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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 10
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Study on depression, hopelessness, anxiety, cognitive rigidity, affective dysregulation and family environment as predictors of suicide ideation among male adolescents
Page 1124-1129
Ibadat Khan, V.V. Upmanyu and Seema Vinayak, Department of Psychology, Panjab University Chandigarh and Sajjan Kumar Government College for Women Lakhanmajra, Rohtak, Haryana

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Suicide is a social as well mental problem worldwide. Suicide ideation is the pre-indication of suicide attempts or completion of suicide. Adolescents are at risk of suicide ideation while facing life challenges. It is often seen in the higher rate of suicide commitment among young male population. Many cognitive, emotional, and familial factors play a major role in evoking suicidal thoughts among male adolescents. The present study was an attempt to investigate the role of depression, hopelessness, anxiety, cognitive rigidity, affective dysregulation, and family environment as predictors of suicide ideation. The sample consisted of 150 male adolescents with age range of 15-17 years from different government schools of Chandigarh. The obtained data was analyzed with stepwise regression analysis. The results revealed that combination of decreased organization and moral-religious emphasis in family environment and depression were the potent predictors of suicide ideation among male adolescents.
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Role of psychotherapeutic intervention among breast cancer survivors on quality of life
Page 1130-1136
Joby. P. A. and Prabhavati Shukla SOS in Psychology. Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhatisgarh

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The present study is a venture to unfold the effects of a group-based Cognitive behavioural stress management intervention (CBSM) among Indian early-breast cancer survivors on quality of life. In India, breast cancer is the most widespread malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in adult females. With enhanced early detection and treatment, great numbers of breast cancer patients are surviving several years after diagnosis with declining quality of life. Quality of life of women is considered an important issue in the treatment of women with breast cancer. Psychosocial interventions have demonstrated efficacy for serving patients and families confront the many fears that come up during this hard time. Subjects of the present research were 60 women survivors of early-breast cancer. To study the problem pre and post experimental design with control group were opted. The experimental group was received weekly 2 hrs sittings for a period of 10 week group-based Cognitive behavioural stress management intervention while the control group received only a 1-day psychoeducational group seminar. The Indian adaptation of EORTC QLQ-C 30, version 3.0 and its breast cancer supplementary measure QLQ-BR23 questionnaires were administered to Pre, post and follow-up study for the assessment of quality of life (QoL). Pre, post and follow-up study data were analysed by implying one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired samples T- tests. The result revealed that group-based Cognitive behavioural stress management intervention was effective and produced significant effects on post and follow-up experimental group's survivor's quality of life. In contrast, minimal change was observed in control group survivor's quality of life. It may be concluded that Breast cancer survivors truly need psychotherapeutic support and in particular a group-based psychotherapeutic interventions can substantially improve the quality of life of breast cancer survivors.
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Relationship between temperament and coping among young adults living away from family
Page 1137-1144
Meghana Devotta, Ankita R and U. Vijayabanu Department of Counselling Psychology, Madras School of Social Work, Egmore, Chennai

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Living away from family brings about the need to adapt to the major changes taking place in a person's life. Some of the changes are positive, while some are negative due to the stress it places on the individual. As a result, the ability to cope becomes a necessity while making the required adjustments. One of the most important factors impacting coping is temperament. Hence the present study was aimed at finding out the relationship between temperament and coping among individuals who stay away from their families. Research design used in the present study was ex-post facto using purposive sampling technique. A sample of 175 individuals was selected for the study of age group 20-30 years. The average number of years spent away from family was 3.4 years. Amongst the sample collected, there were 101 females and 74 males. Rothbart's Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ) was used to measure temperament and Coping Response Inventory by Moos (1993) to measure coping. The results revealed that a significant relationship exists between temperament and coping. There is a gender difference in Temperament and in Coping styles. The study proves the need for counselling services and the necessity of stress relieving techniques for individuals living away from family as their basic source of support & comfort is taken away.
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Women, stress and family: An empirical approach
Page 1145-1149
Aradhana Shukla Department of Psychology, Kuamun University Campus, Almora

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Marriage is a relationship which involves emotional and legal commitment and bonds a man and woman in a thread of love. It continues through children physical attraction, mental support and formation of strong family relationship but some times this family role passes through some difficult roué and people solve if through their understanding. In this study on attempt was made to seek out the pattern of experiential stress living with and without their has bonds and in joining and neuclear families. It was contended that ((i) variation in the level of employment would cause variation in experiential stress (ii) Women living with and without their husbands would show difference in the level of experiential stress (iii) variation in the level of stress would be caused by the family structure i.e. joint nuclear family. Eighty women of employed and unemployed status and ranging between 25 to 35 years served as participants and they were arranged according to the requirements of 3-way factories design with two levels of (employment status employed/unemployed) two level of marital status (living with husband/living without husband) and two types of family spretimes (joint and neculear) i.e. 10 participants per all. Living with husband was defined to those who used to live with their husband in permanent mode their whereas without husbanded women were those whose husbands were far from their due to job condition. Home climate supportiveness scale and stress and stress management scale developed by the author were used. Doctor were analyzed by ANOVA and it was found that (i) magnitude of stress was higher in employed women (ii) women who were living without their husbands were higher on stress and (iii) nuclear family gave less stress than joint family.
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“Workplace spirituality”: A perfect remedy for human resource management in health care organizations in India
Page 1150-1155
Sneha Singh Munda Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP

