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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 4
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

triguna: A conceptual study and the development and validation of AHS scale
Page 380-389
Swaroop R Department of Studies in Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysuru, Kiran Kumar K. Salagame Department of Psychology, (Retired) University of Mysore, Mysuru and Archana Bhat Kallahalla Department of Mathematics, and Humanities- India Platform, BMS College of Engineering, Bengaluru

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Ancient India was a home for conceptual studies. More often than not, concepts were derived from the experiences of individuals. As most of the individual experiences come under the ambit of subjectivity, they perhaps lack the stamp of objectivity demanded by the modern science. Yet, potentially, many a times, subjective experiences of those individuals belonging to ancient India apparently form to be fragments of objective truths. It is in this context today that the empirical analysis of those concepts appears relevant and render meaningful. Every work of the ancients deemed as scriptures, proposed happiness as the primary aim of the self and also of the society. Alternatively, happiness can be also termed as self-sufficiency at the individual level and self-sustenance at the collective level. It is here that triguna played the role of a tool or an instrument to achieve the above mentioned individual and collective goals. There exists a thin blurring line of difference between the metaphysical concepts and psychological concepts of ancient India. Everything in the purview of triguna is psychological, whereas, a notch above triguna is metaphysical. This paper analyzes only the psychological relevance of the concept triguna. It also puts across the efforts as put in by the authors to standardize a Situation Sampling Methodology to examine the concept empirically. The tool consists of 25 life situations that are commonly experienced by people.
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Mindfulness based stress reduction for reducing anxiety, enhancing self-control and improving academic performance among adolescent students
Page 390-397
Anila M. M. and D. Dhanalakshmi, Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Puducherry

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The objectives of this investigation was to determine the effectiveness of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention for reducing anxiety, enhancing self- control and improving academic performance among adolescent students. The present study consisted of 300 adolescent students in the age group of 15-18 years, selected through random sampling. State- Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spiel berger et al. and Self-control Scale by Tangney et al. were administered to 150 boys and 150 girls and their academic scores were collected from their performance in continuous assessment. Pre-test and post-test with randomized control group design was used for the present study. MBSR was given to the students in the experimental group for a period of 8 weeks while the control group did not receive the intervention, following which a post-test was carried out. Statistical analyses such as Independent sample't' test, Paired t test, Multi variate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Multi variate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) were used for this study. The results indicate that MBSR is effective for reducing anxiety, enhancing self-control and improving academic performance among adolescent students. This intervention ensured that students could use it for their well-being not only at the present, but also in the future circumstances. Therefore, MBSR may be included in the school curriculum in order to help adolescent students who cope with the expectations and challenges of educational demands.
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The effectiveness of play therapy on social skills and academic performance of students
Page 398-400
Sosan Pajoman and Nazanin Honarparvaran, Department of Counselling, Marvdash Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of play therapy on social skills and academic performance of elementary daughter students of the four areas the city of Shiraz. Due to the nature and purposes of research was used of the practical and implementation of the correlation method. The study included all female students in the first and the third grade of primary school of the four area the city of Shiraz 2014-2015 in the academic year that was selected 40 persons, in two test and control groups (each group 20 cases) by cluster random sampling method and randomly. For data collection was used Social skills of Matson (1983) and academic performance of shades and Taylor (1990). Data analysis was used using analysis of covariance. The findings showed that play therapy has influence positive direction on social skills and academic performance of students.
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Compare social self-esteem and social identity marriage official and white (unofficial) in men Tehran
Page 401-404
Mohammad Ali Baghzari and Bagher Sanai, Department of Counseling, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The aim of this study was to compare social self-esteem, basic needs and social identity of marriage and cohabitation men in Tehran, respectively. The population consisted of cohabitation married men, 54 people and 54 men, married people who were selected by convenience sampling. Choose marriage on the basis of similarities and commonalities (age, education & occupation) and cohabitation men were married. To collect data from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1979), Deci and Ryan Questionnaire Basic Needs (2000) and a questionnaire Saffarinia and Roshan Social Identity (2011) was used. Comparative data using independent t-test were analyzed. The results showed a significant relationship between the self-esteem of cohabitation men and married there. Between the subscales of autonomy, competence and relevance of basic needs in married cohabitation men and married there is no significant relationship. He average sub-scale collective identity and individual identity and married cohabitation men in marriage, there is no significant relationship.
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The moderating role of locus of control in the relationship between dimension of family communication patterns and critical thinking disposition of high school students
Page 405-409
Mahnaz Moradi and Maryam Kouroshnia, Department of Psychology, Marvdash Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the moderating role of the locus of control in the relationship between the dimensions of family communication pattern and the components of critical thinking disposition of high school students. For this purpose, by multistage random cluster sampling method, 359 students were selected and completed The Critical Thinking Disposition scale, The Revised Family Communication Patterns Instrument and the Locus of Control Scale. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that innovativeness, mental involvement and critical thinking disposition were positively predicted by conversation orientation. Conformity orientation did not predict any of the components of critical thinking disposition. The study of the interactional effect of the dimensions of family communication patterns and the locus of control indicated that locus of control had not moderating role in the relationship between dimensions of family communication pattern of predicting. The communication patterns was the same in both of the internal and external locus of control children.
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The overall effect of group therapy on increasing the self-esteem of Esfahan prisoners
Page 410-413
Elahe Ghasemi and Ehsan Kahrizi and Consultant Education Isfahan Province, Iran Adel Ghari Advisor to the General Directorate of Prisons and Education in Isfahan, Iran

