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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 8
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

The status of subjective well-being, role stress, coping, and ego-functions of the tribal and non-tribal people of Tripura
Page 899-903
Hillol Mukherjee and Nilanjana Sanyal Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

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Subjective well-being (SWB) refers to-people’s evaluation of their lives-including cognitive judgments such as life satisfaction, and affective evaluations (mood and emotions) such as positive and negative emotional feelings. It seems, therefore, reasonable to assume that the factors of happiness lie both in the environment and within the individual. With this, the study aimed at finding out the relationship between SWB and a set of psychological characteristics. On the basis of literature, it was expected that problem focused coping, social support, and the different ego-functions will have positive contributions to SWB while role stress, emotion focused coping pattern will have negative or no contribution to happiness. The present study attempts to synthesize and evaluate the factors present in organizational role stress, individuals’ unique coping styles and ego-functions which might play an effective role in the development of SWB on one hand, and on the other hand, might also cause deterioration in SWB of the tribal population of Tripura. The study was conducted over a sample of 800 working people drawn from different government and non-government organizations of Tripura. Result showed that the tribal people are significantly happier, stress-free than the nontribals that can be attributed to their simple life style and less competitive nature.
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Social network size and hope as predictors of life satisfaction in the elderly
Page 904-908
Shradha Mathur Postdoctoral Research Associate (on a joint research project), Department of Social Work (UGC Centre of Advanced Study), Faculty of Social Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia

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This paper investigates the dynamics of relationship between the constructs of social network and Snyder’s concept of hope in relation with life satisfaction in the Indian elderly. Based on a sample of 84 elderly, categorized on the basis of their retirement status into retired (N=40) and post retired (N=44), empirical findings are discussed. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that both social network size and hope combined significantly predict life satisfaction in greater degree compared to the network size alone, although the individual contribution of network size exceeds the predictive power of hope. The study also indicates significantly positive and greater association of life satisfaction with network size compared to perceived satisfaction obtained from social support in the post retired years. The limitations and suggestions for future research are given along with the implications for the Indian elderly.
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Effects of dynamic meditation on anxiety
Page 909-912
Naved Iqbal, Archana Singh, Sheeema Aleem and Samina Bano Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India

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Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, but there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on anxiety of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised of 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in the experimental group were given 21 days training in dynamic meditation. Anxiety of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre and post condition with the help of Sinha anxiety scale. Obtained data were analyzed with the help of analysis of covariance. In post condition, an experimental group scored better than the control group on total anxiety. An effect size of dynamic meditation on anxiety was moderate.
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A study of adolescent’s strengths and difficulties and academic self‑regulation
Page 913-917
Harprit Kaur and Kavneet Kaur Department of Psychology, Punjabi University Patiala, Punjab, India

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Behavior is governed by some kind of motivation or regulation which is broadly categorized as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Every individual regardless of gender has some strength and some difficulties in regulating behavior. The present piece of research has been conducted to study gender differences in adolescents in relation to their perceived strengths and difficulties, as well as their capacity for academic self-regulation. For this, a sample of 54 boys and 46 girls was taken. They all belonged to the age group of 11-13 and were studying in an urban English medium public school. They were administered the strengths and difficulties questionnaire by Goodman (2002) and the academic self-regulation questionnaire (SRQ-A) by Ryan and Connell (1989). The strength and difficulty questionnaire has four scales namely the emotional symptoms scale, conduct problems scale, hyperactivity scale and peer problems scale that comprise the total difficulty score, and the prosocial scale that signifies the strength score. The SRQ-A has four sub-scales that represent four different regulatory styles namely external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The data were collected and were further rendered to statistical analysis. T-test was applied to find out the differences between the two groups on various dimensions.
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Orphanhood; in the context of mental health and difficulty in emotion regulation of children
Page 927-930
Princy Koul and Chandra Shakher Department of Psychology, University of Jammu Jammu and Kashmir, India

