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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 6
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Phenomenological view on entrepreneurial well-being
Page 654-663
Sofia A. Kauko-Valli School of Business and Economics, Ohjelmakaari, University of Jyväskylä

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The present research focuses on family business-owners experience of well-being on the phenomenological level. In this study well-being was defined as a construct consisting of facets of happiness, satisfaction with life, mood and anxiety. Happiness for family business-owners was constructed as satisfaction with life, experiencing balance between challenges and resources in life, experience balance between different roles in life, being appreciated by others and experiencing life as highly meaningful. The findings support the theory of broaden-and-build by illustrating how positive emotions may change the way we interpret the world around us and further how resilience may be built over time.
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Effectiveness of oral-aural programme on language development in pre-primary level children with hearing impairment
Page 664-670
Sita Ram Pal Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open University Ahmedabad, Gujrat, Mahendra Kumar Sardar Patel University, V.V. Nagar, Anand, Gujrat and Arun Banik AYJNIHH Mumbai

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The purpose of the present study is to emphasize the need for developing semantic language through oral-Aural programme in pre-primary level of children who are deaf and hard of hearing. The study focused on the significance of auditory reception skills vs. visual reception skills of children who were taught through aural-oral programme. The study was conducted on 34 children in the age range of 6 years to 10 years having severe to profound hearing loss. The standardized tool Language Profile Test (LPT) was used to conduct pre & post test for the study. The treatment program was given to17 hearing impaired children at pre- school for more than 30 sessions. Results of the study revealed that all the experimental subjects 6-10 years have achieved high mean scores in both receptive skills and in expressive language skills. Significant difference was found at the level of 0.01. It means that the oral-aural programme is effective for the language (semantic) development. Hence, the parents, pre-school teachers, audiologist and speech language pathologist would bring about significant changes in deaf and hard of hearing children.
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Health-related quality of life with benign thyroid diseases: A patient's perspective from urban cities of Pakistan
Page 671-675
Danish Henry, Syed Muhammad Mubeen, Ali Zain, Waqar Ulfat, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry, Hamdard University, Karachi and Zeeshan Yaqoob Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

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Benign thyroid disorders are common clinical entities with a prominent female preponderance. There are no studies from Pakistan that measured health-related quality of life of patients with benign thyroid disorders. This study assesses the health-related quality of life in patients with benign thyroid disorders from urban cities of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study involving 191 patients was conducted from July through November 2012 at three tertiary-care hospitals in three cities of Pakistan. An interview-based questionnaire containing the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), socio-demographics, and sleep disturbances were assessed. Data was analysed in SPSS Version 20. All ethical considerations were taken into account. One hundred and thirty-eight (72%) females and 53 (28%) males were evaluated. The mean age was 34.22 ± 11.1 years with slightly more than half (57.1%) patients were between 21 to 40 years. There was significant decrease in SF-36 scores in all domains. The scores of Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) was statistically significant (p<0.05) in males as compared to females. A significant 86% of the patients reported various sleep disturbances. Hair changes were the most common reported symptom followed by slow movements, mainly in the hyperthyroid group (42.4% and 44.1% respectively). This study reported a decrease in health-related quality of life among patients with benign thyroid disorders. The results can be helpful to plan improvements in managements of benign thyroid diseases, eventually improving health-related quality of life.
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Optimism, home environment and depression of urban and rural school children
Page 676-680
Hemalatha Jesudas and Shanmukh V. Kamble Department of Psychology Karnatak University Dharwad, Karnataka and Deepti B. Duggi PG Department of Psychology Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka

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The present study was taken with objective to study the difference between optimism, home environment and depression of rural and urban children. 120 tenth standard students, 60 from rural (30 male and 30 female) and 60 from urban (30 male and 30 female) were selected for the study. Optimism Children attribution style questionnaire (CASQ) by Seligman, Kaslow, Ally, Peterson, Tannenbaum and Abrahson (1984), Home environment scale by Sarla Jawa (1997), Depression CES-DC scale developed by Weissman, Orvaschell and Pandian (1980) were administered on students. 't' test was used to analyze the data. Significant difference found between the overall rural and urban students on home environment and depression, but not in optimism. As far as rural male and female children are concerned significant difference found in personal freedom and negligence, dimensions of home environment and in depression. Difference found in more dimensions of home environment, and depression of urban male and female children. Further discussion was made.
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Fear of death, depression and coping among cancer patients
Page 681-686
Mir Shahid Ali, Meena Osmany and Waheeda Khan Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and Deepti Mishra Department of Clinical Psychology, PGIBAMS, Raipur