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Psychologists believe many factors are involved in the development of maladaptive behaviors and delinquency people, including low self-esteem of these factors can be named. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of group therapy on increasing self-esteem integrated monotheistic male prisoners in Isfahan. A total of 24 male prisoners at the central prison of Isfahan health clause based on self-concept test, low self-esteem had been diagnosed, were randomly divided into two groups of 12-member test And the control group were assigned. Then integrated monotheistic therapy in 12 sessions of 90 minutes for the experimental group and after therapeutic intervention to re-esteem of both groups took tests. The results showed that the mean score of self-esteem, then there is a significant difference test. Thus it can be concluded that the prisoners be integrated monotheistic therapy leads to increased self-esteem.
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Effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy on symptoms reduction and improving quality of life in patients with excoriation disorder
Page 414-417
Mohammad Hossein Arab, Department of Clinical Psychology, Bushehr Branch Islamic Azad University, Bushehr, Iran and Hossein Baghouli and Majid Barzegar, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University Marvdasht branch, Marvdasht, Iran

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy on symptoms reduction and improvement of quality of life in patients with excoriation disorder. Research method was quasi-experimentalwith three-monthpretest and posttest design. Thus, thirty patients with excoriation disorder (15 received mindfulness-based therapies as the experimental group and 15 received cognitive-behavioral therapies as the control group)were selected through convenience sampling from patients attended one of the clinics in Tehran in 2014. Participants were asked to complete the short form of quality of life questionnaire and excoriation disorder revised before and after treatment intervention and three-month follow-up. Findings showed that both therapies were effective on reducing the symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients in both groups. According to statistical results, there was a significant difference due to preceding mindfulness-basedtherapyregarding cognitive-behavior therapy.
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Efficacy of positive cognitive intervention programon psychological distress among wives of alcoholics
Page 418-422
John Silvy and Marie Ann S. Vargas The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, P

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The purpose of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the newly developed integrated positive psychological intervention program called 'Positive Cognitive Intervention (PCI)' in reducing psychological distress among the wives of alcoholics. Various stressful experiences and behavioral problems from the part of the alcoholic partners cause psychological distress to the wives. The eligible participants for the experimental study were 38 wives of alcoholics. They were randomly allocated into experimental and control groups. The instruments used in this study were i) 'Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21)' and ii semi-structured interview. Manova, paired t-test, and Cohen's d test were utilized for the statistical analysis. The results revealed that PCI program is significantly efficacious in reducing psychological distress (F [1, 36] = 5098.32, p< 0.0005); and in terms of depression (F (1, 36) =1705.91, p =0.000), anxiety (F (1, 36) =1269.85, p =0.000) and stress (F (1, 36) =812.81, p=0.000) among the wives of alcoholics. The t-test showed significant differences (p= 0.000) at 0.05 level in pre and post test results of the experimental group measured by DASS and Cohen's d test revealed the large effect size of the program. The findings of this study reveal that Integrated Positive Psychological Intervention program 'Positive Cognitive Intervention' is an effective program for reducing psychological distress of the wives of alcoholics. The study suggests future research to explore the PCI program in urban population.
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Optimism and psychological contract on life effectiveness and work effort in IT employees
Page 423-428
Tina Fernandes, Geeta Sunkarapalli and Durgesh Nandinee St Francis College for Women, Begumpet, Hyderabad and Velury Pallavi Organizational Psychologis, Santula EAP