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Orphanhood is generally related to a traumatic experience of loss and grief; it may include physical and sexual abuse. The orphan becomes emotionally, socially, physically, and economically dependent on others. He has a feeling of loneliness and dissatisfaction with his life which largely affects their mental health. The present study consists of 100 participants out of which 50 participants were orphan, and 50 participants were nonorphan children. Mental health scale (2002) by Sharma and difficulty in emotion regulation scale by Gratz and Roemer (2004) were used.The results showed a significant difference in mental health and emotion regulation of orphan and nonorphan children.
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Television leads to increase in parent adolescent conflict
Page 931-935
Shilpi Nanglu Defence Institute of Psychological Research Defence R&D Organization, Timarpur, New Delhi, India

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The study explored the link between Indian adolescents’ television viewing and parent adolescent conflict. The sample consisted of male and female children (N=400) aged 12-15 years. It was hypothesized that heavy viewers of TV (watching >3 h of television) would be significantly higher on intensity and frequency of conflicts with their parents. The respondents were divided in to heavy (>3 h/day) and light viewers (<3 h/day) on the basis of the reported daily television viewing time in the questionnaire by Nanglu and Banth (2006) and Prinz et al. checklist was used to measure the intensity and frequency of conflict. Data was analyzed by t-ratio and regression analysis. Heavy viewers reported a significantly higher intensity and greater frequency of conflict with their parents as compared to the light viewers. The intensity and frequency of parents-adolescents’ conflict reported a significant positive correlation with viewing of informative, entertainment, and horror/violent programs. This is indicative of the fact that the extent of television viewing and content of television viewing influences the parent adolescents’ relationship quality.
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Dissociation and discrimination of age in implicit and explicit memory
Page 936-941
Laxmi Kataria Department of Psychology, MDU, Rohtak, Haryana

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The current investigation sought to determine the dissociation and discrimination of age in implicit and explicit memory. Memory problems are a typical complaint among older adults. Older adults seem to have particular difficulty with source memory, with relatively fewer problems with recognition memory. Results revealed that there is the age difference in implicit and explicit memory. Explicit memory’s sub-tests like recent memory, remote memory, mental balance, attention and concentration, delayed recall, immediate recall, retention for similar pairs, retention for dissimilar pairs, visual retention and recognition all showed a significant age difference. After analyzing obtained scores, it was found that mature adult group (30-50 years) had better explicit and implicit memory than the older group with psychiatric problems and aged normal group above 60 years. However, overall in explicit memory aged normal person had better memory than aged person with a psychiatric problem but mature adult group (30-50 years) had better memory than both groups. Similarly, implicit memory of mature adult group (30-50 years) has better memory than both aged groups. However, there was no significant difference between aged persons with psychiatric problems and aged normal persons above 60 years in implicit memory.
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A comparative study on sources of stress and coping styles between graduation and post-graduation students
Page 942-947
Sadananda Reddy and Prasad Reddy Department of Social Work, Don Bosco Academy, Degree and P.G College Nalgonda, Telangana, India, and Dharma Reddy Department of Psychiatric Social Work National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

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College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life and academic pressure. They must adjust to being away from home for the first time, maintain a high level of academic achievement, and adjust to a new social environment. Coping deals with the way people manage those situations or conditions that are perceived as stressful. In the literature of coping, coping responses have been conceived of as structural or personality characteristics based on psychoanalytic ego-psychology. The study aimed to compare the main sources of stress and coping styles between graduation and post-graduation students. The study was taken in the Don Bosco Academy, Degree and P.G College, Nalgonda. Students enrolled for graduation and post-graduation courses (n=120) were recruited for the study. The researcher administered socio-demographic interview schedule, student stress survey to the students (40 items) and the brief cope inventory (28 items). Ethical issues have been followed while conducting the study. It was found that overall daily hassles were reported more often than major life events, with intrapersonal sources of stress being the most frequently reported source. The top five sources of stress were; change in sleeping habits, vacations/breaks, change in eating habits, increased work load, and new responsibilities. The results have generally shown that problem-focused coping, e.g., planning, is associated with positive academic and personal adjustment, and that emotion-focused coping, e.g., aggressive coping, is associated with emotional and behavioral problems. The findings from this study may be further used to examine which sources of stress and poor coping styles cause the highest levels of stress among college students, and it may be helpful in creating effective stress management programs for the student population.
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Evaluating social desirability bias in assessment
Page 948-950
Alka Ranjan and Tony Sam George Department of Psychology, Christ University Bangalore, Karnataka, India

