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ISSN 2229-4937
Indian Journal of Positive Psychology
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 3
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

The power of charity: Does giving away money improve the wellbeing of the donor?
Page 223-230
Pradnya K.Surana and Tim Lomas University of East London, Water Lane, Stratford, London, United Kingdom

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Although money is central to people's lives, the impact of people's attitudes to money on their well-being has rarely been studied. The present study explored the effect of giving away money on an individual's life satisfaction, self-esteem and money-related attitudes (anxiety, distrust, power-prestige and retention time). An innovative intervention was designed in which participants were invited to either give away money (the experimental condition) or spend money on themselves as usual (the control condition) for three days. The impact of the intervention was assessed using a mixed methods design, comprising pre- and post- quantitative self-report scales (life satisfaction, self-esteem and money-related attitudes) together with qualitative diary reports (analysed using grounded theory). As hypothesized, participation in the intervention led to significant increases in wellbeing in the experimental group, including improvements in life satisfaction and self-esteem. In addition, while the control group experienced higher post-test levels of money-related anxiety, the experimental group suffered no such increases. The results provide corroboration for the powerful idea that charity does not only benefit the recipient, butpositively impacts upon the donor too.
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Relationship between personality type and happiness with perfectionism in university students
Page 231-235
Maryam Talebi Family Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran, Hasan Rezai Psychology, Instructor in Payam Noor University, Iran, Ahmad Aramoun Educational Psychology Allameh Tabataba'i University, Afsaneh Darabi Clinical Psychology Allameh Tabataba'i University, Yaghub Gharloghi Educational Science Allameh Tabataba'i University, and Seyed Ahmad Hal Ataee Master of Education Allameh Tabatabai University

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The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between happiness and personality type with perfectionism in Tehran university students. 400 students (200 boys, 200 girls) were selected by random sampling method. The subjects completed Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, NEO-FFI personality questionnaire and Ahwaz perfectionism scale. The data were analyzed using statistical indicators such as mean, standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. It was found that there exists a significant inverse relationship between student's happiness and perfectionism and also a positive significant relationship between neuroticism and perfectionism among all personality factors. Other personality factors including extroversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness were in a significant inverse relationship with perfectionism. It was concluded that, the more a student has perfectionism and ambitious expectations regardless of his or her abilities, the more anxiety and the less happiness he or she would have.
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A comparative psychosocial frame of happiness, relationship and narcissism of varied marital status of aged men
Page 236-244
Sraboni Chatterjee Bijoy Krishna Girls' College, Howrah, Kolkata

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An attempt has been made to provide an understanding of the personality profile of elderly males belonging to different marital status in terms of certain selected psychosocial correlates. The present study probes into the fact whether or not marital status acts as an inevitable determinant in influencing the personality content in terms of happiness, relationship, and narcissism of aged individuals. A total of two hundred elderly individuals (men) belonging to each group, namely, married, widower, divorcee, bachelor were assessed on the above mentioned variables by applying suitable standardized scales. Significant results were found out with respect to all the dimensions of selected variables. Profile differences among elderly personnel revealed that Married males have higher scores in happiness, healthy dependency, authority, self-sufficiency in comparison to the other counterparts namely widower, divorcee and bachelor aged. Bachelor aged receives the higher mean magnitude in case of destructive overdependence of relationship, superiority, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, vanity, entitlement and overall narcissism than divorcee, married and widower sub samples. On the criteria of dysfunctional detachment divorced aged positioned themselves at top than married, widower and bachelor counterparts. Widowers have lower scores in happiness, authority, self-sufficiency, vanity and overall narcissism than the other counterparts.
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Forgiveness: A determinant of adolescents' happiness
Page 245-249
Suvashisa Rana Meena Hariharan, Durgesh Nandinee, Kallavarapu Vincent