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Employees' well-being in IT sector is a great challenge. Every organization attempts to meet the expectations of their employees, in order to create a conducive workplace atmosphere for its growth. Hence, developing conducive environment may produce a anodyne effect in their life. Aims: The first objective of the study was to find out if there is a difference between men and women on optimism, psychological contract, life effectiveness and work effort in IT employees and second objective was to explore the relationship between life effectiveness, workplace optimism and psychological contract among IT employees. The study involved a correlational design Optimism and Psychological Contract were predictors and Life Effectiveness and work effort were the criterion. One hundred and forty two were men and ninety were women belong to the age group of 20 years and 60were selected, of which 218 completed the Life Effectiveness Questionnaire (LEQ), Workplace Explanations Survey (WES), Psychological Contract Questionnaire, Work Effort Scale, and Work Effort Scale (WESC). These instruments were administered individually along with demographic details. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics, Pearson's product‑moment correlations, and multiple linear regression analyses.
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Comparative effectiveness Gestalt approach marital relations training based on religious teachings on treason attitude change couples covered by imam Khomeini Relief Committee
Page 429-432
Mahdieh Momeni and Nazanin Honarparvaran, Department of Counselling, Marvdash Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The current research has been carried out for studying effectiveness of marriage guidance based on religious teachings with Gestalt Approach on betrayal approach change of married couples of Imam Khomeini Committee in Marvdasht. The statistical society in this research is 300 couples asking for a marriage loan during 3 month form Imam Khomeini Committee in Marvdasht in 2014-2015. Sampling method is random selection of participants who had higher number than average in Tendency to betray questionnaire. 90 persons have been selected by random and they were divided into 3 groups of 15 couples. One group was trained by religious teachings; another was trained by Gestalt Approach and the other one was considered as the control group. To analyze the data, Descriptive and inferential statistics are used which in descriptive statistical level, average, Standard deviation and in inferential statistical level, co-variance is used. The results show Gestalt therapy has meaningful effect on tendency to betray of couples. Marriage guidance based on religious teachings has meaningful effect on betrayal approach of couples seeking for marriage. Marriage guidance based on religious based on religious teachings (because of greater beta) has better effect than Gestalt therapy on tendency to betrayal of couples.
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Organizational ownership structure and employee perceptions
Page 433-438
S. Srividya UGC Post Doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

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Organizations in the present day endure dynamic volatile environment in terms of socio-political-economic environment and a changing value system. Research evidences show that organization ownership is the fundamental structural characteristic that determines how organizations fine-tune their other structural characteristics such as hierarchies, division of labor and decision making in response to their environmental circumstances. Organizational structure in India can be classified in terms of ownership control as Government owned Public sector undertaking and Private owned firms and Entrepreneurial Ventures. Hence the present research work has tried to examine how psychological makeup of an employee in terms of commitment, perception of leadership effectiveness, organizational stress and personality dispositions differ in three above mentioned firms. The sample for the study (N=400) were workers in three production units namely textile mills Government Owned Textile mills, NTC Mills (n=129) and Private Owned Textile mills (n=135) and engineering production units (n=136) situated in Coimbatore industrial areas. A direct Discriminate function analysis was performed using the four psychological variables (with twenty six sub-constructs) as predictors of role of ownership control with three varied organizations. Two discriminate functions, labeled as “Excellence and Managerial” function, were arrived and the results and implications have been discussed.
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Impact of fasting on altruism and self-regulation among young Muslim females
Page 439-441
Archana Shukla and Tabinda Zaidi, Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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This study focuses on the impact of fasting on altruism and self-regulation among young Muslim females. Sample taken for the present study was 50 young Muslim females age from 18-24 years who keep regular fasts (Roza). The purpose of the present study was to find out the level of altruism and self-regulation among young adults who keep fasts and their relationship with each other. For this purpose, the helping attitude scale, by Nickel 1998 and the self-regulation questionnaire, by Brown and Miller 1999 were used. It was found that the level of altruism and self-regulation is high among young Muslim females who keep fasts and Altruism and Self-regulation are highly correlated.
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Effect of yoga based relaxation technique on clinical and psychological health among jail warder: Three arm control study
Page 442-445
Indu N.P. and A. Pushparajan, Department of Physical Education, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu