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It is important to control social desirability bias in self-report assessments. A pilot study was conducted in which two scales measuring social desirability bias were given along with other parental self-report measures that assessed parental acceptance-rejection, behavioral control, and psychological control. The study was conducted on 121 middle-class and upper middle-class parents of children of ages 8-11 years in Bangalore City. The two scales used for measuring social desirability bias in mothers and fathers were the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale (MCSDS)-Short Form C and the SDS-17. The Mann-Whitney U test and the “t” test were used to check the hypotheses. The study reports obtained the results on the efficacy of the two tools.
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Destitute women in Tripura: A study on their level of depression, hopelessness, and self-esteem
Page 951-954
Arpita Acharya, Department of Psychology, MBB College (A College Affiliated by Tripura University), Agartala, Tripura, India and Krishna Biswas, Tripura Council For Child Welfare, Agartala, Tripura India

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This study is an attempt to measure the amount of depression, hopelessness, and self-esteem of a group of destitute women of Tripura who lives in various destitute homes of this state. Three leading homes who work for the welfare of the destitute women are selected and data were collected from 50 women by using three psychological scales, viz. The Beck hopelessness scale, the Beck depression inventory and Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Data were also collected from 50 non-destitute women of the same age and socioeconomic status. Results showed that destitute women have a higher level of depression and hopelessness, but a lower level of self-esteem than nondestitute women. Significant positive correlation between depression and hopelessness was found, but self-esteem is negatively correlated with both depression and hopelessness.
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Psychotherapeutic intervention for social phobia: Case study
Page 955-957
Nudrat Jahan Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

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The problem of the performance anxiety in an individual with social anxiety has been well established in the literature. When anxiety is associated with an irrational fear of performing activities in the presence of other people or social interaction this is diagnosed as “social phobia.” This paper presents a single case study of a 30-year-old male patient. It consist case history, assessment and intervention. Patient presenting complaints were hopelessness, worthlessness, sleep disturbance, low mood, feeling of inferiority, feeling of nervousness, hesitation and thought blocking during conversation with others, agitation, and examination anxiety. In case history racial discrimination in collage and constant academic failure is found as precipitating and maintaining factor of his problem. Patient’s level of anxiety was assessed with “Hamilton anxiety rating scale, which indicated a high level of anxiety.” Cognitive behavior therapy, modeling and relaxation training were given to achieve the goal of reduce anxiety, improve sleep, improve social interaction, teaching coping skills, changing in daily functioning and life style. After treatment program of 20 sessions all problems resolved and patient reported no anxiety in social situations. Intervention plan improved the confidence in the patient and reduced the social anxiety.
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An empirical investigation of depression in women
Page 958-960
Raman Kumar Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India

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Depression is a mental state characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, social withdrawal, pessimism, sense of failure, irritability, and loss of appetite and insomnia. It has been revealed by researches that women are more prone to depression and also high on depression than men. There are many factors which contribute to the complex picture of depression in women like reproductive hormones to social pressures, etc. The objectives of this study are to compare working married and working unmarried females on depression and to compare non-working married and non-working unmarried females on depression. Sample of the study consisted of 80 women who were taken from different offices and houses. Their age ranged between 25 and 35 years, and their marital status was of both types, i.e., married and unmarried. T-test is used to analyze the data. Findings of the study show that working married women are high on depression than working unmarried women. Findings also suggest that non-working unmarried women are high on depression than non-working married women.
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Management of hopelessness and coping among breast cancer patients
Page 961-964
J. Jeffrin Margreat and N.S. Rohini Department of Psychology, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