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A shift in the consciousness of workers at all levels of the organization is beginning to occur as they seek to find more meaning, purpose and fulfilment in their work. Which generate the need of postmodern management practices that emphasize spiritual principles and practices, as opposed to the current prevailing modern management practices . This paper through a review of literature and empirical research findings indicated a relationship between spirituality and organizational behaviour such as organizational commitment and quality of services provided by healthcare professionals in Indian hospitals. Study was conducted on the sample consisted of 253 medical professionals ranging from physicians to the nursing staff. Within the sample 126 participants belonged to a private hospital and 127 belonged to the public hospital. Scale used in the study were “Workplace spirituality”, “Quality of patient care”, “Organizational commitment” and Demographic variables such as salary and promotion. We hypothesized that private hospital is high in modern infrastructure and salary so it would provide better quality of patient care then public hospital and organizational commitment would also be higher in medical professionals of private hospital then public hospital. For analysis correlation and stepwise regression was used. Result showed that salary and promotion showed moderate/insignificant relationship with quality of care and organizational commitment in both the hospitals. Whereas “workplace spirituality” showed higher relationship with “quality of care” and “organizational commitment “in both the hospitals. The study has important implications for Indian hospitals in the private and public sector which are currently facing problems of providing quality of care to their patients and maintain organizational commitment of medical professionals due to staff perceptions of inadequacy of their workplace environments and job conditions. Data also showed that hr management stra
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Value orientation of college teachers
Page 1156-1160
Triveni, S. Department of Psychology, Karnataka University Dharwad, Karnataka

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Human values can be arranged into a value system which is “an enduring organization of beliefs concerning preferable modes of conduct or end states of existence along a continuum of relative importance” (Rokeach, 1973, p. 5). Teachers in India have the role of building the personality of today's youth. They need to display an ideal conduct which consists of an integrated value system so that they maintain their personal balance and integrity to deliver their duties sincerely. Hence, there is a need to study the value orientation of college teachers. The present study is undertaken with the objective of understanding the value orientation of college teachers and their socio-demographic correlates. A sample of 100 college teacher (male 50 and female 50) within the age range of 28to 60 from Govt and private aided colleges of Northern Karnataka, i.e., Hubli and Dharwad city areas are selected through purposive sampling technique. Rokeach's Value Survey developed by Rokeach in 1968 which consists of lists of 18 Terminal and 18 Instrumental values that are to be ranked based on the importance to the subject as a guiding principle of their life, was used to assess the value orientation of the sample. The results reveal that Most preferred terminal value s of college teachers are Health (Rank 1), A comfortable life (Rank2) and National Security (Rank 3). Whereas the most preferred Instrumental values are Honest (Rank1) Ambitious (Rank 2) and Clean (Rank 3). Gender difference in both the values are studied and socio-demographic correlates are discussed. Implications are suggested.
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Psycho-social morbidities among adolescents: A threat to physical and mental well-being
Page 1161-1164
Sarita Saini, Deepika Vig and Harleen Kaur, Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of adolescents regarding the prevalence of various Psycho-Social Morbidities, viz., Depression, Attention and Thought Problems, Somatic Complaints, Aggression, Delinquent Behaviour, Social Problems and Withdrawn Behaviour in the present day society. The study was based upon the sample of 200 adolescents (100 boys and 100 girls) drawn equally from randomly selected Senior Secondary Schools of Ludhiana City. The Socio-economic Status Scale by Sharma (2010) was administered to ascertain the middle socio-economic status of the sample adolescents. Thereafter, a self- structured questionnaire in Punjabi vernacular adapted from Youth Self Report (YSR) Inventory by Achenbach (2001) was administered to the sampled adolescents to obtain the information pertaining to their perceptions regarding prevalent psycho-social morbidities. The results revealed that 'Social Problems' followed by 'Attention and Thought Problems' were the major threat to the psychological well-being of the youth in contemporary society whereas, 'Aggression and Delinquent Behaviour' were perceived as the least existent. Also, significant gender differences were observed in 'Aggression and Delinquent Behaviour' dimension of psycho-social morbidities with significantly more number of boys experiencing 'average' and 'high' level of 'Aggression and Delinquent Behaviour' as compared to their female counterparts. These trends call for an urgent attention towards preserving the physical and psychological well-being of youth through the resolution of the sporadic struggle and mental conflicts which adolescents reportedly face in the present day society.
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Effect of mindfulness therapy on attention deficit among adolescents with symptoms of attention deficit disorder
Page 1165-1172
Soamya and Sandeep Singh Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a complex disorder with diverse challenges arising at each new phase of a child's developmental span. The clinical presentation of ADHD consists of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The American Psychiatric Association 2013 documented ADHD as “impairing disorder”. There is a growing body of research on the effectiveness of mindfulness for children and adolescents with psychopathology reported by Black et al. (2009); Burke (2010). Jon Kabat Zinn (2003) described mindfulness as the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmental to the unfolding of experiences moment by moment. The rationale for using a mindfulness therapy with ADHD is built on several levels of potential impact, that the mindfulness based therapy focuses on the ability to enhance, control attention and to reduce automatic responses Teasdale et al. (1995). The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of six months mindfulness therapy on attention deficit of adolescents manifesting symptoms of ADHD. Sample: The target sample of the study comprises of 33 adolescent with the age group of 13 to 16 years of private schools. The sample in the present study was assessed for attention deficit by different measures. The D2 Attention by Brickenkamp and Zillmer (1998) was administered to measure sustained and focuses attention. The symptom of inattention was measured by Conner's 3 parent rating scale by Conners (2008) and further attention again was assessed with Brown's ADD Scales by Brown (2001). The outcome of the present study was analyzed by applying paired t- test on [pair 1 (baseline and middle phase), pair 2 (middle and post) and pair 3 (baseline & post)]. The finding of the present study indicates the considerable improvement on the alertness, attention, concentration and focus. The practice of mindfulness based therapy strengthens the ability to sustain and monitor the attention. The
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Social support as a mediator variable of burnout among married and unmarried teacher
Page 1173-1176
Kiran Sahu and Priya Gupta Department of Psychology, G. D. H. G . College Moradabad, U.P.