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Jail warders are the most important assets for any correctional agency. Research on correctional officers has found that stress has a great influence on their general health. To evaluate the effect of yoga based relaxation technique on general health among Jail Warder. One hundred and fifteen Jail Warder were recruited for the study from six Jails at different cities in Kerala. We used a three arm randomized control between subject's design. Participants were counterbalanced randomly into two different experimental conditions (Mind Sound Resonance Technique & Deep Relaxation Technique) and control condition. Participants were given questionnaire packets including demographic details, General and Health Questionnaire. Further clinical parameters such as Blood Pressure, Pulse rate and Respiration rate were measured. Outcomes were examined at two points in time: baseline and at the end of the one month. Paired sample t-tests showed a significant enhancement in general health questionnaire after MSRT (p=0.01) and DRT (p=0.01), while the control group did not show any significant change. Further result showed a significant normalization in systolic (p=0.01) and diastolic (p=0.01) pressure after MSRT. While DRT group shown only normalization at systolic pressure (p=0.01), the control group did not show any significant change. Further result showed a significant normalization in pulse rate (p=0.05) and reduction in respiratory rate (p=0.01). No changes/differences were observed after DRT and control groups on pulse rate and respiratory rate. Result has shown significant enhancement of the general health following yoga based mind sound relaxation technique.
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Healthiness and life satisfaction in first generation and second generation of Kashmiri Migrants: A comparative study
Page 446-449
Vinod Kumar Bhardwaj and Shalini Singh, Department of Psychology, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana

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The aim of this study was to explore the differences in healthiness and life satisfaction in first generation and second generation of Kashmiri migrants. A mixed sample of 100 subjects was taken, out of which 50 was of first generation and 50 of second generation. First generation subjects belonged to an age group of 45 to 60 years and second generation subjects belonged to an age group of 21 to 25 years. Leddy Healthiness Scale (Leddy, 1996) and Satisfaction with life scale (Diener, 1985) were used to measure the above variables. The data was analyzed by using t-test. Results revealed that second generation migrants had higher healthiness and life satisfaction than first generation migrants.
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Gender differences in spirituality among college students
Page 450-452
Faizi Agha and Shahina Maqbool, Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh and Sarah Javed, Department of Psychiatry, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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The relation between gender and spirituality is of great interest hence our study aimed to examine the gender differences in college students through the lens of spirituality. 60 students (30 males & 30 females) were chosen from arts faculty with age range of (18 & older). They were requested to fill Expressions of Spirituality Inventory (Mac Donald 2009) which consist of 30 items with five dimensions i.e. cognitive, experiential, existential, paranormal, and religiousness. Independent sample t test was administered for obtaining mean difference between both the genders on spirituality. Significant difference was found on two domains of spirituality i.e. Cognitive and Experiential dimension. In cognitive domain males scores higher (M=18.30, SD=2.91) as compared to females (M=13.60, SD=4.23) with t value as 5.01 which was significant at 0.05 level. Other domain in which significant difference was found was Experiential domain, here females scored higher (M=17.40, SD=5.21) as compared to males (M=13.23, SD=4.43) with t value as 3.33 which was significant at 0.05 level. No significant difference was found in the remaining three dimensions i.e. Existential, Paranormal and Religious domains, having t value as 1.02, .861 and 1.55 respectively at 0.05 levels. This study contributes a great understanding of spirituality and the effects of gender on spirituality.
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Understanding low motivation of tribal students in learning context: Scope of cultural- historical approach in psychology
Page 453-456
Vijith K., Department of Psychology, Govt. Arts and Science College Mankada, Kolathur, Kerala

