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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 2
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

A reliability and validity study for researching teachers' perceptions related to their psychological capital
Page 147-151
Semra Aksoy, Department of Educational Administration and Supervision, Gaziantep University, Turkey and HabibÖzgan Department of Education and Social Sciences Gaziantep University, Turkey

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The field of education, which is one of the most important areas of our developing country, needs to be developed and renewed both technologically and organizational side. Scientists, from all over the world, have become pioneers in the field of education with their new, developing and renewing knowledge. One of the famous scientists, Luthanshas come up with an idea named 'Psychological Capital'.This subject has become one of the most important subjects that have been searched for more than thirteen years in the education world. As it is known, the most important component in education is teacher and one of the factors that influence the teachers' guality of work is their psychological capital. Psychological capital indicates that if a man's psychology is directed in a positive way he can manage lots of things and when he acrosses with a difficulty, he can handle it easily. The aim of this research is to develop a scale that measures the psychological capitals of the teachers and to demonstrate their psychological capital perceptions. This research is a descriptive research. The sample of the research is constituted by surveying 315 teachers.The samples were chosen randomly. In order to develop the scale exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis was done. In consequence of this research the perception psychological capital of the teachers were specified. After that the results were argued within the frame of related subject. In the education year of 2013-2014, ın the city of Gaziantep the total 315 teachers from public schools were sampled for the study. In order to develop the scale, firstly related literature was scanned and an item pool was constituted. Then a draft form consisting 58 items was formed. After having taken experts' view and having made required arrangements, the draft form was applied preliminarily. Following to that, the analysis of reliability and validity was done and the items whose item total statistics value is below 0.50 w
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Empirical investigation of emotional maturity dimensions on life-satisfaction among traditional dancers of Odisha
Page 152-158
Sudarsan Behera and B. Rangaiah Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry

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Dance is a dynamic root to develop emotional expression and feelings through body movement and gesture. Dancer's internal and external feelings are directly related to their satisfaction. The present objectives has been designed:- to investigate the significant differences and mutual interactions among dancers on various dimensions of emotional maturity and life satisfaction, to examine the demographic variables and various dimensions of emotional maturity will be predicting life satisfaction. The study consisted sample of 200 traditional dancers from Odisha. Research instruments; Emotional maturity Scale (Singh & Bhargav), Life satisfaction scale (Singh & Joseph, 1997) were used to collect the data from respondents. Hypotheses were tested by using, Mean, SD, F-ratio and multiple regression analysis. The results found that a significant difference among dance groups on emotional progression, social adjustment, personal integration and total emotional maturity. Furthermore, the results revealed that the dimensions like, emotional stability, emotional progression, personal integration and independent were significantly contributing towards life-satisfaction. The results will discuss on socio-cultural context of India.
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Assessment of working memory in bilingual children
Page 159-165
Suma Raju, JSS Institute of Speech and Hearing Mysuru, Karnataka and Nataraja NP, Director, JSS Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysuru

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Bilingual and multilingual language acquisition may affect language and cognitive skills of children. Present study investigated the executive loaded working memory skills in Kannada-English bilingual children. The study compared verbal and visuo-spatial working memory skills between mono and bilinguals of two different age groups. A total of 120 monolingual and 120 bilingual children participated in the study. Results of the study found that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals on two different working memory tasks considered in both age groups.
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The effect of organizational adornment (5S) and business excellence (EFQM) on the happiness of employees the first refinery in South Pars Gas Complex
Page 166-171
Marzieh Jafarnezhad, Darabi and Mahboobeh Chinaveh Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University Arsanjan Branch, Arsanjan Iran and Fereshteh Mostafavi Rad Department of Educational & Psychological Science Sepidan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sepidan, Iran

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The aim of this study the effect of organizational adornment (5S) and business excellence (EFQM) on the happiness of employees the first refinery in South Pars Gas Complex Is descriptive and correlational. in this study 184 employees of the company are available sampling Were examined. Research data for the Oxford Happiness, Self-assessment questionnaire EFQM 2013 Excellence Model 5 S audit tool to assess organizational adornment were collected. Data using the Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression analysis using the statistical software at the same time SPSS22 were analyzed. The results showed that between self-assessment of organizational excellence of leadership, policy and strategy, employees, customers and therefore the business results were significant. Also, in terms of organizational symmetry after separation, organized and sustainable health had significant impact on happiness. The study measured the impact of organizational and business excellence neatness component of happiness, according to the results, it was found that Variable symmetry both organizational and business excellence in anticipation of happiness variable effect and could explain 16 percent of happiness.
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Emotional intelligence and anxiety at workplace: Study on security personnel employed in educational institution
Page 172-175
Ranjan Pattnaik, Rabindra Kumar Pradhan and Lalatendu Kesari Jena Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, W>B>