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As forgiveness plays a vital role in the process of building healthy relationship, this study explored the contributions of forgiveness on happiness among adolescents. A convenience sample of 200 adolescent participants from two leading educational institutions was selected. The participants completed a survey assessing the forgiveness (forgiveness of self, others, and situations) and happiness. The results revealed that there were significant contributions of forgiveness and its domains on happiness of the adolescents. The role of age was also found to be significant indicating that the older adolescents were found to be higher in forgiveness compared with their younger counterparts. Since there was an impact of forgiveness on happiness, adolescents need to be taught the prosocial behavior during childhood and adolescence in order to foster positive health, both at individual as well as community levels.
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Resilience and self-concept among police officers in Pune city
Page 250-254
Gauri Kadam and Yogita Ubhe Department of Psychology, Pad Dr. D. Y. Patil ACS College, Pimpri, Pune

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The study was aimed at studying resilience and self concept among police officers in Pune City. A sample of 84 Police Officers (46 Males and 38 Females) with ranks of Police Inspector, Assistant Police Inspector and Police Sub Inspector who were selected by purposive sampling method. Their age range was 24 years to 58 years. One group consisted of senior police officers with more than 20 years of service. While the other group consisted of police officers with upto 10 years of service. These officers were drawn from various police stations in Pune city, Maharashtra. They responded to the Resilience Scale by Wagnild & Young (1987) and Self concept Questionnaire by Saraswat (1999). Statistical tool Anova was used to find differences on resilience and self concept among police officers.The results showed that there was no difference found on resilience (F=0.02), physical self concept (F=3.27), social self concept (F=3.64), temperamental self concept (F=0.24), moral self concept (F=2.44) and intellectual self concept (F=0.38) among police officers with more than 20 years of service and police officers with upto 10 years of service. The results also showed that there was no gender difference found on resilience (F=3.40) among police officers. There was significant gender difference found on physical self concept (F=8.18), social self concept (F=5.88) and intellectual self concept (F=4.95) among police officers at 0.05 level of significance. Whereas there was no gender difference found on temperamental self concept (F=0.02) and moral self concept (F=1.26) among police officers.
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Effect of meditation ('OM' chanting) on alpha EEG and galvanic skin response: Measurement of an altered state of consciousness
Page 255-259
Himani Anand Dayalbagh Educational Institute, (D.E.I), Agra, UP

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Consciousness is one's awareness of mental activities and processes going on in one's mind at any given moment, as well as one's awareness of objects and events in the external world. It includes awareness of sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories. Meditation is a process of employing mental exercises to achieve a highly focused state of consciousness. It is a Vedic exercise which can be used as a powerful instrument to restrain sense organs, control autonomic nervous system and also to attain higher state of consciousness. Through meditation a person is expected to get mental peace. Electroencephalograph (EEG) and Galvanic skin Response (GSR) can be used as indicator of an alteration in an individual's state of consciousness. So the present researcher was interested in investigating the effect of meditation (Om Chanting) on EEG and GSR, an altered state of consciousness, under scientifically controlled conditions. This experimental research measures the effects of Meditation (Om Chanting) on EEG and GSR of female university students (graduates and post graduates). The sample consisted of 20 subjects in the age range of 18 to 24 years through purposive sampling technique. The daily practice time of Meditation session was 20 minutes for one month. Pre test- Post test data was recorded before and after intervention of Meditation session by using single group pre-post research design. Recordings of Electroencephalograph (EEG) and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) were made on a computerized polygraph (Model Physiopac, PP 4, Medicaid Systems, Chandigarh, India) test. To test the significance of difference between means of pre test and post test scores of alpha EEG and between means of pre test and post test of GSR scores t test was applied. Results showed that mean score of alpha EEG for pretest is 10.41 and for posttest is 11.63. Similarly, for GSR mean score of pretest is 580.72 and for posttest is 700.78. Obtained t value for alpha EEG is 5.08 which is s
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Positive stress: Review of relevant theories and an alternative conceptualization
Page 260-266
Rutwik J. Gandhe Department of Social Work, The Bhopal School of Social Sciences, Habibganj, Bhopal