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Taking the academic problems of tribal students in India as a case, this review paper attempts to critically evaluate the scope of existing theories of motivation to understand cross-cultural learning context and to join with the new approaches that are developing from the cultural-historical tradition in psychology. Initially, this paper discusses the motivational problems of tribal students as they engage in learning processes and then proceeds to enquire the scope of cultural- historical approach to motivation, and finally it engages these problems from the point of view of the proposed approach.
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Positive psychology: The new 'mantra' for school counselors
Page 457-459
Pratibha Dabas and Abha Singh AIPS, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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This paper looks at the need for introducing a new dimension to the counselor's role in Indian schools - that of providing Positive psychology interventions to school students. We are witnessing increasing instances of behavioral problems and low academic standards among students in semi urban schools in India. The school authorities feel the need for effective and positive intervention programs for these students. Parents and teachers both find themselves turning to the counselors, who are not only few in number but unable to handle all the referrals. The role of the counselor, thus needs to be redefined. Apart from broadening the scope of counseling, integrated interventions that the teachers can handle are required. The paper also identifies the growing need for counseling that is preventive rather than remedial. With the parents and teachers turning into a helpless lot and looking towards the counselors to help them with managing their children, the counselors need to reframe their role. Rather than being overwhelmed by the number of referrals, they must help in the upbringing of children with positive character traits. Going by the research findings in positive psychology, this should help in bringing down the number of referrals of behavioral issues. As findings of some of the studies on Positive Psychology also suggest a cultural impact on the outcome of positive interventions, this paper makes further research suggestions of combining Indian Psychology with the western Positive Psychology methods as options for effective positive interventions for school children.
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Positive psychology: Evolution, philosophical foundations, and present growth
Page 460-465
Arjun Kumar Shrestha Kathmandu University School of Management, Balkumar, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Nepal

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Positive psychology has emerged as an important domain in the field of psychology. In the past one and half decade, it has received wider scholarly attention resulting in numerous theoretical and empirical works that have appeared in many peer-reviewed journals. This paper attempts to develop an understanding of the this evolving domain of psychology, trace its philosophical foundations, explore its linkages with other domains of psychology, especially, the existential psychology and humanistic psychology and map its growth in the recent past. This paper begins with the introduction of positive psychology and presents an overview of its historical development. Then it attempts to explore the philosophical foundations of positive psychology as well as its linkages with two sub-domains of psychology the existential psychology and the humanistic psychology. Thereafter, it provides an overview of the emergence and growth of PP in the past 18 years. Finally, it concludes highlighting some of the limitations of this paper.
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School adjustment: A comparative study of gender differences among adolescents
Page 466-468
Hardeep Kaur and Arashmeet Chawla, Department of Social Work, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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Adjustment is a continuous process by which a person varies his behavior to produce a more harmonious relationship between himself and his environment. It helps to keep balance between one's need and capacity to meet the needs. Adjustment is a major concern at all life stages, especially during adolescence. Since it is a phase of rapid growth and development during which physical, sexual and emotional changes occur, adjustment problems are at their peak. Most adolescents experience adjustment difficulties in emotional, social and/or educational aspects of their lives. School adjustment can be viewed as comprising academic, social and emotional adjustment .It is a continuous process that is geared towards the adaptation of the individual to school life and culture. Overall adjustment plays a vital role in the development of child. The sample of 30 adolescents aged 14-18 years were taken up from the Senior Secondary School in this study. In each group, there were fifteen adolescent girls and fifteen adolescent boys. School Adjustment Inventory for school students developed by Sinha and Singh has been used in the study. The present study aims to examine the gender difference in social, educational and emotional adjustment among the school going adolescents. The findings of the present study indicate that there exist significant differences between the secondary school students when compared on the basis of gender.
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A study of meaningful work, hope and meaning in life in young professional artists
Page 469-471
Sagar S. Vidwans Research Scholar Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune and Parinita Raghvendra P.G D.H.R.M Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies, Pune

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The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship of meaningful work, hope and meaning in life of young professional artists. It was hypothesized that meaningful work and hope will predict variance in meaning in life. A group of 103 young, unmarried and full time professional artists (53 males & 50 females) were taken in the study. Work and meaning, Adult hope scale, and Meaning in life questionnaire were administered. The study was conducted in 2016. Both the groups were found statistically different except on meaningful work, as a result of that separate analysis was carried out. The correlation of meaning in work and presence of meaning life was found statistically significant (0.60 p<.01 males & females combined). The correlation of hope and presence of meaning in life was also found statistically significant in males and females (0.53 p<.01 in males & 0.53 p<.01in females). The further regression analysis was conducted and it was found that meaningful work and hope predicted presence of meaning in life.
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How Does Positive Visualization Affect People's Level of Happiness and Perception of their Physical Body Image?
Page 472-479
Anita Sheerha and Mukta Singhvi, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The study aims to determine the effect of positive visualization on the subjective happiness and perceived body image. For this study 40 participants were randomly selected from the age group of 20-25years from the middle socio economic status in Delhi. A pre-post analysis was done using “Subjective Happiness Scale” and “Figure Rating Scale”. 20 participants were trained to visualize themselves to be in happy states and imagine their physical body to be the perfect shape and size, according to them. And the rest 20 were given no training at all. An in-depth analysis was done on 5 of the participants who received training in positive visualization.
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Hope, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour among employees of private sector organizations
Page 480-484
Nilesh Thakre, Department of Psychology SNDT Women's University, Mumbai and Ruchita Mayekar HR Consultant Mumbai, Maharashtra