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The study on “management of hopelessness and coping among breast cancer patients” was conducted in Coimbatore Cancer Foundation in Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore by purposive sampling method. 75 breast cancer patients served as the sample. They were in the age range of 35-70 years under medication. The patients with high scores in Hopelessness and low in brief coping were selected for the study. The tools used for assessment were case study schedule, Beck hopelessness scale (Beck, 1978), and brief coping scale (Carver, 1997). The psychological intervention, “rational emotive behavior therapy” (REBT) was administered to the patients. After 15 days, the re-assessment was given using the same questionnaires. The results indicated a significant reduction in the mean hopelessness with increase in coping strategies. This clearly indicates the effect of REBT in coping among breast cancer patients.
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Impact of biofeedback therapy on somatoform disorders with co-morbid depression
Page 965-968
Aditya Gupta, G.D. Koolwal, Sanjay Gehlot and Sanjeev Kumar Verma Department of Psychiatry Dr. S.N. Medical College Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

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The current study aims to find out the outcome of biofeedback therapy in subjects suffering from somatoform disorders associated with co-morbid depression. The study was conducted at psychiatric center, Jodhpur. Subjects were grouped into experimental and control groups, and those labeled experimental group were given suitable antidepressant and biofeedback therapy (six sessions), spread over 6 weeks, while subjects comprising control group were kept on pharmacotherapy alone. Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) and patient health questionnaire (PHQ-15) were used. In the present study, 90 patients were recruited out of which 78 patients completed the study. After 6 weeks of therapy, among the experimental group, the number of patients with no depression increased, and the mean score on HDRS also decreased. The mean score on PHQ also decreased showing improvement in somatoform symptoms. The t-value is significant in the experimental group, not in the control group. The present study favors biofeedback as an additional therapy, especially for relaxation and coping with the illness. This study, however, was over a short period of time, and further longitudinal studies incorporating other behavior therapy modalities are required.
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Association between spiritual well-being and depression among adults with Type 2 diabetes
Page 969-972
Urooj-un-nisa and Humera Shafi Department of Psycology, University of Kashmir Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between spiritual well-being (SWB) and depression among adults among Type 2 diabetes. The Universe of the Study was based on 430 Type 2 diabetic adults from Endocare: Advanced centre for diabetes and endocrine care. Purposive sampling was carried out to collect the data. SWB scale developed by Paloutzian and Ellison (1982) was used to investigate SWB among Type 2 diabetic adults and Beck’s Depression Inventory-II by Beck et al. (1996) was used to investigate depression among these diabetic adults. The results showed significant negative correlation between SWB and depression among Type 2 diabetic adults. Results also revealed that Type 2 diabetic adults differ significantly on SWB with respect to their gender but regarding rural/urban dichotomy and their educational status, Type 2 diabetic adults didn’t differ significantly. Further results also showed significant differences on depression among Type 2 diabetic adults as far as their gender and educational status is concerned but with respect to rural/urban dichotomy they didn’t differ significantly.
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Mental health, wellbeing and welfare of aged
Page 973-975
Sushree Rekha Mohanty Department of Psychology, Maharshi Women’s Degree College, Sailashree Vihar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

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The growing numbers of older people are forcing nearly all societies and give recognition to the needs of aging and aged to develop program and facilities for meeting them. It includes good mental health, sense of wellbeing and quality of life of the elderly. The state, which has as its goal the general wellbeing of its people, cannot ignore the welfare of the elderly who have given their best years to society.
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A comparative study of psychological-well-being among girls and boys
Page 976-978
Namita Shah Department of Psychology, Government of Arts & Commerce College, Jafrabad, Amreli, Gujarat, India

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There are many internal and external factors that play very important role in psychological well-being (PWB). And it is also the fact that the PWB, it depends on every human nature. In the present time, every students suffer in academic stress, social anxiety, and sometimes depression also. And this all surrounding factors are affected on person’s well-being either mental or physical. The main aim of the present research is to find out the PWB among girls and boys student. In this study, PWB questionnaire was used which was constructed and standardized by Bhogle (1995). And t-test was applied to check the difference between the two groups. The result obtained through the study showed (t=4.63) significant difference among boys and girls.
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The multidimensional aspect of stress and its management
Page 979-984
Roomana N. Siddiqui, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh Uttar Pradesh, India and Shabana Mazhar, Joseph School of Business Management, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