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Social support is the degree to which individuals have access to social resources, in the form of relationships, on which they can rely. Social network is meaningful social contact, availability of social confidants and human companionship. Social Support is an enduring pattern of continuous or intermittent ties that play a significant part in the individual's life over time. He further states that emotional support consists of enduring interpersonal ties to a group of people who can be called upon to provide emotional sustenance, assistance and resources in time of need, who provide feedback and who share standards and values. The aim of the present study is to find out the social support as a mediator variable of burnout an organizational role stress among married and unmarried women teachers. The investigators used the questionnaire of Sarason, Levine Bashan and Sarason (1983) to measure social support, Maslach's Inventory (1981) to measure burnout and ORS to measure organizational role stress. The results revealed that due to social support these teachers neither exhausted emotionally nor feel lack of personal accomplishment therefore treated their pupils as humans not as an object. The significant mediating effects of social support showed for unmarried teachers when the criterion variable emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, dimensions of burnout. While for married teachers social support was the predator variable for personal accomplishment a third dimension of burnout.
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Role of mental health, and depression in suicidal ideation among married professionals
Page 1177-1180
Sandeep Panchal and Updesh Kumar Defence Institute of Psychological Research, (DRDO), Delhi and H. L. Joshi Department of Psychology Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

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Mental health problems are an important public health concern for all age groups, but especially for married professionals. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of mental health and depression in suicidal ideation among married professionals. The sample consisted of 200 married professionals in the age range of 25 to 40 years. Symptom check list -90 (Derogatis, et al., 1973), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1996), and Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (Reynolds, 1991) were administered to the respondents. Results of the Pearson product moment correlation revealed that depression and mental health found to be positively correlated with suicidal ideation among married professionals. Stepwise regression analysis revealed two potent predictors of suicidal ideation i.e. Depression and phobic anxiety which account 29% of the variance.
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Inter relationship between parental use of positive values and strong family bonds
Page 1181-1183
Deepika Vig and I.J.S. Jaswal, Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, PAU, Ludhiana