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The field of positive psychology is gaining prominence in the area of industrial and organizational psychology. The characteristics of hope and hopelessness appear to play a crucial role in the work place. The present study investigates the role of hope in organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour. The participants of the study consist of 120 men and women employees within age range of 21 to 50 years working in various private sector organizations in Mumbai. They were assessed by using the adult state hope scale (Snyder et al., 1996), the organizational commitment questionnaire (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979), and the organizational citizenship behaviour checklist (Fox & Spector, 2011). The data were analysed by independent sample t-test and coefficients of correlation. Results revealed a significant difference between employees with high hope and low hope on organizational commitment, t (118) = 5.07, p < .05, and on organizational citizenship behaviour, t (58) = 4.79, p <.05. The coefficient of correlation result shows significant positive correlation between hope and organizational commitment, r = .40, p < .05, hope and organizational citizenship behaviour, r = .40, p < .05, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour, r = .76, p < .05. These findings indicate that employees with high hope shows higher organizational commitment and higher organizational citizenship behaviour and it will enable organizations to acknowledge the importance of hope at work place.
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Understanding psychological capital: Research perspectives
Page 485-494
Namita Mohanty and Sarita Mishra Kolhe, Department of Psychology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

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The aim of this review article is to highlight on the perspective, theories, research, importance and application of Psychological Capital (Psycap) for gaining competitive advantage for individuals, teams and organizations. Psycap is one of the core, pivotal constructs in the area of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB) and Psychology. This is considered as critical for the development and management of talent in an organization. Providing a more targeted and updated review especially on “HERO” the components of Psycap like Hope, Efficacy, Resilience and Optimism and linking Psycap to other organizational “intangible resources” such as team work, authentic leadership and work engagement has been quite a challenging task. As a higher order core construct, Psycap turns out to be synergistic. Psycap as a whole, is greater than the sum of its parts. The basic underlying theoretical mechanism connecting all the four components is a positive appraisal of circumstances, and probability for success based on motivated effort as well as perseverance. In more analytical terms, it is through the discriminant validity across the four individual Psycap capacities that each adds unique variance and becomes additive to overall Psycap. Furthermore, both conceptual developments and empirical evidence support the convergent validity of the four components of Psycap that meet POB criteria.
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Self- compassion and the art of overcoming one's inner critic
Page 495-497
Poonam Yadav Zakir Husain Centre for Educational Studies, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

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“If you don't love yourself, you cannot love others”. This is the ultimate truth. If one is not able to accept oneself with all the flaws and qualities that one possess, then there's no guarantee that he/she can accept the other person without being judgmental. What is needed is a positive attitude and self- understanding toward oneself, most importantly self-compassion. Basically being gentle, kind and understanding with oneself. Accepting that one is not perfect and that there is potential for learning and growth in every mistake one makes (Neff, 2003). Self-compassion has been shown to be positively related to psychological health and well-being. This paper is an attempt to show how one can use self-compassion to overcome one's inner critic and enhance well-being.
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Problem solving therapy in young adult: A case report
Page 498-500
Divyani Sharma RCI Licensed Clinical Psychologist Jaipur, Rajasthan and Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

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Problem solving skills play an important role in the life of an individual for dealing life challenges effectively. The core idea of this model of therapy is striving toward solution of the problem and using all possible ways to deal with it. People following problem solving approach in their life have better quality of life and well-being. Problem solving is an empirical based approach and is a skill that can be build in people. The present paper presents a case of an adult who has academic and mood related difficulties on whom problem solving therapy was used. Following the training in problem solving therapy using specific techniques for specific symptoms and issues, the client reported significant improvement in his symptoms. The present paper describes in detail the case of problem solving therapy.
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A comparative study on the impact of positive peer pressure on adolescents with special reference to Kamrup districts of Assam
Page 501-503
Bijoyeta Das, Department of Psychology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam