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Stress Management has been a long cherished topic for academic debate and discussion of behavioral sciences. There are theories defining stress in two broad categories, namely Eustress and Distress. The literature concerning the 'stress' does talk about the negative as well as positive aspects of stress, however the aspects concerning positive stress have not been given due attention. Eustress, as a concept has been susceptible to many different interpretations, largely because of widely acceptable negative undertone associated with the Stress. Therefore, through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a theoretical understanding of Positive Stress by exploring the concept qualitatively. An incidental sample of fifty five (55) MBA students, who had chosen Stress Management as an elective course in the second year of their MBA program, was taken for the proposed qualitative assessment. Students' answers to the theoretical question on 'Positive Stress' in their examination paper were analyzed through qualitative content analysis & thematic analysis methods, leading to identifying perceived theoretical meaning of the concept of 'Positive Stress' and its relationship with other theoretical constructs. Qualitative assessment suggests that response to stressors by an individual is ever evolving, hence a model is proposed based on the idea of 'rejuvenated response' of an individual to stressors in subsequent stress-cycles in life-time, leading to an alternative view of 'positive stress path' to explain 'Positive Stress', which is subject to further empirical testing.
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Resilience, happiness, social isolation and emotional isolation amongst the Tibetan refugees
Page 267-272
Vipasha Kashyap Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradeh

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It is important to explore the potential role of 'resilience' and 'happiness' in Tibetan refugees which helps them to cope with refugee-hood. It is also necessary to highlight the impact of 'social isolation' and 'emotional isolation' in their life. The aim of this work is to focus on these variables, amongst the Tibetan refugees born and nurtured in exile (India) and the ones born and raised in their homeland (Tibet). A sample of 90 participants (45 in each group) completed the measures of resilience, happiness, social isolation and emotional isolation. Using Correlation and t-test analysis, the magnitude and direction of relationships among the variables and the difference among the Tibetan refugees in the two groups were calculated respectively. The correlation results for the Tibetan refugees born and raised in exile and in Tibet (till their mid/late teens) show, that emotional isolation is significantly and negatively correlated with resilience. Social isolation is negatively and significantly correlated with resilience amongst the Tibetan refugees born and raised in exile. Resilience is significantly and positively correlated with happiness in both the groups. t-test results depict significant differences between the Tibetan refugees born and raised in exile and in Tibet on the variables except resilience. Happiness and resilience (personal attitudes and beliefs) act as promoters of adjustment and stress buffer amongst refugees. They are inversely proportional to social isolation and emotional isolation.
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Recognition of emotions from facial expressions as a function of emotional intelligence
Page 273-279
Bharat H. Mimrot Department of Psychology, NKSPT's Arts, Sci & Comm College, Badnapur, Jalna, Maharashtra

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In this age of marketing and competition it is a must to maintain and develop human relationship by understanding others emotions and trying to adjust our nature with the people we can uplift elves and our nation as well. Today it is important to know people nature, temperament and emotions and to make necessary changes in our behavior. What is the impact of emotional intelligence in correct recognition of emotions from facial expressions? Is there any difference in correct recognition of emotions from facial expressions between the people whose emotional intelligence is high & whose emotional intelligence is low or not that much good? The main objective of study was to understand the recognition of emotions from facial expressions of high emotionally intelligent and low emotionally intelligent Ss. It was two hypotheses formulated that, the high emotional intelligent people would recognize more emotions correctly from facial expressions than low emotional intelligent people and Females would recognize more emotions correctly from facial expressions than males. The 200 students, in which 100 students (50 males & 50 females) were high emotional intelligence and 100 students (50 males & 50 females) were low emotional intelligence in covered in the study. The emotional intelligence scale by Hyde, Pethe and Dhar was used for data collection. Finally with help of two way- ANOVA, first hypothesis was rejected and second is accepted. Results and conclusion discussed highlighted on full length of paper.
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Subjective wellbeing and substance dependence: A comparative study
Page 280-285
Imran Khan Psychologist at Drug De-addiction Centre and Stress Management Helpline, Police Control Room Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir and Showkat Ahmed Shah Department of Psychology University of Kashmir Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir