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The present study was an attempt to explore the inter relationship between type of values parents have and its impact on their relationship with teenaged sons and daughters. Families for the present study were purposively selected from four zones of Ludhiana city. These families were nuclear families from middle and upper- middle class where both parents were at least graduate and were working and had one teenaged son and teenaged daughter between 13-19 years of age. The target sample in each family was father, mother, son and daughter. Thus, the present study was based upon a total sample size of 400 respondents (100 of each fathers, mothers, sons & daughters). A self-constructed socio-demographic questionnaire was used to identify families that fulfilled the inclusion criteria set for the present study. Socio-Economic Scale (Bhardwaj, 2001) was used to identify families with middle and upper-middle socio-economic status. Relationship of teenage sons and daughters with their parents was assessed by using Parent Child Relationship Scale by Sharma and Chuahan (2002). The results of the study revealed that parents who gave value to love, empathy, cooperativeness, tolerance, flexibility, commitment, scientific thinking, mutual understanding and showed expression of fondness and devoted attachment towards their children, were perceived as better parents by their sons and daughters. Parents' positive attitude towards children, emotional stability, consistency in their thoughts and actions presented them as sufficiently effective and inspiring models for their children to follow.
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Defense mechanisms and psychological distress in perfectionists
Page 1184-1187
Shriparna Singh, Department of Psychology, The IIS University, Jaipur and Deepika Rathore, Department of Psychology, ICG, The IIS University, Jaipur

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Many individuals are concerned with meeting high standards for performance. In recent time there has been extensive support for a two dimensional structure of perfectionism emphasizing maladaptive and adaptive aspects of the construct. Therefore present study attempts to explore defense mechanism utilized by different types of perfectionists and non-perfectionists and to compare psychological distress among the different group of perfectionists and non-perfectionists. Sample comprised of 100 female college students in the age range of 21-24 years. The scales utilized for the study were The Almost Perfect Scale Revised (Ashby &Trippi et al., 2001), Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (Andrews et al., 1993), Hopkins Symptom Checklist-21 (Green et al., 1988). The data obtained was analyzed by using analysis of variance. Results revealed that maladaptive perfectionists tend to employ immature defenses whereas adaptive perfectionist reported highest usage of mature defense mechanism. In addition, results show that maladaptive perfectionist reported highest psychological distress followed by non-perfectionist, and least by perfectionist adaptive group.
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Predicting effect of social support on psychological wellbeing in elderly
Page 1188-1190
Swati Mishra, Deepak Pandey, Khan Abrar uz Zaman Khan, Joby P.A. and Meeta Jha, School of Studies in Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G.

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Several empirical piece of research work illustrated that predicting effect of social support on psychological wellbeing. But predicting effect of social support on psychological wellbeing is lacking in Indian perspectives. The purpose of current research work is to examine the predicting effect of social support on psychological wellbeing. Employed stratified disproportional random sampling technique 200 elderly within the age range of 60 to 70 years were selected from Chhattisgarh State. Correlational research design was employed in present research work. Psychological wellbeing was assessed by PGI general wellbeing questionnaire (Verma & Verma, 1989). Social support was assessed by self developed social support questionnaire. Predicting effect was examining by hierarchal regression analysis. Control factors (socio-demographic factors) explained 18% of total variance (R2=.180; F (5, 194) = 100.250; p<0.01). Social support explained an additional 20% (F (1,193) = 35.121, p<0.01) of the variance. Those who had higher degree of social support (0.480, p<0.01) were reported higher levels of psychological wellbeing. There is satisfactory observed and statistical confirmation of the predicting effect of social support on psychological wellbeing in elderly.
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Assessment of certain life skills among high school adolescents of Jaipur district
Page 1191-1193
Ruby Jain and Siddhi Goyal, Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Adolescence is a period of transition between playful childhood and responsible adulthood with a large number of changes in physical, psychological and social domains of life. Adolescent boys and girls encounter social identity crisis, emotional turmoil, peer pressure and anti social behavior, problems in intimate relationship with opposite sex partners, conflicts with parents on values and morality, academic pressure and uncertainties about future. Life skills education can facilitate adolescent's practices and reinforce psychosocial skills in a culturally and developmentally appropriate way; it contributes to the promotion of personal and social development, the prevention of health and social problems, and the protection of human rights in young peoples. Life skills education promotes mental well-being in young people and equips them to face the realities of life. The purpose of the study was to assess Life Skills among 11th grade girls and boys student of Government Senior Secondary School of Jaipur district. The main reason for selecting only 11th grade students was that Life Skills Education is a compulsory subject in eleventh standard; therefore, 400 students (200 girls and 200 boy's students) were randomly selected from 16 Government Senior Secondary School of Jaipur District. The data were collected by using the LAS scale (Only Problem Solving, Decision Making, Coping with Emotions & Stress variables were taken for the study). Pretest and posttest design was used for data collection. Results show that girls were better on some of the Life Skills as compare to boys, in both pre and post test phases.
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Aggression among adolescents across different socio-economic developmental strata: A comparative study
Page 1194-1197
Vandana Kumari, Department of Home Science Govt. Girls PG College, Ghazipur, UP and Tejpreet K. Kang and Princy, Department of Human Development Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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The present study entitled “aggression among adolescents across different socio-economic developmental strata- A comparative study” was under taken in the Ludhiana district of Punjab state. The study was designed to compare the aggression among adolescent boys and girls across different socio-economic and developmental strata. The sample comprised of 400 adolescents (200 boys and 200 girls) in the age group of 13-17 years equally distributed over two socio-economic developmental strata. i.e. low and middle. Socio-economic status scale by Bharadwaj and Buss-Durkee aggression scale by Sultania were used to collect the data. Results revealed that adolescent boys were more assaultive, negative and verbally aggressive than adolescent girls, while girls were more suspicious than boys. A significant mean difference was found among low and middle socio-economic developmental adolescents. Low socio-economic developmental adolescents were more assaultive and suspicious than their middle socio-economic development counterparts while middle socio-economic developmental adolescents supersedes low socio-economic development adolescents in expression of indirect aggression.
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Optimism among institutionalized elderly: A gender study
Page 1198-1200
Shilpa Singh and Archana Shukla, Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, U.P.