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When adolescents move to higher educational institutions, they exhibit distinctive behavioral changes. These changes are more due to accumulated feelings rather than an outburst of a single incidence. Peer pressure, change in class environment, campus environment, extracurricular activities, parental guidance and school administration each one or all of these play a significant role in moulding the behavior of a student in high school or college. Peer pressure is influence on a peer group, observes or individual exerts that encourages others to change their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to groups. When an adolescent moves to a higher educational institute there is a distinct change in environment in way of peers and how they interact with the adolescent. There are a large number of studies on the negative impact of peer groups on the behavior of an adolescent. At the same time, there are few selected studies on the positive impact of peer group on the behavioural development of adolescents. Peer conformity in young people is mostly pronounced with respect to style, taste, appearance, ideology and values. Peer pressure is commonly associated with episodes of adolescent risk taking behaviors because these activities commonly occur in the company of peers. Peer pressure also has few positive effects when youth are pressured by their peers towards positive behavior v.i.z. volunteering for charity or excelling in academics.
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Subjective well-being of children in India: A systematic review
Page 504-510
Alka Ranjan, Department of Psychology, Mount Carmel College, Bengaluru and Tony Sam George, Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bengaluru

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A systematic review of literature has been conducted on subjective well-being of children and adolescents, an emerging area of research. Scientific literature till the year 2015 has been reviewed. It includes research articles, book chapters and research reports. Appropriate keywords have been used and each chosen literature has been assessed for their quality. A general map for both quantitative and qualitative research evidence has been made. Findings from research evidence has been integrated through thematic synthesis. The findings broadly indicate the approaches of research in the area of subjective well-being in terms of philosophical basis, assessment and the current status in the Indian context.
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Gratitude and forgiveness as a predictor of well-being among female college students
Page 511-514
Mehar Hema Kumari and Madnawat A.V.S., Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The study was carried out to find out the effect of gratitude and forgiveness on well being among female college students. The sample consisted of 60 female college students of age 18-21, selected purposive sampling method from international college of girls of Jaipur city. Gratitude, forgiveness and well being were measured by Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6; McCullough, 2002), Heartland Forgiveness Scale Thompson (2005) and Well-being Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), respectively. It was the co-relational study. The results showed that gratitude and forgiveness was significantly correlated with well being. Multiple regression analysis indicated that only gratitude was found important predictor of well being.
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Emotional maturity in widows and widowers
Page 515-516
Sr. Christine Fernandes Principal of St Francis College Begumpet, Hyderabad and Samineni Hilda David Lecutere, St Francis College Begumpet, Hyderabad

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Emotional maturity is a process in which the personality is continuously striving for greater sense of emotional health, both intra- psychically and intra- personally. The study examined the emotional maturity among widows and widowers. The sample included 120 widows and widowers out of which 60 were widows and 60 widowers. The five dimensions of the scale namely: Emotional instability, Emotional regression, Social adjustment, Personality disintegration and Lack of independence were considered for the analysis. The results revealed that widows are emotionally mature than widowers, the results being supported by the t value (2.306), significant at 0.05 level. Further, considering the dimensions, Emotional instability and Social adjustment was found significant at 0.05 level and Personality Disintegration significant at 0.01 levels.
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Promoting positive mental health in schools
Page 517-521
Khushboo Saini, Department of Education, University of Delhi, Delhi

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Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness but a state of well-being in which every individual realises his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community (WHO, 2007). In recent times, positive mental health has emerged as a new concern for schools thus shifting the focus of educators from just repairing weaknesses to enhancement of positive qualities. Similarities can be seen between mental health approaches in health and education as both believe that children and youth have inner potential and gifts that support their capacity to initiate, direct and sustain positive life directions. To promote positive mental health in schools there is a need for collaboration of educational and health professionals. Schools should focus on providing a safe and caring environment along with skills and strategies that help in enhancing their coping and problem-solving capacities. To face the fact around 20% of the world's children and adolescents have mental disorders or problems and about half of mental disorders begin before the age of 14. Such situations can be taken care of if positive mental health is promoted in schools. The present paper attempts to define positive mental health and also its emergence as a necessity of time. It also emphasizes on the need of promoting positive mental health in schools. The paper culminates with suggestion for activities and practices for promoting the same.
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