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The fast-changing pace of modern living has put human beings under insurmountable pressure. Be it the home or work place, individuals are subjected to different forms of demands and expectations. This could relate to meeting deadlines, completion of the task, reaching one’s destination as per requirement, meeting one’s own aspirations or families expectations, all add to the pressure. This pressure may be a harbinger of the stress experience. According to Baum (1990), stress is any uncomfortable “emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes”. This multidimensional nature of stress makes its understanding quite intriguing as well as challenging. Since stress is the bane of modern life, one cannot simply remove it neither ignore it. It is here to stay. Stress gets aggravated if there is denial or reluctance to confront it. Instead of denial, one needs to identify the stress symptoms and deal with it in an effective manner. It is best to have a problem focused approach wherein one makes a positive attempt to manage the situation in a manner that either solves the problem or minimizes the impact of stress
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Sources and consequences of stress: A call for action
Page 985-989
Prabhat Kumar Mishra Department of Educational Psychology and Foundations of Education, National Council of Educational Research and Training, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi, India

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A stress-free life is not possible in today’s environment. This article is an attempt to present an overview of sources and consequences of stress. It discusses the various sources of stress, i.e., general sources as well as sources of stress at work. Every individual needs a moderate amount of stress to be alert and capable of functioning. However, an excess of stress can make a person dysfunctional. The threshold of stress differs for each individual. The consequences of stress have been described under three broad categories: Psychosomatic, psychological, and behavioral. Though stress has become an inevitable part of our social functioning, it can be prevented and managed to a large extent through planned efforts. Some strategies for counteracting stress at organizational and individual levels have been suggested.
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Psycho-social concomitants of coping behavior among mothers of mentally retarded children
Page 990-994
Sudha Rathore and Roopa Mathur Department of Psychology, IIS University Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

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Parents of children with disability have additional demand than the parents of children without disability. Perhaps because of this reason dysfunctional families are particularly noticeable in medical setting, much of the literature on families with children with disability has approached family stress from a deficit model. Successful, adaptive functioning of families with children with disability has not received sufficient attention. In fact, there is a growing body of knowledge, which indicates that the presence of a family member with a disability may contribute to the strengthening of the entire family unit, as well as contribute positively to the quality of life of individual members of the family. Children with supportive parents have fewer problems and also reported positive change in life. These parents, especially mothers used problem-focused coping, religious-faith and denial-blame. They also reported that as coping increases psychological stress decreases. Social factors play important role in coping. Support by others to the mothers of developmentally delayed children act as the facilitators in carrying up the life ahead. Parents especially mothers of developmentally delayed shows high resilient behavior and high quality of the dyadic relationship.
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Need of psychological well-being and coping strategies among the parents of disabled children
Page 995-997
Mubashir Gull Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

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The present article is an endeavor to find out the importance of psychological well-being and coping strategies among the parents of disabled children. As the parents of disabled children are facing psychological stress due to the presence of their disabled children. Hence, these parents need to have sound psychological well-being; subsequently they should know the implications of coping strategies. Parents of these children should be well aware of the coping strategies as it helps them to deal with these disabled children’s comfortably.
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Stress and depression among mothers of children with mental retardation
Page 998-999
Shams Un Nisa, Humera Shafi and Touseef Rizvi Department of Psychology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

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Child’s disability has a profound impact on parent’s functioning especially mothers. Mothers are most distressed, and this stress shows itself in the form of depression and other psychological problems and causes mother’s function or performance to drop. The present research endeavor was aimed to study the relationship of different stressors with depression among mothers of children with mental retardation. The sample consisted of 38 mothers of mentally retarded children drawn from three institutes of Srinagar city working for these children. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant positive correlation between different stresses (viz. daily care stress, family emotional stress, social stress, and financial stress) and depression.
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