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The present study compared substance dependents who go for de-addiction with those who don't go for de-addiction on the basis of subjective wellbeing. The sample consists of (N=100) drug addict males taken from district Srinagar. One group of subjects (N=50) include those drug addicts who were attending drug de-addiction centers. Another group of drug addicts (N=50), taken from different areas of district Srinagar include those drug addicts who don't go for drug de-addiction. Alcohol smoking and substance involvement screening test was first used to screen the individuals for substance dependence and then Subjective Wellbeing Inventory by Nagpal and Sell (1992) was used to assess the subjective wellbeing of the participants. The results in this study showed that t-values of the two factors of the subjective wellbeing, i.e., confidence in coping (t=2.402*) and perceived ill health (t=2.096*) were found significant beyond 0.05 levels of significance. However the t-values of the all other factors like General wellbeing positive affect (t=0.853), Expectation achievement congruence (t=0.977), Transcendence (t=0.073), Family group support (t=0.000), social support (t=0.922) Primary group concern (t=1.922), Inadequate mental mastery (t=0.826), Deficiency in social contacts (t=1.034) and general wellbeing negative affect (t=1.006) were found as insignificant even at 0.05 level of significance.
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A twenty years literature on evaluation of spiritual leadership: The new insight for the corporate world
Page 286-292
Padmavati Maharana, Sanjib Patra, T M Srinivasan, and H R Nagendra Division of Yoga and Management, SVYASA University, Bangalore

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Leaders are born or made is the debate since centuries. Leadership development is multibillion expenses in the west as well as in the east. There are many leadership development programs but yet the search for the solution is a question. Does leadership development program really work? Can yoga be a solution to this? As answer to these above queries spiritual leadership as the need of the hour is gaining a world-wide attention.
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Effect of shankhapushpi on attentional processes
Page 293-296
Priyanka Department of Psychology M.A.C.W, Jhajjar, Haryana and Promila Batra Department of Psychology M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana

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Recent years have seen a sudden surge in an array of cognitive dysfunctions such as decline in memory, distraction in attention, lack of concentration, and other attention related disorders. Stressful lifestyle in this competitive world may be the root cause. Modern therapeutics though has a spectrum of drugs for the management of cognitive dysfunctions, but they are having serious side effects and habit forming nature. Therefore, in the last few years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine, and these drugs are gaining popularity in both developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Present study is also aimed at exploring the role of Shankhapushpi, a herbal plant in attentional processes. A pre-post, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two groups design was used. Sample was selected from college going student volunteers, belonging to an age group of 19-25 years. Total 50 subjects were contacted and tested upon their span of attention. 30 subjects having a moderate span of attention were selected and divided into 2 groups of 15 Ss each. One group was experimental group, in which the subjects received Shankhapushpi powder (3.5 gm per day with honey followed by a glass of milk) for 10 days. Other group was the control group, administered with the same dose of ordinary powder (made with coriander, spinach, fenugreek etc.) in the same manner. Two types of attentional processes i.e. Alternating, and Divided were taken. The subjects were tested on these tasks before starting the administration of both powders and immediately after stopping the administration. Obtained scores were analyzed by using 't' test. The results indicated that ten days administration was not sufficient to leave a significant impact of Shankhapushpi on any type of attention. Higher doses need to be tested before drawing any generalization.
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Yuva school life skills programme: Its role in promoting physical and mental well-being of students
Page 297-300
Himani Central Institute of Education, University of Delhi, New Delhi