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The present research aims to study the level of optimism among institutionalized male and female elderly. For the purpose, a study was conducted on a purposive sample consisting of 200 elderly (62-72 yrs.) staying in various institutionalized homes of Delhi. The Hindi version of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (or Optimism Scale) by Schrier and Carver (1985) was used for the present study. An overview of the results depicted that a major section of the elderly population under study had high level of optimism. Gender differences were observed as females were found to be more optimistic as compared to males.
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Psychological impact of parental divorce on children: A qualitative study
Page 1201-1205
Anuradha Deshpande and Neelam Pandey, Amity Institute of Psychology and Allied Sciences, Amity University, Noida, UP

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The present qualitative research was conducted in Delhi-NCR using the Children's Apperception Test to study the Psychological Impact of Parental Divorce on Children. A total sample of 20 was taken with an age bracket of 6-10 years. 10 children out of these belonged to intact families and 10 to divorced parents. A thematic analysis was done of the children's responses based on which common themes were derived under the 2 categories, namely- Adaptive Mechanism Schedule and Story Dynamics (as in the original study by Haworth & Lawton) Overall result showed that children are negatively impacted by the divorce of their parents. It has a massive impact on the internal environment of the child as is visible by the predominant usage of unhealthy mechanisms and the frequency of negative responses to define the theme of a story on the test as compared to children who belong to intact families. The results are therefore in line with the hypothesis.
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Psycho-social care among the victims of ethnic violence in Assam
Page 1206-1209
Rita Rani Talukdar and Nesmita Das, Department of Psychology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam

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Throughout ages, society and its members have withstood countless tragedies and acts of violence, natural disasters, plagues and acts of war, among others. Among them the scourge of ethnic conflict has become one of the most destructive threats to the human condition. The current study aims to explore the psycho-social burden experienced by the victims (N = 60) of Bodoland Territorial Autonomous Districts (BTAD) area of Assam in Kokrajhar in the year 2013 and examine the need for psycho-social care for the survivors of ethnic conflict in order to promote positive mental health and personal well- being. Terrorism Catastrophizing Scale (TCS) and a semi-structured interview schedule was used in order to explore the experiences of the victims of this disastrous man-made disaster. Findings of this study revealed that the victims of ethnic violence experienced various psycho-social burden and there is an urgent need for providing psycho-social care to these victims in order to foster positive mental health and resilience among the individuals and the society.
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A study of relationship between perceived parenting styles and social maturity among urban adolescents
Page 1210-1212
Shirish K. Shitole, Department of Psychology, Mahavir Mahavidyalaya, Kolhapur, Maharashtra

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This research aims at finding out gender difference in parenting style for adolescents in urban setting and its relationship with their social maturity. Two scales namely, Parenting Scale by Bharadwaj Sharma and Garg (1998) and A Comprehensive Scale for Social Maturity by Pal Roma (1986) were used for this purpose. The sample was taken from Kolhapur city in Maharashtra and the number was 80 (40 Males and 40 Females). From observations, it is found that mother's perceived parenting style is significantly different in case of urban adolescent boys and girls (z = 2.59). But in case of father's perceived parenting style, there found no significant difference (z = 1.63). For urban adolescents, the correlation between social maturity and mother's parenting style was .6 (p<.01). The correlation coefficient between father's parenting style and urban adolescents' social maturity was .52 (p<.01). In case of boys, the correlation between their social maturity and mother's parenting style was .63 (p<.01) and for father's parenting style, it was .58 (p<.01). In case of girls, these respective values were .47 (p<.01) and .41 (p<.01). The correlation between mother's parenting style and father's parenting style for urban adolescents was also calculated. In case of all urban adolescents, it was .38 (p<.01). In case of urban boys, the value was .2 and was non-significant. In case of urban girls, this value was .54 and was significant at .01 level.
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A study of family environment and adjustment of young adults
Page 1213-1215
Kiran Sahu and Dheerja Singh, Department of Psychology, G.D.H.G. College, Moradabad, UP