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The cancer is curable disease, however appropriate coping and adjustment is important in facing chronic diseases, especially during the treatment period. Regardless of prognosis, the initial diagnosis of cancer is still perceived by many patients as a life-threatening event. Patients undergoing treatment for cancer face major physical and emotional challenges. All these factors have a negative impact on prognosis of illness. Most patients with chronic illnesses suffer at least some adverse psychological reactions as a result of the disease; however, do not seek formal or informal psychological treatment for their symptoms. Instead, they draw on their internal and social resources for solving problems and alleviating psychological distress. The present study is an attempt to examine fear of death, depression and coping among cancer patients. A sample of 60 cancer patients from Apollo BSR Hospital, Bhilai (C.G.) was randomly selected. Fear of death and depression level in cancer patients were measured by the Fear of Personal Death Scale and the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The Cope Scale was administered to measure their coping strategies. It was observed that 21.7% patients had fear of death; 46.7% had moderate level of depression followed by mild (38.3%). Cancer patients used Emotion focused coping (M = 11.22) more than problem solving coping (M = 8.82). Significant gender differences in fear of death and depression (P < .05) were also observed. Different treatment groups differed significantly on depression, it was more in those who were receiving both radio and chemotherapy (26.7 %) than those who were receiving only chemotherapy (20 %). The study highlights the significant level of fear of death and depression in cancer patients as a function of gender and type of treatment. Fear of death and depression was comparatively higher in female patients. Patients receiving both chemo and radiotherapy treatment were more depressed than patients receiving only chemo
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Parent-child emotional relationship as a predictor of aggression in girls
Page 687-692
Minakshi Rana Goswami Ganesh Dutta Sanatan Dharma College, Chandigarh

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The present study examined the role of emotional relationship of parents in predicting aggression among girls. The sample consisted of 500 girls, aged 11-13 years from Kullu (Himachal Pradesh, India). Stepwise Regression Analysis indicated that hindering and condemning relationship of girls with father contribute significantly to aggression with 10% of variance, and tense and distant relationship with mother, contribute significantly with 7% of variance. Collectively these factors have contributed 17% of variance in girls' aggression.
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Effect of physical education programme on neuropsychological variables
Page 693-697
Shantanu Halder and Kanchan Bandopadhyay Department of Physical Education, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical education programme on neuropsychological variables. Only one hundred college students (Boys) whose age range between 22 to 27 years were randomly assigned to training from Bped Colleges. Short Term Memory, Long Term Memory, Tactile Sense and Visual Perception were measured for this study. Short Term Memory Test and Long Term Memory Test, Aesthesiometer and Muller lyer Illusion Tests were used for this study. The training sessions performed five days a week and training classes were divided into two sessions, one was in the morning and the other in the evening with the duration of one forty five minutes each session. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance was applied to investigate the existence of significant difference among Pre Treatment Phase, First Phase and Second Phases of ten months exercise programme. In conclusion significant improvement was found in case of Long Term Memory, Short Term Memory, Tactile Sense but no significant improvement was observed in case of Visual Perception after ten months of physical education training programme. Exercise not only gives health life style but also improve your neuropsychological variables so exercise is strongly recommended.
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Effectiveness of rational emotive behavior therapy on depression and general health among literate unemployed
Page 698-701
Guddimath and Basavarajappa Department of Studies in Psychology, University of Mysore, Mysore