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Security personnel associated with risk taking jobs are prone to anxiety and stress that far outweighs employees in other job sectors. Earlier studies show that anxiety and other stress related emotions often affect the performance of security persons. Keeping this in mind, the present study was designed to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and anxiety of security personnel. Data were collected from 104 security personnel randomly selected from a nationally reputed academic institute located in Eastern India. Test of emotional intelligence and anxiety were used for data collection. The study reported a statistically significant and inverse-relationship between emotional intelligence and anxiety. The study proposes some of the possible coping strategies for security personnel while dealing with anxiety. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed along with its scope for future research.
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A comparative study on academic career development stress, parent child relationship and self esteem of female school students having working mothers and non-working mothers
Page 176-180
Sudeshna Roy and Ushri Banerjee Department of Applied Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

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The present study was an attempt to investigate the academic career development stress, parent child relationship and self esteem among female school students. 45 students having working mothers and 45 students having nonworking mothers aged between 14 to 16 years were selected for the study. Academic career development stress scale, parent child relationship scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were administered on the subjects. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference between students having working and nonworking mothers regarding the domains pleasure, time management, academic competitiveness and support of academic career stress; protecting, demanding, symbolic reward and loving domain of parent child relationship scale and on self esteem i.e mean score of students having working mothers were significantly higher than students having nonworking mothers. On the other hand, students having non-working mothers were found to be significantly higher on the domains symbolic and object punishment of parent child relationship scale. No significant differences were observed with respect to the domains like difficulty level, course variation, punishment, academic achievement, expectancy from others and test anxiety of academic career stress and on the domains rejection, indifference, object reward and neglecting from parent child relationship scale.
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A study of spirituality and social support in relation to depression among adolescents
Page 181-186
Fareeda Shaheen Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Purpose of the present investigation was to study the spirituality and social support in relation to depression among adolescents. The sample comprised of 150 (75 male & 75 female) undergraduate students of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. Spirituality Scale (Biswas & Biswas, 2006) was used for measuring spirituality, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) (Zimet, Dahlem, Zimet, & Farley, 1988) was used for measuring social support and Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II, 1996) was used for measuring depression of students. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and t-test were used for analyzing the data by SPSS 16 software. Result showed that there was significant negative correlation between spirituality and depression. Result also revealed that there was significant negative correlation between social support and depression. When gender differences was conducted on same sample, it was found that female students scored significantly higher on spirituality in comparison to male students. Further, it was also found that female students scored significantly higher on two dimensions of social support (i.e., significant others support and family support) in comparison to male students. While male students scored significantly higher on one dimension of social support (i.e. friends support) in comparison to female students. Results also showed that female students scored significantly higher on global social support in comparison to male students. Further it was also found that male students scored significantly higher on depression as compared to female students.
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Internet addiction in relation to cognitive style in university students
Page 187-191
Shradha Gaur, Shikha Verma and Swaran Lata Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

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The primary aim of this study was to observe the influence of cognitive style on the extent to which individuals get addicted to the internet. It also aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive style on the choice of discipline post school. For the said purpose, 115 university students (Mean age = 23.26 years) belonging to science, commerce and humanities disciplines were contacted. Cognitive styles and internet addiction were measured by the Rational-Experiential Inventory (Pacini & Epstein, 1999) and the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1996) respectively. Correlational analyses yielded a positive but non-significant correlation between experientiality and internet addiction and a significant negative correlation between rationality and internet addiction. Subsequent one way analysis of variance suggested significant differences between internet addiction in science and humanities students. However, non-significant differences were found between the cognitive styles of science, commerce and humanities students. The present findings provide evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy as the preferred line of treatment for internet addiction. Moreover, they illustrate the possible link between cognitive styles and academic choices which may be validated in subsequent studies.
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Self-efficacy of high school students
Page 192-195
Seema Garg, Desh Bhagat University Mandi Gobindgarh, Punjab andAgya Jit Singh Former Head (Retd.) Psychology Punjabi University, Patiala