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Family environment as one in which all members are happy, contended and harmonious, in which each individual is respected and given rights, privileges and responsibilities, suited to his age, and in which there is no dominance by either or both parents or by older children who are permitted to boss over younger ones Hurlock (1972). Adjustment in life is the key to happiness. No one's environment and family circumstances are smooth everyone has to struggle as long as he lives. Mutual give and take in society and family circumstances is necessary for a well adjusted happy life. The aim of the present study is to find out the relationship between family environment and adjustment among young adults and further to find out the gender differences regarding these variables. For this purpose 100 young adults (50 male and 50 female) were taken from Moradabad District of U.P. Family Relationship Scale (FES) (1993) by Bhatia and Chadha and Adjustment Inventory by Sinha and Singh were used for measuring family environment and adjustment of these young adults respectively. Results indicated that these young adults have good level of adjustment as well as family environment. In addition, males and females were significantly differed on these variables and some of its dimensions. Further, correlational analysis elucidated that there was positive correlation between family environment and adjustment. This implies that if the environment of family is good and motivating and cohesiveness is found among family members, the adjustment capacity of these young adults will increased and resulted in happy and healthy personality.
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Study of children's personality among older boys and older girls
Page 1216-1218
Azara Parveen and Kiran Joshi, Department of Psychology, M.B.P.G. College, Haldwani

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The present study is aimed to explore about the personality differences between boys and girls. The areas of children's personality questionnaire are 14 dimensions. Here we are watching Comparison of Boys and Girls on Measure of children's Personality questionnaire. Sample of the Study: The sample consists of 120 students (60 male and 60 female) younger and older children various school of Kumoun region for the present investigation. Simple statistical techniques are employed for the analysis of data collected for the study. We can say that there is significant difference in personality of boys and girls. In CPQ A we got the higher score of girls in comparison of boys. CPQ B we got the higher score of girls in comparison of boys. CPQ D we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls. CPQ E we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls. CPQ F we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls. CPQ G we got the higher score of girls in comparison of boys. CPQ H we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls. CPQ I we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls. CPQ O we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls. CPQ Q3 we got the higher score of girls in comparison of boys. CPQ Q4 we got the higher score of boys in comparison of girls.
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A study of creativity in science learning of secondary school students in relation to their intelligence
Page 1219-1221
Prakash Sannakanavar Department of Education, Karnataka State Women's University, Toavi Campus, Karnataka

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Intelligence is classically defined as “the ability to acquire and utilize knowledge.” In testing circumstances, an Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is gauged by one’s ability to utilize information gained historically. Creativity is the ability to come up with new ideas through a mental process of connecting existing concepts. The ideas don’t have to be revolutionary (which is a common misconception many people have about creative thinking), they just have to be new for the thinker. Intelligence certainly plays a part in creative thinking, but not how you might expect. Your IQ is generally gauged by an ability to interpret information and provide solutions, no matter the circumstance. In mathematics and basic sciences IQ is immensely important, because it demonstrates your ability to memorize concepts and repeat their results on similar problems. If I tell you that two plus two equals four, you should (ideally) be able to intelligently conclude that four plus four equals twice the original answer. This fact alone demonstrates intelligence’s relation to creativity, one that is vital for not only understanding creative thinking, but for improving it. Another important aspect of intelligence is the ability to filter solutions efficiently.
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Quality of life among female sex workers
Page 1222-1224
Archana Shukla and Deepti Mehrotra, Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, U.P.

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The present study endeavourers to cast a glance at the Quality of Life among Female Sex Workers in CREATE (Centre for Rural Entrepreneurship and Technical Education) at Lucknow, with the help of WHO QOL-BREF 1996 questionnaire. Sample comprised of 30 female sex workers selected on the basis of purposive sampling (age ranged 20-30 years). Results revealed poor quality of life of FSW further in terms of domains they were high on psychological and environmental domains of quality of life as compared to physical and social domains.
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Value and ethics: Indian army perspective
Page 1225-1228
Anjali Rana, Junior Research Fellow, Defence Institute of Psychological Research, DRDO, Timarpur, Delhi