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The present study investigated the effectiveness of REBT on depression and general health of literate unemployed. Using a random sampling technique 30 unemployed who were high in depression and low in general health were selected and assigned randomly into experimental (n=15) and control group (n-=15). Subjects in experimental group received 24 sessions individual REBT including cognitive restructuring, assertive training, and anger management. Result showed that subjects in experimental group showed significant decrease in depression and enhanced general health from pre to post treatment. Control group did not show any change from pre to post treatment sessions.
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Career decision-making of adolescents in relation to their family environment: An empirical study
Page 702-706
Vandana Sharma Department of Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh

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The present study was attempted to find the relationship between career decision-making and family environment among adolescents. For the study, 300 adolescents studying in class XI were drawn from Government Model Senior Secondary Schools of Chandigarh by employing stratified random sampling. For the collection of data Career Decision-Making Inventory (CDMI; Singh, 1999) and Family Environment Scale (FES; Vohra, 1997) were administered to adolescents. For the analysis of data statistical techniques like Pearson product moment correlation, t-test and stepwise multiple regression were used. Correlation analysis showed that career decidedness was significantly and positively correlated with cohesion, expressiveness, independence and recreational orientation dimensions of family environment. Career indecision was significantly and negatively correlated with cohesion, expressiveness, independence, organization and recreational orientation dimensions of family environment. No significant gender difference was observed on the variables of career decision-making (career decidedness and career indecision). Boys and girls significantly differed only on organization dimension except all other dimensions of family environment. Regression analysis showed that cohesion and expressiveness dimensions of family environment contributed to career decidedness independently as well as conjointly. This indicated that adolescents having families high on cohesion and expressiveness were high on career decidedness. In case of career indecision, the predictors were expressiveness, organization and independence which contributed to career indecision independently as well as conjointly. This demonstrated that adolescents having families high on expressiveness, organization and independence were low on career indecision. Results of the present study demonstrated that congenial family environment is necessary for the overall development of adolescents.
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A comparative study of personality and parent child relationship in children with internalized and externalized disorders
Page 707-710
Anindita Mukherjee Clinical Psychologist, CUIIPP Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Calcutta and Sanjukta Das and Atanu Kumar Dogra Department of Psychology University of Calcutta, Calcutta

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The present study aimed to find out the comparison among children with externalized and internalized disorder and the Control group with respect to different traits of personality and their perception of different aspects of parent child relationships. Sample consisting seven children with externalized disorder and eight children with internalized disorder and eight children in the control group were selected on the basis of the inclusion/exclusion criteria. A semi. Structured interview schedule including socio-demographic and clinical information was administered; children were categorised as having the externalized and internalized features by using the Devereux Scales of Mental Disorders (Naglieri et al., 1979); and Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), Parent Child Relationship Scale (Rao, 1989) were administered. The obtained data had been analyzed by Kruskal Wallis one way ANOVA. Results reveal that there is a significant difference among children with internalized (ID), externalized (ED) features and control group with respect to rank scores of extraversion, psychoticism, neuroticism, lie score of personality, and perception of different aspects of parent child relationship, i.e., rejecting (from father & mother), demanding (from mother), and neglecting (from mother) symbolic reward (from father), loving (from mother), object reward (from father & mother), neglecting(M) .
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Associating Beck's cognitive behaviour therapy with progressive muscular relaxation technique in treatment of major depression: A case report
Page 711-714
Neharshi Department of Psychology, H.N.B. Gharwal University, Srinagar, U.K