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The main purpose of the study was to find out the gender, location and type of school differences on self efficacy of high school students. For measuring self efficacy of the students self confidence Inventory devised by Rekha Agnihotri was administrated to 400 high school students. The results of the study show that Males and females do not differ on self-confidence where as the students of the rural school and urban schools as well as Govt. and private school have significant differences. Urban school and private school students have higher level of self-confidence as compared to their counterparts.
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Discovering the links between trait emotional intelligence, trait emotional expression and relationship satisfaction in young adults
Page 196-200
Ketaki Ashutosh Diwan and Himani Swami Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra

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The current study explored the links between Trait Emotional Intelligence (Global EI), Trait Emotional Expression (EE) and Relationship Satisfaction (RS) among unmarried young adults couples. A sample of 38 young adult couples (N=76) (ages: 18-25yrs) was selected using snowball sampling method. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) by Petrides K. V. (2009) was used to measure Trait Emotional Intelligence and Trait Emotional Expression and Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) by Hendrick, Dicke (1998) was used to measure Relationship Satisfaction of the young adult couples. Pearson correlation was used as statistical analysis which revealed no significant relationship between Trait Emotional Intelligence and Relationship Satisfaction as well as Trait Emotional Expression and Relationship Satisfaction. Qualitative investigation, which included case studies of 7 participants, using an e-mail based descriptive survey, better explain the current findings.
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Personal growth as a correlate of gratitude, hope and curiosity among college students
Page 201-205
Monica Sharma and Divyanshi Garg Department of Psychology, IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Positive psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the processes which contributes to the optimal functioning of the individuals, therefore leading to a happier and a content life. The discipline of psychology has always focused on the illnesses and how to fix them. The sphere of positive psychology, thus, needs to explore the domain of optimal human functioning and welfare. The future of positive psychology needs to delineate the conditions which may lead to the eminence of the quality and stability of life for various groups and individuals. College is a transition for a student from their comfort zones to the more competitive world. The need to prove their excellence can trigger deterioration in the attributes affecting their overall subjective perception of their life. Positive psychology emphasizing on the students' efforts, achievements and strengths in the classroom can aid their performance in the best possible way. As guided by positive psychology, this study utilizes a correlation research designs to explore the relationship between Personal Growth and Curiosity, Gratitude, Hope. Participants were 100 College Girls who completed a questionnaire package that included Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS) (Robitschek, 1998), Gratitude Questionnaire (McCullough,Emmons &Tsang, 2002), Adult Hope Scale (AHS) (Snyder et al., 1991) and Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II (CET-II) (T.B. Kashdan et al., 2004).
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Social adjustment and job performance of college teachers: An analytical study
Page 206-208
Shabir Ahmad Bhat and Anoop Beri Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab

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The aim of present research is to evaluate the disparity among social adjustment and job performance of college teachers on the basis of gender and to examine the effect of social adjustment on job performance. In this exploratory research three hypotheses were formulated to guide the present study. The subjects of present study were 108 college teachers both public and private who were administered two research instruments namely Social Adjustment Inventory & Job Performance Scale developed by R. C. Deva (2011) & Goodman and Svyantek's (1999) respectively to report collected data and analysis was conducted by SPSS 21 software employing independent t-test and regression analysis at .05 & .01 level of significance. The results of the analysis showed social adjustment and job performance of college teachers don't differ significantly on the basis of gender, also results reveal a significant positive relationship between social adjustment and job performance. Further results revealed social adjustment significantly predicts job performance with a magnitude of 73.3% of variance. Following these conclusions social adjustment of the college teachers must be studied comprehensively, so that their performance gets enhanced.
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Effects of positive psychology on irrational beliefs and quality of life in depressed patients
Page 209-211
Rouhollahi, M. Department of Clinical Psychology Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran, Khodabakhshi, A. Department of Psychology and Counseling Faculty, Khatam University. Tehran. Iran, Taghvaee, D. Department of Psychology and Counseling Faculty, Islamic Azad University. Arak. Iran