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Values occupy a prominent place in the scientific and public discourse at various levels. They are among the very few social psychological concepts that have been lucratively employed across all social science disciplines. Every entrant into the army is an individual with needs and aspirations, and his personal value, knowledge-set and world-view. The selection process for entry into the army essentially determines his trainability, and the training process instills military values in him and gives knowledge and skills to be an effective member of a team. Later, in-service training on courses and exercises, and functioning in various postings and deployments reinforces military values and builds team-spirit, motivation self-confidence and morale. The military ethics are the collection of values, beliefs, ideals, principles and other moral ethical knowledge held by the Services. They are embedded in military culture that inspires and regulates individual and organizational behavior. Military Ethics applies to a specialized realm and has developed principles appropriate to help guide future operations. The armed forces must be always ethically governed to uphold the defence of the nation and its national interests. Within this construct, this paper offers an overview of value and ethics in Indian army. The paper stresses on the need for upholding values and ethics in the armed forces as it is an absolute requirement if we are to retain the sacred trust of the society and the nobility of the profession of arms. The need for overall moral and ethical standards and adherence to institutional values is clearly obvious. The article thereafter dwells with the erosion of values and ethics in Armed Forces and certain suggestions that could be emphasized to enhance the prevalent ethical climate.
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A study of well being in meditators
Page 1229-1231
Anita Moral, Department of Psychology S.V. Degree College, Aligarh, U.P., Raj Kumar, Department of Physiology NRI Medical College, Vishakhapatnam, A.P. and Manisha Sharma, Department of in Psychology, C.C.S. University, Meerut

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Meditation is the state of skillful awareness. Now a days, immense effects are studied by researcher about this state, which have various psychological, neurological and physiological effects. Rob Nairn (1989) explains meditation as a highly alert and skillful state of mind. The present study attempts to assess the effect of meditation and gender on well being on 80 subjects who were divided into two groups, one was Experimental and second was Control. Each group consists of 40 subjects (20 male and 20 female). To measure the status of well being the P.G.I. general well being measure (PGIG, WBM, Verma & Verma, 1989) was used. The results of study clearly define significant difference (f-value 83.70) on the status of well being between meditators and non-meditators. Results also indicate the significant difference of gender (f-value 17.66) on well being. Concluding results highlight the significant effect of meditation and gender on well being.
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Gratitude interventions and its applications in youth
Page 1232-1235
Ritu and Madhu Anand, Department of Psychology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana

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To date, nearly half of the work supporting the efficacy of gratitude interventions did so by making contrasts with techniques that induce negative affect (e.g., record your daily hassles). Gratitude interventions in youth consistently boost, and maintain, positive benefits. Gratitude interventions lead to greater gratitude, life satisfaction, optimism, prosocial behavior, positive affect, well-being, as well as decreased negative affect. Experiencing and expressing gratitude can help improve youth moods, strengthen their social ties, and cultivate a sense of purposeful engagement with the world. Though such experiences are critical for healthy development, research on gratitude in youth or the development of gratitude is only now emerging. In this paper, we review recent research on the benefits of gratitude to individuals, especially youth, and the interventions that have been empirically shown to foster gratitude in youth. The paper highlights three categories of gratitude interventions: (a) counting blessings, (b) the gratitude visit, and (c) learning schematic help appraisals. We conclude by suggesting potential ways gratitude can be applied in schools to help boost students' social and academic success.
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Training and development scenario in public and private sector banks
Page 1236-1239
Bimal Singh and Vismita Paliwal, Amity University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Over the last few years, India's economy has been on a high growth trajectory creating unprecedented opportunities for its banking sector. Most banks have enjoyed high growth and their valuations have appreciated significantly during this period. To maintain this growth, proper training and development of the employees is required In order to meet up with the growing demands of the customers and the market. With change in the economic scenario of India, change in the level of training and development has also been observed. In the present study the changes and challenges in the training and development process of the employees of public and private sector banks is been reviewed. With the help of studies conducted in this field it is concluded that private sector banks are more conscious about the level of training provided to their employees and the rate of the development of their banks to meet up with the latest standards as compared to the public sector banks. Implications and limitations of the study are stated.
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Transition in adolescents' value system: A review study
Page 1240-1243
Savita Rathour and Tejpreet K. Kang, Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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Values refer to wider notion of collective identity: religious values, attitudes towards materialism, moral beliefs and a sense of collective awareness and are a broader and more encompassing concept. Values are ideas, opinions and attitudes about the core content of human civilization and socialization. Under the influence of globalization, openness, information coming from the media and contact with other cultures, traditional values are changing. The globalization processes also affect local communities with their traditional values. These changes are creating confusion and disbelief, especially in the minds of the younger generation. The current state of globalization, modernization, political and cultural diversity is causing imbalance in the proportion of the common concept of values. This study presents the sociological analysis of the changing value system and its effects on society, especially on the youth. The main objectives were to explore the major value changes and its implications on the society due to rapid development of globalization along with other change agents. Changes were reflected in the existing value system through the process of globalization, modernization and media communication. Besides this young people are particularly vulnerable to this change due to many reasons such as freedom of choice, growing materialism, blind imitation to western culture and changing family structure.
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Emotional quotient (EQ): The essence of life
Page 1244-1248
Sudha Srikanth and Reeta Sonawat, Department of Human Development, SNDT Women's University, Mumbai