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Youth United for Victory on AIDS- School Life Skills Programme (YUVA-SLP) was launched by Department of Education, Government of NCT of Delhi along with State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT). The objectives of the study were to understand the initiatives taken up by Government of India to promote the well-being of youth, to explore the understanding of teachers about the challenges and problems faced by adolescents, to understand the role of YUVA-SLP in students' lives and to examine its implementation in schools. The study conducted with Quasi-Experimental research design using semi-structured interview method; sample of 78 students were selected through purposive sampling. Content analysis was used for finding out results. The results showed that the ideas presented in the YUVA-SLP modules are for ideal conditions. The study concludes that the teachers did not have proper understanding of overall well-being of students. As well as students did not trust their teachers about discussing matters of physical changes they were experiencing. It recommends that YUVA-SLP's content should be reviewed and made suitable for current needs. Teachers should be given proper training and adolescents' well-being need to be the major focus while giving training to teachers.
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Personality, spiritual exercise and cognitive-behavioural interventions in enhancing sports performance
Page 301-309
Ruchi Singh Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP

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Engagement in sport and exercise are important for maintaining holistic health and enhancing performance in sports. Sports are invaluable in the life of young students. The personality of sportsmen plays a vital role in exhibiting performance in sports. There are numerous evidences suggesting that how different personality dimensions affect sports performance and how the personality dimensions of different sportsmen differ from one another. The link between personality and sports performance helps the sports psychologists to predict about the outcome of the sports and also to select sportsman for different sports on the basis of the personality of athletes. Besides, the present article provides information that how much sports have importance in our life and also provide some suggestions to improve the quality of sports performance through spiritual exercises (i.e. yoga, meditation) and some cognitive-behavioral techniques (positive self-talk, relaxation and visualization) .
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Relationship between state mindfulness and working memory in children
Page 310-312
Natesh B., Rajesh S.K. and H.R Nagendra Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana, Bangalore, Karnatka

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Mindfulness an individual becomes increasingly aware and attentive in the moment has been one of the main focuses of study within the positive psychology movement. The majority of this research has been conducted with adults. The current study aimed to establish the relationship between state mindfulness and working memory in children. Participants were 167 healthy school children (69 girls, 98 boys) who attended Personality Development Camp. Participants age ranged from 12 to 16 years with a mean age of 13.97 years (SD=1.03). The Corsi-Blocks task was used to measure of visuo-spatial Working memory. Further psychological states were measure using state mindfulness attention awareness scale and state anxiety inventory. State mindfulness had a large inverse and significant correlation with the State anxiety (r=−0.49, p<0.01) and a large positive and significant correlation with the Corsi forward (Forward Corrected r=0.35, p<0.01 and forward block span r=0.31, p<0.01). Further state mindfulness had significant positive correlation with Corsi backward (backward corrected r=0.26, p<0.01 and backward block span r=0.26, p<0.01). Higher-order cognitive processes appear to have positive relationships between mindfulness.
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Negative emotions and regulative notion of temperament in children
Page 313-316
Nity Sharma Defence Institute of Psychological Research DRDO, Delhi and C.R. Darolia Department of Psychology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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In last few decades, there has been a burgeoning interest in the construct of temperament, including its relationship with elicitation and expression of emotion. Although there is not a clear consensus on the meaning of the construct, there is a general acceptance that temperament involves individual differences in behavioural and emotional processes during development and is shaped by biological processes. Among the many determinants of individual differences, negative emotions, occupy a special place in research along with temperament. Negative emotionality is a broad construct that is central to most models of temperament. It includes fine-grained constructs/facets of anxiety, sadness, anger and irritability. The present study focuses on the relation of temperamental traits given by Strelau (1974, 1993) while developing Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT), with negative emotions of fear, anxiety, depression and anger in a non-clinical sample of 403 children. The results of Pearson's correlations indicate a significant relationship between most of the temperamental traits and negative emotions.
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Positive affect and social harmony
Page 317-321
Sheema Aleem and Samina Bano Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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The paper attempts to trace the functioning of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of South Africa as a practical application of the concepts of forgiveness and reconciliation. The paper aims to posit the various aspects of the TRC against the concept of positive affect and provides an insight into how positive affect can help promote individual well being and social harmony in conflict-ridden societies.
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Citizenship behaviors directed towards individuals and the organization: A study among bank clerical employees
Page 322-324
Sairaj M. Patki Department of Psychology University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra and Shobhana C. Abhyankar Department of Psychology Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra