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The present study attempts to treat Major Depression in relation to Beck's Cognitive Behavior Therapy (BCBT) and Progressive Muscular Relaxation Technique (PMRT). The study attempts to diagnose and treat a 32 years male client. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the level of depression of client. The treatment proceed in certain steps such as in starting 12 sessions, the client was treated with PMRT along with Motivational Counseling to ready the client for CBT. Once it was assured that the client is motivated and ready for counseling. He was also given sessions of CBT. The sessions of both therapies that PMRT and CBT were given simultaneously to the client. The client had taken total 28 sessions of one hour of each therapy. After the completion of treatment (6 months), it was found that the persistence of positive changes in the patient's life like continuing his job, attending parties, taking inertest in those hobbies in which he lost interest before the CBT and PMRT.
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Association of socio-personal factors with the subjective well-being of infertile women
Page 715-717
Niharika Joshi and Tejpreet Kaur Kang Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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Infertility is a growing problem which is affecting a significant number of individuals. It is not a stable trait but a process with an uncertain trajectory. Infertility has a significant impact on subjective well-being which is a self evaluation of well-being. Since social and personal factors affects the well-being of an individual, therefore studying about them can help to gain a deeper understanding of infertility experience of women. The present study is an attempt to study the association of socio-personal factors with the subjective well-being of infertile women of Ludhiana district. The study was based on a sample of 180 infertile women (90 rural and 90 urban). Socio-personal profile was assessed by a Self- Structured Interview Schedule and subjective well-being was assessed by using Subjective well-being Inventory developed by Nagpal and Sell (1985). Results revealed that socio-personal factors like age, educational qualification, occupational status, family type, duration of infertility are significantly associated with the subjective well-being of the respondents.
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Process of psychological intervention and treatment outcome in childhood autistic disorder: A case study
Page 718-722
Shweta Jha Clinical Psychologist, Manipal University, Manipal

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A 2 year 11 month old child born of non- consanguineous marriage; with full time normal delivery in hospital. Presented to us with family history of autism and ADHD in 2nd degree cousins and she had complaints of absence of social smile, lack of eye to eye contact, lack of awareness of others with impaired speech and stereotypic play activity, and spinning objects. Highly distracted, irritable, poor concentration and attention; with no history of hearing and speech impairment and normal development until 12 month when the present symptoms were noted.
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Relationship between body mass index and anger among graduate students
Page 723-725
Vikas Central Institute of Psychiatry Ranchi, Novrattan Sharma Department of Psychology M. D. University, Rohtak and Masood Maqbool Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi

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Previous studies indicate that BMI is significantly related in 'some way' to hostility and anger expression. However all the studies have been conducted on adolescent boys and girls. But our study is a first attempt with the aim to see the relationship between BMI and anger among graduate students. In the present study, samples of 100 graduate students were selected from Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak (Haryana) on the basis of availability. The age range of sample was 19 to 25 years with a mean of 21.67 years. The sample was collected by using purposive sampling method. The analysis included one way ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc test and Pearson product moment method. Results show that there was significant difference on trait anger and anger expression (p < 0.05 & p < 0.01) among overweight, underweight and average BMI subjects based on Body Mass Index (BMI). On post hoc analysis it was observed that on trait anger and anger expression overweight subjects had more score than under-weights and Body Mass Index (BMI) was significantly positively (p < 0.05) correlated with anger expression. Thus it can be concluded that BMI has positive relationship with anger expression that in turn can help in assuming the ways for maintenance of positive mental health.
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Fathering vs. mothering in fostering psychological strengths among adolescents
Page 726-728
Punam Midha and Geetanjali Department of Psychology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Haryana

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Fathering/Mothering refers to a privilege or responsibility of mother and father together or independently to prepare the child for society and culture with a purpose to provide them with ample opportunity to find roots, continuity and sense of belongingness. Though both mother and father are the builders of psychological assets, adolescents' perception of mother differ significantly from that of their father. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the role of mother/father separately in developing hope, self-confidence and inspiration among adolescents. A purposive sample of 200 adolescents both male and female of 17-22 years old was drawn from Rohtak city, Haryana. A correlational analysis was carried out to find the relationship between mothering/fathering and the psychological growth. The findings reveal an almost similar influence of mothering/fathering on the psychological strengths under study. Results indicate the enhancing effect of mothering/fathering on hope and inspiration and its failure in fostering self-confidence.
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Attitude towards cheating among students of professional and non-professional courses
Page 729-731
Meenakshi Narania and Vijay Singh Department of Psychology, Jammu University, Jammu

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The study was done to compare the attitude towards cheating of the professional and non-professional course students. In this study the sample consisted of 40 professional and 40 non-professional course students, studying in various professional and non-professional colleges in Jammu city. For the measurement of Attitude towards Cheating, Attitude towards cheating scale developed by Sharma was administered on the sample. It consists of 35 statements which are either positive or negative. Responses were to be obtained on five point scale. t-test was used for statistical analysis. The finding of this study showed that the students of professional courses have more positive attitude towards cheating as compared to the students of non-professional course. The value of t=16.45** was found to be statistically significant at .05 level between the two group of subjects.
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Peer pressure and suicidal ideation
Page 732-734
Preeti Manani Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Deemed University, Dayalbagh, Agra, U.P.