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One of the concerns about depression is troubled cognition as well as quality of life in the patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive psychology training on irrational beliefs and quality of life in depressed patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with control and experimental group through pre-test and post-test. 30 individuals referred to counseling centers in the west of Esfahan were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. The tools used in this study were irrational beliefs questionnaire by Jones and quality of life (sf-36) questionnaire. The data analyzed through univariate statistical analysis of covariance. The findings revealed that positive psychology training caused a significant decrease in irrational beliefs and consequently a significant increase in quality of life in depressed patients compared to those in control group p< 0.001.
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Defensive mechanisms and their role in youth social health
Page 212-214
Maryam Heshmatzadeh and Azarmidokht Rezaei Department of Psychology, College of Education and Psychology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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This research was about Relationship between emotion regulation difficulty and defense styles with social health in students of university. For this purpose, 200 students of Educational Sciences were selected with Single-stage cluster sampling from Marvdasht University. Three questionnaires Difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS), public health and defense styles (DSQ-40) were used to collect data. For data analysis, statistical methods, correlation and stepwise regression methods were used. Result show that have negative significant correlation between social health and emotion regulation difficulty. Also, immature defense styles have a negative significant correlation with social health and participate and mature defense styles have a negative significant correlation with social health. Mature defenses styles have positive significant correlation with cohesion, social acceptance, and social health, and neurotic defense styles have negative significant correlation with flourishing. Regarding predictive power of the social health with emotion regulation difficulties, Subscales of lack of transparency emotional and the difficulty of handling the purposeful behavior could predict social health and other factors have no significant correlation with social health. Finally, immature and mature defense styles are a significant linear relationship to predict social health and neurotic defense styles don't have predictability power for social health in students.
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A study of perceived social support and self-esteem among medical professionals
Page 215-217
Humera Shafi, Arshi Khan, Asooda Maqbool, Bilal Ahmad, Mudassir Hassan and Rafiya Sharif Department of Psychology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir

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Social support is most important in predicting the physical health and well-being, ranging from childhood to older adults. Social support influences the level of self-esteem of an individual. This important dimension of sustenance is considered as a specific requirement for taxing jobs, medical profession being one of them. During their encounters with patients/caregivers, healthcare team members and hospital management and their coping is the concern of the study. The objective of this study was to evaluate perceived social support and self-esteem among medical professionals. Evaluations of the relationships between perceived social support and self-esteem among medical professionals was done. The respondents completed a questionnaire including demographic information, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale. Correlation and t-test analyses were conducted. Perceived social support and self esteem positively correlated among medical professionals. Further, perceived social support and self esteem in medical professionals, with respect to their gender did not differ significantly but regarding their employment sector they differed significantly. Medical educators should provide means to ameliorate social support, so as to increase or maintain self esteem in the long term.
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Forgiveness, resilience and compassion as measures of personal growth among bullied boarding school students
Page 218-220
Anam Siddiqi, Asma Nisar and Samra Khan and Mohd Arman Khan Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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The present study is an attempt to understand the consequences of bullying. Personal growth will be investigated in terms of forgiveness, resilience and compassion. The study was conducted on a total sample of 120 out of which 60 were participants who have faced some form of bullying in their respective boarding schools. Forgiveness was measured using Heartland forgiveness Scale; compassion was measured using the Self-Compassion Scale developed by Kristin Neff and resilience by using the Resilience Scale by Wagnild and Young (1993).The data obtained was assessed in SPSS, using independent sample t-test to determine if there is a significant difference between the bullied and non-bullied students on forgiveness, resilience and compassion. The results indicated a significant difference on resilience and compassion between the two groups suggesting that being bullied indeed leads to growth in terms of these two factors. No significant difference however was found between the two groups on forgiveness.
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What are the best ways to become spiritually fit?
Page 221-223
Asif Hasan and Akbar Husain Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Spirituality is the welfare of all; develop yourselves in the physical, psychic, and spiritual planes while maintaining proper adjustment among them. The body you possess requires food, water, and so on to maintain its existence, and vital energy in order to function properly. To increase your vital energy, you need a suitable quantity of food. If you cannot maintain spiritual fitness through your own strengths, then others will not do for you. Spirituality may be beyond religious rituals and humanism beyond manmade factionalism. In this paper, we define spiritual fitness and suggested various ways such as strengthening of body and mind, controlling the mind, preparing gratitude journal, Sanatan Kriya, experience of oneness, yoga, meditation, focus on Divine messages, life energy, self-regulation, will power, serenity, personality traits, and prioritize work to develop spiritual fitness.
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“Dear Diary…”: Exploring the experience of gratitude among oncology patients
Page 224-228
Harishankar Moosath and Rachel Jayaseelan Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bangalore, Karnataka