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Helping behaviors at the workplace go a long way in contributing towards a healthy work-environment and organizational functioning. The present study aimed at investigating whether employees display interpersonal helping/citizenship behaviors directed towards individuals (OCBI) and organizational helping/citizenship behaviors directed towards the organization (OCBO) equally well. The sample comprised of 325 clerical employees from nationalized and co-operative banks. Results showed a significant difference between OCBI and OCBO, with employees reporting that they indulge in OCBO more often than OCBI. The possible explanation and implications of the study are discussed.
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Coping with occupational stress and burnout in healthcare
Page 325-328
Anupama Sihag and J.S. Bidlan Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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Unhealthy lifestyle is giving way to a multifold increase in the need for healthcare industry in India and worldwide. Healthcare has one of the most stressful working environments for the employees. In order to maintain the professional demeanor and care for the terminally ill patients the healthcare professionals are demanded to be available all the time. Emotionally demanding patients adds to the severity of situation. The healthcare professionals are physically, emotionally and psychologically so drained that it results in occupational stress and hence burnout and adopt different ways of coping to work effectively and efficiently. The present study was conducted on a sample of 600 healthcare professionals from the private hospitals of Delhi, NCR. The sample included nursing, support staff (security, pharmacy, front office, housekeeping and dietetics/food and beverages staff) and doctors with equal number of male and female participants. Ways of Coping Scale-Revised (Folkman and Lazarus, 1985) was the assessment tool used in the present study. It was observed that nursing was most severely affected by occupational stress and burnout as compared to doctors and other support staff and the healthcare professionals use different ways of coping to combat stress.
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Positive psychology in the Indian film industry: A promising area of research
Page 329-331
Pooja Singh Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

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Movies may be considered a very powerful medium of entertainment, and at the same time they offer insights into various aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in the West have been observing different aspects of psychology in the movies- social behavior, psychological disorders, etc. Also, the advent of Positive Psychology marks an interesting shift in perspective as far as research in the field of psychology is concerned, and therefore has had some impact in the area of movies as well. Positive psychologists have been doing some research in the area of films, Niemiec, a psychologist practising in St. Louis being the fore runner. The Indian film industry being such a powerful mode of entertainment in the country warrants research in this area, which may pave way for psycho-educational and therapeutic utilization of the information thus obtained.
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Correlates of life satisfaction in adolescents
Page 332-340
Ritu and Madhu Anand Department of Psychology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana

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In the field of positive psychology, there has been a growing movement toward examining Life Satisfaction. This paper aims to specifically highlight the benefits of positive adolescents Life Satisfaction providing general positive and negative associations between Life Satisfaction and various psycho-social-demographic variables like demographic factors, personality, psychological factors, social factors, physical health and environmental factors etc. The present paper is theoretical in nature; the variables related to Life Satisfaction are theoretically discussed which have already been tested in previous studies. Implications of positive life satisfaction among adolescents and future directions in Life Satisfaction research are briefly discussed.
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Stress and coping: Some critical issues
Page 341-343
Prabhat Kumar Mishra Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education, NCERT, New Delhi

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This article is an attempt to provide the reader with an overview of the field of coping with stress. The term stress occurs not only in our daily conversations but has also attracted widespread media attention. Different people hold different views about it as stress can be from a variety of sources. Although stress is an inevitable part of human life, yet it can also yield positive effects. What we need is to reduce the amount of negative stress (distress), and enjoy and appreciate positive stress (eustress). However, when left unchecked and unmanaged, stress can create problems in performance and affect the health and well-being of a person. Coping refers to cognitive and behavioural effects at mitigating stress. The article has explained the concept and forms of coping, and discussed some strategies to cope effectively with stress. Implications for teachers and counsellors have also been outlined.
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Positivity from the base to the roof
Page 344-346
Jyotirmoy Sarkar Science Graduate, Sreebhumi, Near S.P. more Suri, Birbhum, West Bengal