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The present study was carried out to compare the Suicidal Ideation of the students with reference to their different levels of Peer Pressure. It was hypothesized that there will be no significant difference between the suicidal ideation of the students with reference to their different levels of Peer Pressure. The sample of the study was consisted of the students of first year undergraduate level. Peer Pressure Scale (2010) by Singh and Saini and The Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (1991) were used to measure peer pressure and suicidal ideation respectively. Results show that there was significant difference in students of the High Peer Pressure Group (HPP), Average Peer Pressure Group (APP) and Low Peer Pressure Group (LPP) with reference to their Suicidal Ideation scores.
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Sources of stress among Jordanian college students: A case study of Mutah university
Page 735-737
Anas Ali Al-Tarawneh and Naima Kahtoon Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim Uuniversity, Aligarh, U.P.

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The present study surveyed Jordanian university students in Mutah University, and asked them to Investigating of sources of stress are exposed to. A total of samples 100 male and 100 female were randomly selected their age varied from 18 to 25 years. Sources of stress scale which was developed by Alkhutaba and Nizami (2012) has been used. It was hypothesized that there are statically differences in sources of stress among Jordanian university students based on their gender; the obtained results of the present study showed that there is a statistical difference in sources of stress based on gender variable.
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Emotional intelligence: A management tool for orthorexia nervosa
Page 738-741
Vinod K. Shanwal Gautam Buddha University, U.P. and Poulami Dasgupta Medanta-The Medicity, Gurgaon, Haryana

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The highly competitive world forces us to perform number of tasks in a time bound manner. The pressure and burden encountered while meeting these demands produce stress which can have profound effect on human biological system. The intensity and coping ability of stress depends upon the circumstances and emotional conditions of the person experiencing it. Stress has also been related to various metabolic and psychological aberrations in an individual. Obesity is currently one of the most prevalent health concerns globally which is directly associated with stress too. Study by Costarelli et al. (2009) have shown that overweight preoccupation is a significant factor in predicting disordered eating, which is in accordance with many other studies. Previous studies suggest that there's a number of Eating disorders which have been associated with chronic stress. "A person can know a lot about nutrition, know what foods are not healthy, but can still make poor decisions when unable to recognize, reason, and solve problems based on emotional patterns,". For example, compulsive eaters may understand nutrition, but they may not realize their emotions affect their food choices. Therapy is often successful in teaching individuals with ED's to recognize the feelings that trigger the behaviour associated with their diagnosis. The current article aims at developing EI as a management tool for preventing the occurrence or managing existing eating disorders leading to obsessive dietetic limitations in an individual.
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Prevalence of Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in North Indian women
Page 742-744
Ritu Deswal and Amita Suneja Dang Centre for Medical Biotechnology Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana and Smiti Nanda Department of Gynecology and Obstretrics PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana

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PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder characterized by varied symptoms and manifestations. India is a large country with an estimated female population of about 614.4 million and in most of India, the proportion of women affected by PCOS is unknown. Early diagnosis and treatment is necessary because the condition can put girls at long term health problems. Moreover, women with PCOS often feel very isolated. This highlights the need to know the exact prevalence figures. The aim of present study was to estimate the prevalence of PCOS in Haryana because the prevalence of PCOS in this region has not been studied to be best of our knowledge. A random sample of 325 reproductive aged women was selected and a cross sectional study was carried out. An interviewer administered questionnaire was prepared to screen the probable cases of PCOS. The probable candidates underwent physical and biochemical analysis and ovarian ultrasonography. Further evaluation was confirmed using Rotterdam diagnostic criteria 2003. A total of 22 cases were identified as having PCOS. The prevalence rate was found to be 6.8%. The high prevalence rate draws attention regarding early diagnosis of the syndrome in adolescent girls.
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Social freedom among women in Punjab
Page 745-747
Shaigan Amin Department of Education & Community Service, Punjabi University, Patiala