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Through the years, gratitude has been found to facilitate well-being through a combination of reflection, positive emotions and interpersonal relationships, adaptive social behaviors and is associated with both psychological and physical health. Literature has also shown that a conscious deliberate experience of these emotions, especially gratitude, can help individuals better appreciate their life and possessions. Oncology patients often have to be hospitalized in inpatient settings depriving them of the opportunity to avail of professional mental health services, even if they have the resources to do so. Through the current study researchers aimed to explore whether simple gratitude exercises, adapted from a Positive psychology paradigm contributed to the subjective well-being of oncology patients. Participants (N=8) were required to maintain a gratitude journal for one month following which an in-depth interview was conducted to gauge the experiences of their illness and other areas of their life in relevance to the exercise. Eight interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis.
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The thematic analysis of post traumatic growth
Page 229-231
Bindu Kumari, Department of Psychology, Hindu Girls College, Sonepat, Haryana and Rajbir Singh Department of Psychology, M.D.U., Rohtak, Haryana

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Post traumatic Growth (PTG) is a positive change that occurs as a result of major life traumatic events. The goal of the study is to identify the domains of Post Traumatic Growth in women. A projective technique Early Memory Procedure (EMP) is used and the participants narrated early life memories which resulted in identifying the themes related to Post Traumatic Growth. The study supported the domains of Calhoun & Tedeschi Post Traumatic Growth study and Relating to others, New Possibilities, Personal Strength, Spiritual Change & Appreciation of life emerged as major themes for Post Traumatic Growth.
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The Bhagavad Gita teachings for promoting resilience and optimism among school children: A narrative overview
Page 232-236
Pratibha Dabas and Abha Singh AIPS, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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The objective of this paper is to present a narrative overview of research work done on the Bhagavad Gita and explore the possibility of using specific teachings of the Gita for promoting resilience and optimism among school children. Though Indians have used the teachings of the Gita to guide them through life since the ancient times, very little scientific research has been done in the area. The teachings have been of immense value to people in different time periods and few question the credibility of the knowledge contained therein. What is needed, however, is the scientific validation of the effects of the teachings in different social groups. There is an urgent need for revisiting the ancient teachings. More so, because we must offer the right kind of mental conditioning for school children, who are facing increasing behavioural and mental health issues, some of which may be borne out of a lack of resilience and optimism. Because very little scientific research has been attempted in the area, the methods used for this study included a review of translations and commentaries on the Bhagavad Gita by different authors along with research journal articles. A review of about a forty researches show that there are immense possibilities in the area. Positive outcomes in most researches conducted, show that the teachings of Gita may provide conditioning 'mantras' that will help build optimism and resilience in school students. This paper makes suggestions for further research and inclusion of specific teaching interventions for school children.
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Decision making style as a determinant factor for mental health of managers
Page 237-240
Vinod Kumar Gupta and A. P. Singh Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, B.H.U., Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The aim of this review paper is to present an innovative idea to explore the role of different types of decision making style in mental health of managers. In present time of positive psychology much emphasis is being given in promoting and enhancing the mental health of individuals and it can be also seen in organizations which in turn lead to the proper functioning of organization.There are many studies in which decision making style has been taken as an antecedents and consequences. It has been considered as an antecedent for academic performance among students and taking health care and consequences of different types of mental illness but there is a lack of studies related to the determining role of different types of decision making style in promoting the mental health of managers. So this paper is an attempt to present the base and rationale to examine the role of different types of decision making style indetermining and promoting the mental health of managers. Findings of this study would help the organizations in designing better training models for those decision making styles that are found to be positively correlated with mental health. So in future there is a need for conducting empirical studies related to the decision making styles and mental health.
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Positive peer pressure and behavioral support
Page 241-243
Prerana Baruah and Binny Borkha Boruah Department of Psychology, Gauhati University, Gauhati, Assam

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Peer pressure in general means influence from a peer group or an individual to change their attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors so as to conform to the expectations of the group. It plays a large role in the social and emotional development of children and adolescents. From the age of 12 onwards the importance of peer increases as a reference group or as a model of conformity with respect to style, taste, appearance, ideology and value. Mostly people generalize peer pressure as a negative thing. But peer pressure can be negative as well as positive. It is negative when there is peer pressure to associate in risk taking behaviors such as delinquency, drug abuse, sexual behaviors and reckless driving. Peer pressure can also have positive effects when pressured by peers towards positive behavior such as to study hard, be social and give time to family. The present study examines the nature of the positive side of peer pressure in children and how it affects their behavior in the developmental stages.
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Life skills as predictors of risk-taking behaviour among prospective teachers
Page 244-248
Jagpreet Kaur and Khushgeet Kaur Sandhu Department of Education and Community Service, Punjabi University, Patiala