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What we actually want is peace and this peace comes from mental satisfaction but the definition of mental satisfaction varies from man to man, breaking a good friendship is a reason of mental satisfaction of some people and rebuilding a broken up relationship is a reason of mental satisfaction of some people, so there are two types of people, one who are constructive and another one is destructive, the first one possesses positivity in them and the second one can be called as negative minded. Now the problem is that the people with positivity sometimes suffer from some mental conditions which are root of negativity, such as depression, failure, frustration etc. Our life is so uncertain, even anybody don't know that whether she? he will be alive tomorrow or not, then why spend today with any type of negativity, if we do it we have to regret after leaving this world for not leaving my life with positivity, even we should not do anything negative because one day we will surely be conscious, may at the last period of life
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The effects of meditation on meaning of life: A component of psychological wellbeing
Page 347-349
K. Purandaran Nodal Centre of Excellence for Human Rights Education, School of Law, Rights & Constitutional Governance, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai

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Meditation has an effective tool that alleviates suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic disorders. Various popular versions of the programs were studied and reported many beneficial effects. The lesser known but original techniques of meditation were not subject to scientific study. The Meaning of Life is an essential ingredient in subjective wellbeing, hence this study. 92 spiritual practitioners who practice - Prasada Para Vidya - a meditation technique were studied along with 54 non meditating controls. Out of 92 the 39 subjects were meditators and 53 were practicing a vow of virtue. The total sample is 146 in this study. The Meaning of Life Scale (Steger, 2009) were used in this study along with additional wellbeing parameters like Satisfaction with life, Self transcendence, Spirituality as other parameters of wellbeing. The results sows that the meditation group and non meditation group are significantly (p < .05) different on meaning of life score. The effect size seems to be higher comparing the meditation group with vow of virtue group for meaning of life (p < .05). The meaning of life is correlated with spirituality score. The Self transcendence scale is correlated with satisfaction with life and spirituality scales but not correlated with meaning of life directly. Self transcendence seems to be working as a moderator by triggering other well being measures and have a bearing on meaning of life.
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Yug nirman movement, socialization and values' inculcation
Page 350-355
Alok Kumar Department of Sociology, C.C.S. University, Meerut, UP

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Many reform movements in India are going on for the betterment of society as a whole. Such movements are lesser studied and reported in the sociological literature. Therefore they need to be focused on. In this context, the present work is a study of a reform movement, i.e., 'Yug Nirman Movement'(Gayatri Pariwar) initiated by a spiritual/ charismatic person. Having some religious components, the movement has been going on for some years in different parts of India and has also gone beyond the national boundaries. In the light of this, the present study tries to explore how the followers of this movement are enhancing their status in their families and communities by inculcating values. To study this, impact has been observed on individuals and their families. The present study focuses on a village Shaulana in district Ghaziabad, hardly 35 km, from Amity. This village is known for its continuous participation in the activities of 'Yug Nirman Movement'. The newspapers and television reports have also covered the activities of this movement undertaken in this village. This village has become the model village for the activities of the movement in the list of the headquarters, Shantikunj, Hardwar. Thus, so well known for the activities of the 'movement' this village has been selected for empirical study to look into the impact. The Data have been collected with the help of some specific research techniques like observation, interview, interview schedule/guide, case study, etc. The impact of 'Yug Nirman Movement' has been observed on its followers and their families. Through the present study, it may be concluded that 'Yug Nirman Movement' is becoming a powerful agency of socialization through values. Its followers are socializing themselves by performing yagna, meditation and recitation, adopting values, adopting /knowing other arts and skills, and enhancing their status in family and village and enhancing cooperation and unity among their family members by participatio
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