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The present study investigated thesocial freedom among women belonging to Hindu and Sikh communities in Punjab. The study was conducted on a random sample of 104 women from Patiala district of Punjab. The women social freedom scale by Bhusan (1987) was used which consists of 24 items. The data thus collected was subjected to't' test. The study reveals no significant difference in social freedom among women belonging to Hindu and Sikh communities and also in respect to rural areas whereas in context to urban areas the significant difference exists. Educational implications of the results are discussed.
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Psychosocial correlation of type-2 diabetes and its management : A review of literature
Page 748-753
G. Janghel and P. Shrivastava Department of Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla university, Raipur, C.G.

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Diabetes is a progressive metabolic disorder with cumulative symptom across multiple organ system. The present study was examining in the psychosocial risk factors on the basis of reviewed in the different studies in the diabetes mellitus type-2. The study was use in electronic databases from 1984 to 2013, literature searches and review concerted in different national and international journal on published database in different electronic source and other primary studies was used in the current study. There study were total 100 studies related to diabetes and its management, and 42 studies were dealing with the etiology of diabetes type -2 and its management. The objective of the study was to find some psycho-social factors such as stress, personality, coping behaviors' and socio-demographic variables associated with the genesis and prognosis of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
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Dimensions of friendship among tribals and non tribals: A comparative study
Page 754-756
Uday Shankar and Saba Farheen Department of Psychology, Patna University, Patna, Bihar

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The present research was proposed to study the different dimensions of friendship in Tribals and non Tribals. The subjects were college students belonging to tribal and non tribal community. They were selected from Patna university (Bihar), Neelamber Peetamber University and Sidhu kanhu university (Jharkhand). Dimensions of friendship scale(DFS) by Chandana and Chadha has been used in this study. There were three groups in the study- Group A (tribals having tribal friends), Group B(non tribals having non tribal friends) and Group C(tribals having non tribal friends).Mean, SD and t-ratio have been computed for comparative study of the three groups with each other on eight dimensions. Results have shown that all the three groups are significantly differ with each other on the different dimensions of friendship.
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Study of adjustment among Jordanian university students
Page 757-759
Amer Mohmad Al-thabat and Shah Alam Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP

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This paper aimed to study the Adjustment among Jordanian university students. A total of samples 200 students selected randomly, their age varied from 18 to 25 years. Adjustment of the respondents was measured with the help of Adjustment Scale developed by C.P Sharma (2004), results of the study showed most of Jordanian students were adjusted in emotional and social area, also there are no statically difference in psychological adjustment based on educational streams variable.
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The empowering of destitute women at wish home through leadership programs: A case study
Page 760-763
Nivedita Das Visiting faculty, KIIT School of Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

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Leadership programs as we understand are normally for the executives or management people. But here is a unique case of Leadership program for the destitute women who are normally perceived to be powerless and dependent on the mercy of others. It analyzes their success story with a focus on the training that they went through at WISH. The program presupposes a re-definition of what effective leadership means. Women's Leadership focuses on leadership that is sourced from each woman's deep love and passionate commitment for the natural world, women, health, children, and justice. The leadership Program at WISH prioritized authenticity, mutual respect, and collaborative and inclusive approaches. It is based upon the principle that leadership emerges from the inner work we do, and that we cannot influence change we haven't embodied ourselves. The challenge of empowering these so called destitute women, which is not a desirable term we use for them, the Women's Leadership program started with the intention of recognizing and understanding that all meaningful and enduring changes begin with the internal work we do to transform our outer behavior. Leadership skill and capacity continue to strengthen with practice, reflection and relationships that provide authentic and rigorous feedback and support. In addition to strengthening the capacity of diverse women to engage more intentionally and effectively as leaders for progressive change, the program was designed to celebrate those capacities we have observed being present in these women who are yet to get the right to lead a dignified life.
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Psychosocial effect of common skin diseases
Page 764-766
Chinky Upadhyaya Department of Psychology, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, U.P.