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In the present study, an attempt was made to explore life skills as predictors of risk-taking behaviour among prospective teachers. The data were collected from 200 prospective teachers of Moga district of Punjab, studying in B.Ed. colleges affiliated with Panjab University, Chandigarh through Life Skills Assessment Scale (LSAS) and Adolescent Exploratory and Risk Behavior Rating Scale. The results of the study revealed significant gender differences in life skills among prospective teachers. Further, female prospective teachers were found to possess significantly higher life skills than their male counterparts. The results also revealed that there was significant and positive correlation of 'effective communication' and 'problem solving' dimensions of life skills with risk-taking behaviour among prospective teachers. There was significant and negative correlation of 'self-awareness' 'empathy', 'critical thinking', 'decision making', 'coping with emotions' and 'coping with stress' dimensions of life skills as well as total life skills with risk-taking behaviour among prospective teachers. Further, there was no significant correlation of 'interpersonal relationships' and 'creative thinking' dimensions of life skills with risk-taking behaviour among prospective teachers. The results of step-wise multiple regression analysis revealed that total life skills and 'effective communication' dimension of life skills emerged out to be the most significant predictors of risk-taking behavior among prospective teachers. Implications of the results have been discussed.
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The relationship between locus of control and depression among college students of Gulbarga city
Page 249-255
Abdul Raffie Naik and Jeyavel Sundaramoorthy Department of Psychology, School of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Central University of Karnataka

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The current study focuses on locus of control &depression and the relationship between them, as well as with the demographic variables such as gender (male and female), course of study (science and arts) and locality (urban and rural) among college students of Gulbarga city. It is a promising area of inquiry. The age of college students is a critical context for studying youth mental health. The study was conducted on 171 college student of Gulbarga city who were selected by a random sampling method (lottery method). The questionnaire consisted of personal data sheet, beck depression inventory, and Rotter's locus of control scale. Descriptive Statistics and non-parametric statistics as Mann-Witney test (U) and chi-square test (χ2) were used to analyze the data. The results could not find significant difference on depression among male and female college students, but findings showed that there is a significant difference on depression among science and arts, and rural and urban. The findings showed that there is no significant difference on locus of control among male & female, science & arts and urban & rural college students. The results also show that there is significant association between depression and Locus of Control.
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Factors affecting employee motivation for organizational effectiveness health care employees
Page 256-260
Anupama Sihag PGDCBM, Department of Distance Education, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana

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In this new era, every organization considers its workforce as an important source of its competitive advantage. For the success, survival and growth of a business, it is important for the organizations to be cautious and vigilant at different stages of hiring, retaining and developing talent. Understanding human behavior in workplace has always been one of the top prioritized tasks for any organization. It has become important for employers to know what motivates their employees. Moreover, there is increasing trend of frequent mobility of employees for better opportunity. They are no more working in organizations for a long term basis. Hence, it needs a proper understanding of what motivates and satisfies them at work to generate long term commitments. The present study was done on a sample of 50 healthcare employees from two branches of a private hospital in New Delhi. The questionnaire consisted of 14 statements based on the ten great ways to motivate employees by Nelson and Economy (2005). The results of the present study indicate that motivation is a crucial factor that enhances employees' performance and organizational growth.
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Marital adjustment and life satisfaction among employed and unemployed females
Page 261-263
Manju, Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana

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An interpersonal relationship is an association between two or more people that may range from fleeting to enduring. A relationship is normally viewed as a connection between two individuals, such as a romantic or intimate relationship. These relationships usually involve some level of interdependence. Close relationships are important for emotional well-being throughout the lifespan. The present study was conducted to see the relationship between marital adjustment and life satisfaction. Another aim was to see whether employment has positive or negative effect on life satisfaction and marital adjustment. A sample of 100 females was taken out of which 50 were employed and 50 were unemployed. Marital adjustment scale and life satisfaction scale were administered to all subjects. Obtained data was analyzed by correlation and t test. Results revealed positive relationship between marital adjustment and life satisfaction. Significant differences were also observed in employed and unemployed females.
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Sunil Saini, PhD
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