshi and Kanchan Yadav Department of Psychology D.A.V. (PG) College, Dehradun, Uttaranchal

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The present study was conducted to determine the gender difference on Emotional Competence in reference to CBT intervention among individuals with depression. Probability sampling technique was used and the sample was chosen by stratified random sampling method. A total sample of 200 subjects within the age-range of 18-40 years were selected, using Anxiety, depression and stress scale developed by Pallavi Bhatnagar (2011). Out of which 100 males and 100 females were subjected to CBT intervention based on REBT model. Emotional competence scale developed by Sharma and Bhardwaj (2007) was employed to measure emotional competence and its dimensions before and after CBT intervention. Results indicated that the significant difference between pre and post CBT intervention on the level of depression of both male and female subjects was found.
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A study of empathy and self-confidence and their effect on job satisfaction of teachers
Page 97-99
Anil Bansidhar Wagh Department of Psychology, Dagdojirao Deshmukh College, Waluj, Aurangabad, Maharashtra

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Study investigated how empathy, self-confidence affects the job satisfaction of primary teachers of AMC school of Aurangabad city. Total 80(D.Ed. teachers) were randomly selected from Aurangabad municipal corporation schools to participate in the study. Two psychological tests were used to data collection. These tests are multivariable personality inventory by Dr. B.C. Muthayya and job satisfaction scale by Dr. Meera Dixit. Data was analyzed using mean, standard deviation, Pearson's correlation coefficients & t test. The results were found significant at 0.05 and 0.01 levels. It was then suggested that when increasing the value of empathy & self-confidence then the value of job satisfaction also increased. The female teachers have more job satisfaction than male teachers.
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Well-being among cancer patients
Page 100-102
Anjana Bhattacharjee and Amrita Banerjee Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Tripura

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The study investigated the level of wellbeing among cancer patients. The study also intended to explore the impact of gender and chronicity of illness on the wellbeing of the cancer patients. Data was collected from a sample of 100 cancer patients. Among them 50% was male cancer patients while the rest 50% was female cancer patients. All of them were selected purposively from the Regional Cancer Institute, Agartala, Tripura. Background Information Schedule and Personal Wellbeing Index were used for collecting data. The results showed no significant impact of gender and chronicity of illness on the well being of the cancer patients.
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Resilience in the perspective of adolescents
Page 103-106
Shweta Singh Department of Psychology, V. B. S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh

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Resilience typically refers to the development of competence in the face of adversity. Resilience is an ability to cope effectively in the face of difficulties. Present article tries to explain about the concept of resilience and how it works with adolescents. The present article tries to explain about its risk and protective factors under different domains-childhood factors, family factors, school factors and community factors. The present article also discuss that how resilience develops in adolescents and how individual's intrinsic factors, parents and teachers can build resiliency in adolescents.
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An exploratory study of hope and its process using focus groups and phenomenological analysis
Page 107-112
Priyanka Behrani, Department of Psychology The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Gujrat and Jadeja, M. Department of Clinical Psychology Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, Gujrat

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The objective of the study was to study of hope and its process using focus groups and phenomenological analysis. Snyder defines hope as: “Hope is the sum of perceived capabilities to produce routes to desired goals, along with the perceived motivation to use those routes”Snyder (1994) also proposes that hope has no hereditary contributions and it is rather an entirely learned cognitive set about goal-directed thinking. The teachings of pathways and agentic thinking is seen as an inherent part of parenting which helps the child to bring in the components of hopeful thinking in place by the age of two year. The method used for the study was focused group discussion. Twelve female co-researchers in the age group of 21-23 years were selected for the study. Phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the information. A phenomenological research consists of two main findings: textural descriptions and structural descriptions. The finding is Hope is something which is vast and abstract. It is also something which is related to positive future events and is beyond our immediate reality, experience and thus limitless. It is independent, ever- changing and even irrational at times. A contradicting quality is that hope is definitely something about which we are conscious and serious but at the same time it is something which has very little or no conviction.
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Factors of resilience among physically disabled: An interpretative phenomenological analysis
Page 113-118
Lisha Sivadasan and Annalakshmi Narayanan Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

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The present study focuses on exploring means to further the well-being of physically disabled adults by identifying the protective factors contributing to resilience among the resilient. Interpretative phenomenological analysis is used as a framework for analyzing the qualitative research data in this study. The sample included six adults with locomotor disability identified as resilient. The results reveal the factors of developmental adaptation and the traits contributing to resilience. It is found that social interest (including social responsibility), assertiveness, transcendence (including spirituality, optimism, and temperance), family support, and interpersonal relationship serve as protective factors contributing to resilience among adults with locomotor disability. The present study has implication for designing and delivering intervention for prevention and promotion of psychological resilience among disabled individuals.
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Psychotherapy for character strength development
Page 119-123
Dolly Jose and Padmakumari. P. Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore, Karnataka