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Dermatologic problems can result in psychosocial effects that seriously affect patient's lives. More than a cosmetic nuisance, skin disease can produce anxiety, depression, and other psychological problems that affect patients' lives in ways comparable to arthritis or other disabling illnesses. An appreciation for the effects of sex, age, and location of lesions is important, as well as the bidirectional relationship between skin disease and psychological distress. This review focuses on the effects of three common skin diseases seen by family physicians: acne, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis.
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Student's unrest : Causes and remedies
Page 767-769
Shahana Anjum and Asiya Aijaz Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P.

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The ship of progress of any country floats on the hard work and dedication of its young generation and its innovative thoughts. The student community plays a vital role in every society. It has always been recognised as a great force. Growing unrest and indiscipline among students is a matter of great concern. In recent years they have assumed alarming proportions. Student unrest is not confined to India alone. It is a worldwide problem. They are agitations, strikes, boycotts of classes etc., in schools, colleges, universities and other educational and training institutions now and then. Student unrest is a great threat to our system of education, training programmes and development. The students indulge in violence, arson, destruction of property. They use unfair means to get through the tests and examinations, insult their teachers, threat their invigilators and abuse the staff on any pretext. They want more freedom, rights, both legitimate and illegitimate. If these undesirable activities and indiscipline are allowed to go on unchecked, the whole education and training system would soon be paralysed. An attempt was made to analyse the causes of student unrest. Present paper, though theoretical has identified certain common causes of student unrest:__defective education system, aimless life and uncertain future, economic difficulties, excessive number of students in the class, defective teaching methods, indifference family members, unsuitable teachers, student union, lack of co-curricular and creative activities, defective examination system, elements of indiscipline in the society, inadequate funding of educational institution by government, international issues, plays significant role in the development of student unrest. Such student's unrest once developed, pose a serious threat to the educational system and especially for the nation also. Hence to control the student unrest it is the need to device certain ways and means to control the development of student
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Understanding parental stress of physically challenged: An overview
Page 770-773
Rinu Chaturvedi and Sandhya Ojha Department of Psychology Sri Agrasen kanya Autonomous P.G. College, Varanasi, U.P. and Rahul Kumar Tiwari IMS, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi, UP.

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The physically challenged children are frequently characterized by extremes of behaviors, which in some cases influence the interactions they have with parents and siblings. The extra care and special accommodations are required by them. Parenting is the job with no preparations and vacations. Children with disabilities have special needs that require more attention, greater vigilance and effort from parents than nondisabled children. Though the presence of a physically challenged child need not create a family crisis, the stigma of disability imposed by the society can be offending to the parents and the family. Disability in a child provokes a series of disequilibrium among the parents in their psychological aspects which directly or indirectly affect them in various social and psychological well beings. Parents show a series of reactions after knowing that their child is disabled and they start showing the guilt, sorrow, denial, anger, which affects different parents differently, so that these sort of stressors leads the parents to physical and mental health problem. There is abundant evidence that parents of disabled children undergo more than average amount of stress. Parents of disabled children have very high level of parenting stress signifying that they perceived for more stress in their role as parents than did parents of children without disabilities. The nature of stress has been shown to span over several aspects of family life such as daily care demands, emotional distress, interpersonal difficulties, financial problems and adverse social consequences. Psychosocial issues of parents and children with disabilities can be very traumatic for most parents. The parents of the child with disability need to be stronger, adaptive, and optimistic and have a huge sense of humour. They have to be “special” for the special child. The special counselling and guidance is required for the parents suffering with physical and mental health problem. The extreme problem
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Role of career status of couples in occupational stress
Page 774-775
Swati Mishra School of Studies in Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G.

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Today Stress is unpleasant and undesirable, and leads to a variety of psychological and somatic problems. The consistently increasing rate of psychopathological disorder among the dual career and single career couples the outcome of high level of occupational stress prevailing in the world of work in the modern competitive of global economy. The present study was examined the effect of Career Status of Couples on Occupational Stress. Following the random sampling technique 100 male Ss were selected from the characteristics of population Career Status (single and dual career status).Occupational Stress Index by Shrivastava and Singh (1984) was used to measure the occupational stress of the subjects. 't' test were used for the data analysis. Result indicated that the dual career couples have shown higher occupational stress than the single career couples.
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