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The aim of this study is to explore the available literature on Emotional Intelligence (EI) and understand it's application in day to day life. This paper is a culmination of various studies in EI which indicate that Emotional Intelligence can add essence to life. To provide greater focus and direction to the readers, the studies have been divided into the following sub-topics: Concept of EI, Models of EI, Skills in EI, Contribution of EI to enhance quality of life. Emotional Intelligence forms the foundation for enhanced learning, optimal relationships and effective decision-making.EI, according to Nancy Gibbs (1995) of TIME magazine “may be the best predictor of success in life.” Believing that cognitive ability plays a rather limited role in accounting for why some people are more successful than others, Daniel Goleman (1995) agreed with Salovey and Mayer's work in the early 1990's. Displaced anger, violence and aggression, failed relationships, crimes, abuses, well, the list seems endless! All these have one thing in common…..emotions.Words uttered in haste, out of place actions, reactions instead of responses, no signs of forgiving and letting go add to the woes. The missing piece in this beautiful puzzle of life seems to be unattended, ignored and repressed emotions. Inspite of theories and models, it can be concluded that EI with regard to application in everyday life has not been researched enough.“Nurturing Values and Strengths in Individuals and Society: Role of Psychology” being the theme for the conference, it is of utmost importance that we at this juncture in life, take a step back and evaluate why are there so many crimes in this world of fast track technology? How can we take a step forward in the area of research to understand EQ-The Essence of Life.
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Parents-teachers' partnership in strength and value based education: Life skills module
Page 1249-1251
Anil V Counseling Psychologist, Bangalore, Karnataka

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Our India has been a country with its roots in rich values and traditions. With the influences of westernisation along with globalisation and urbanisation, we are forgetting our very own values thus leading to finding a new self without the awareness of one self. The very first lesson been taught could be understood with this shloka “Vidya Dadaati Vinayam, Vinayad yaati Paatratam, Patratwad Dhanavaapnothi, dhanaad dharmam tat sukham” The meaning is Education gives Humility; Humility gives Character; from character one gets wealth; from wealth one gets righteous (dharmam) life; from righteousness gets happiness. But where is Education? Even if an individual is provided with education, how is it acquired? Humility and righteousness is something that one is unaware of. Thus, the challenge is to provide a structure to education which inculcates values in learning. Psychology though being a child in India, can play a major role in moulding budding individuals from the very school age and adolescent period. How can psychology influence young minds? Here plays the role of life skills - .'The abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life'. WHO has laid emphasis on ten generic skills that are considered as life skills and they are- critical thinking, creative thinking, problem solving, decision making, self-awareness, empathy, interpersonal relationships, coping with stress, coping with emotions and effective communication. Training of teachers to facilitate life skills in schools along with recruitment of psychologists and counsellors to impart these skills in training and workshop modes as well as organising seminars for professionals to be able to guide the young ones would be one of the better mediums in strengthening the values in individuals. The very thought would be connected to a value based education and resourceful atmosphere.
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Moral values and sexual assault with special reference to HIV and its comorbidities
Page 1252-1254
Nitin Hosmelkar, Senior Medical Officer, ART Center Hassan Institute of Medical Sciences, Hassan and Vijaya U. Patil Department of Home Science Govt Home Science College, Hassan, Karnataka

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Moral values are the highest among all natural values. Goodness, purity, truthfulness, humility of man rank higher than genius, brilliancy, exuberant vitality, than the beauty of nature or of art, than the stability and power of a state .Sexual assault and abuse is any type of sexual activity that one does not agree to, including:Inappropriate touching, Vaginal, anal, or oral penetration, Sexual intercourse that one say no to, Rape, Attempted rape, Child molestation.The risk of contracting HIV during sexual assault is low but present.Rape increases the risk of HIV transmission compared to consensual sex, as trauma is more likely and because sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) maybe more prevalent in victims of sexual assault than in the general population. These infections may increase susceptibility to HIV infection.Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is short-term antiretroviral treatment to reduce the likelihood of HIV infection after potential exposure, either occupationally or through sexual intercourse. Within the health sector, PEP should be provided as part of a comprehensive universal precautions package that reduces staff exposure to infectious hazards at work. To be effective, PEP must begin within 72 hours of exposure, before the virus has time to make too many copies of itself in human body. PEP consists of 3 antiretroviral (ART/ARV/HAART) medications and should be taken for 28 days.Non-occupational PEP (sometimes called “nPEP”), taken when someone is potentially exposed to HIV outside the workplace (e.g., from sexual assault, or during episodes of unprotected sex or needle-sharing injection drug use).Sexual assault not only bring trauma and pain to the victim but it also carries series of such psychological disturbances like quarries & cooperation to the treating Doctor & legal personnel like Police, Judicial & social workers by answering to all such questions , answering to which may sometime will be very difficult & painful. Above all this, finding a
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