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Psychotherapy is a clinical tool which deals with problems while character strength development therapy is a pedagogical tool which deals with the mystery of the person. The goal of character strength development therapy is to help the person to internalise the 24 character strengths defined by Seligman and Peterson (2004). The techniques used in character strength development therapy are attentive listening, clarification, confrontation, interpretation and working through. In character strength development therapy the process includes that recreate a situation whereby the person can reread the life experiences, reinterpret it and 'working through' the new insights. In the initial phase, an assessment, which helps both client and therapist to prepare a frame work for character strength development therapy, has to be done. The goal of middle phase is to provide deep insight and understanding on their strength use, help them to realise the unrealised strengths and maximise it, and thus moderate the use of learned inappropriate behaviours as well as learn to handle cautiously the weaknesses. The present paper provides a conceptual frame work for character strength development therapy.
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Brand positioning constructs and indicators for measurement of consumer's positive psychology toward brands
Page 124-126
Abdullah Malik and Bushan D. Sudhakar Department of International Business Pondicherry University, Puducherry and Mohd. Sarwar Rahman Department of Commerce Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Positioning is the game in the minds of consumers, which marketer has to play to get into it and place own brand by breaking the clutter of the advertisements. It is a structured system which creates a differential identity, awareness, image, personality, salience through differential communication in the target market. In practice, now days companies are putting ads on parking meters, hotel elevators, and even in washroom, they thinks that more clutter will generate sales, which is wrong. Here only positioning of brand in the consumer's mind will work. In the current study, our main concern is to explore the constructs and indicators to measure brand positioning. On the front of implication, this study will provide an insight to the academicians and the people of brand managerial practice in carrying out the study in different related areas in finding actual perceived psychology of the customers regarding the brands.
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Positive impacts of peer pressure: A systematic review
Page 127-30
Aroonmalini Boruah Centre for Studies in Behavioral Science (Applied Psychology), Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam

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This paper is a view to understand how positive peer pressure can be instrumental towards promoting healthy social and emotional developments in adolescents, define the extent to which positive peer pressure is associated with healthy behaviour and emotional well-being and identifying different ways by which positive behaviour is encouraged by peer pressure. Peers play a very important role in the overall social and emotional development of children and adolescents. Peer pressure is a very common phenomenon that most of us are familiar with. Peer pressure often appears to be negative, but not necessarily. When one's peer influences an individual to think and act in ways that changes an individual's thoughts, actions and lifestyle for better, it is called positive peer pressure. There is a huge pool of research on the negative influences of peer pressure; however, the extent of literature on positive peer pressure is quite limited even though it has potential for positive development. Research paper published between January 2000 to December 2015 has been taken from Jstor & Google scholar and 12 relevant articles were selected for review. The present study throws light at the fact that peer pressure can exert positive influences in the development of individuals, especially during adolescence when peer acceptance becomes an integral goal of their lives Hence, by paying equal attention to the positive aspects of peer pressure in addition to the negative aspects we will able to explain how positive peer pressure can be influential in their overall social and emotional development.
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Promoting resiliency in the youth of Kashmir
Page 131-134
Manpreet Ola IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan and Dweep Chand Singh AIBHAS, Amity University, Noida, U.P.

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Many children are reared in adverse conditions, e.g., poverty, substance abuse, personal or family members' illnesses, family conflicts and violence in society at large. Such situations may inhibit the normal intellectual, emotional and social development of children and youth by interfering in reaching their full potential as adults. Especially, if we look at the youths of Kashmir, India, the problems they face, viz, armed conflict, violence etc. and the impact of these on their minds, mental and physical health, it becomes important to understand the factors which can help them to overcome impact of such adverse situations and help them out to recover from the hardships. It is very imperative now for psychologists to study resilience in the youth living in prolonged violence area and to suggest ways to promote resilience in the younger generation. This paper is an effort in this direction.
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100 INR

Neuroscience of meditation and its implications
Page 135-137
Susan Thomas St. John's Research Institute, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka and Shobini L. Rao Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, Karnataka

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Science and spirituality have been viewed as two different entities, completely different from each other. However with the advent of new technologies, cognitive neuroscientists have been trying to understand meditation and consciousness. The most prominent techniques used include neuropsychological assessment, electro encephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Research has been encouraging in terms of being able to observe brain changes using a pre-post method or observational method. Scientists and meditators should come together and have a common language to be able to define the concepts in a mutually acceptable way and have techniques that are acceptable to both groups to study meditation and consciousness.
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100 INR

Hope: A psychological perspective
Page 138-140
Tanishka Safri Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow, U.P.

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Hope is being able to see that there is light despite all of the darkness says Desmond Tutu. Hope has been hailed by thinkers of every age from Aristotle to Marcel. It has been endorsed by the spiritually minded as well as the most atheistic philosophers and scientists. Modern investigators have suggested there is no greater ally than hope. Unfortunately, there has been remarkably little empirical research on this topic. The present paper seeks to assess the meaning of hope, why hope is important, why do we need hope, the relationship and the difference between hope and optimism and the different theories and dimensions of the concept of hope according to different researchers.
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100 INR

Educational aspiration of secondary school students in relation to parental encouragement
Page 141-143
Liyaqat Bashir and Hilal Bashir, Department of Education, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab

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The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between educational aspiration of the secondary school students with parental encouragement and to find out the difference in educational aspiration and parental encouragement of secondary school students on the basis of gender. This study was conducted on a sample of 400 students studying in secondary schools of Kashmir division. Level of Educational Aspiration test standardized by Yashmin Ghani Khan(2011) and Parental Encouragement scale standardized by R.R. Sharma (2010) was administered to collect the data. In order to find out the difference ineducational aspiration and parental encouragement of the secondary school students on the basis of gender, t- test was used and to find out the relationship between educational aspiration of secondary school students with parental encouragement, Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used. The result shows that there exists no significant difference between male and female secondary school students in their educational aspiration and parental encouragement. Further the results indicate that there exists a positive significant relationship between educational aspiration of secondary school students with parental encouragement.
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100 INR

Quality of marital life among women of Agartala city
Page 144-146
Anjana Bhattacharjee and Nabanita Banik Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura

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The objective of the present study was to understand the determinants of marital quality among women of Agartala, the capital of Tripura. A group of 150 married women of 18 to 40 years of age were randomly selected from ten wards of Agartala Municipal Corporation. For data collection Basic Information Schedule and Marital Quality Scale (MQS) were used. The study was carried out during November 2014February 2015. Four hypotheses were formulated and they were verified by 't' test. Analysis of data revealed that quality of marital life of women is differed significantly with respect to their age, educational qualification, length and type of marriage.
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100 INR

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