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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 3
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Stress and adjustment among college students in relation to their academic performance
Page 288-292
Ashwini, R and Vijay Prasad Barre Department of Clinical Psychology, Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (DIMHANS), Dharwad, Karnataka

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The present study seeks to explore the stress and adjustment areas and their academic performance of PUC College going students within a city. Three college students comprising of (N= 80) students were second year (N=40) from Arts and (N= 40) from Science 20 boys and 20 girls each stream within age groups 16 to 18 years were chosen randomly. Students with behavioural problems, poor academic performances and health issues were excluded to ensure homogeneity. After obtaining informed consent, a self-report inventory. Stress and the Bell's Adjustment Inventory was administered to student groups over a period of 1 month to understand stress and perceived adjustment on academic performance. Scoring was done manually and descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations and univariate analysis of variance done by using SPSS-11. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the level of stress experience among students. There is significant difference between arts and science student's adjustment areas. There is a significant difference between boys and girls on academic performance. There is significant difference between arts and science on academic performance. However, there were no significant gender differences among the arts and science, boys and girls. In conclusion, adolescents present as a vulnerable group of children and therefore, this is an important implication for parents and significant other professionals who need to help students develop adequate adjustment as well as academic performance.
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Mobile usage: A comparative study of hostlers and dayscholars
Page 293-298
H. Kaur and S. Sharma Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

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The present study was conducted to assess the mobile usage among hostler and dayscholar adolescents. The study was comprised of 200 adolescents (100 hostlers and 100 dayscholars) belonging to middle socio-economic status in 17-18 years of age range, purposively selected from two colleges of Punjab Agricultural University of Ludhiana city. Socio-Economic Status Scale by Sharma (2010) was used to determine the socio-economic status of adolescents. A self structured Mobile Usage Questionnaire was used to assess the mobile usage among adolescents. Results revealed that majority of the hostlers recharged their mobile phones more frequently as compared to dayscholars and their parents paid the monthly bills. All the respondents (hostlers and dayscholars) used their mobile phones for whole of the day for calling and chatting. Hostlers used mobile phones more for text messaging and calling followed by download music, films and pictures, pass time and assignments.
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Occupational stress, burnout, coping and emotional intelligence: Exploring gender differences among different occupational groups of healthcare professionals
Page 299-304
J.S. Bidlan and Anupama Sihag Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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Occupational stress and burnout are the global issues in this present era of changing paradigms, where the protective effect of coping and facilitative effect of emotional intelligence has a significant role to play. The present study was conducted on a sample of 600 healthcare professionals from the private hospitals of Delhi, NCR. The sample included nursing, support staff (security, pharmacy, front office, housekeeping and dietetics/food and beverages staff) and doctors with equal number of male and female participants The Occupational Stress Index, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS), Ways of Coping Questionnaire and Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Intelligence were the measures used in the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to explore the gender differences among the three occupational groups. Results indicate that the main effect for gender and occupation type is significant in various dimensions of occupational stress, burnout, coping and emotional intelligence; whereas the interaction effect of gender and occupation type is significant only for the managing emotions dimension of emotional intelligence.
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Adjustment problems among eleventh and twelfth graders: A comparative analysis
Page 305-310
Ravneet Chawla Department of Human Development and Family Relations, Government Home Science College, Sector 10, Chandigarh

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Adolescence is a time of change where the young people are facing new experiences in the social set up they are in. The study was conducted with the objective to examine the adjustment problems in the domains of health, economic status, social, family self-perception, anxiety, religion, occupation, school and studies of eleventh and twelfth graders. It was hypothesized that: eleventh graders are more likely to face adjustment problems than twelfth graders; and that, science students will report more adjustment problems as compared to vocational stream students. Bronfrenbrenner's ecological model (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) provided the guiding framework for the study. The model provides insight into various factors that play a role in growth and development an individual. A total of 142 adolescents, 112 boys (n=112) and 30 girls (n=30) studying in eleventh and twelfth graders were included. The sample consisted of 61 students from eleventh graders and 81 students from twelfth graders from a particular Government school in Chandigarh from vocational (N=56) and science (N=86) streams. The sampling procedure was thus, purposive. The Student Problem Checklist (SPC) developed by The National Council of Education Research and Training (NCERT, undated) was used the tool used. It comprised of 200 questions. The findings indicated the sample to be well adjusted in each of the areas. The adolescents from eleventh grader were found to be facing more problems as compared to the adolescents of twelfth graders, especially in the areas of economic status, social, family, self-perception, anxiety, religion, occupation, and studies. The adolescents from the vocational stream were found to be facing more problems in the areas of health, economic status and religion that those from the science stream. Need for assistance for guidance is thus reflected. Sufficient knowledge regarding career opportunities and remuneration can help them feel more secure and feel better adjusted
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Prevalence of erectile dysfunction in patients of diabetes mellitus type-2 and its impact on quality of life
Page 311-315
Kapil Dev Arya, G.D. Koolwal and Sanjay Gehlot Department of Psychiatry, Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

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The aims of this study were to determine prevalence of erectile dysfunction in diabetes mellitus (type 2) patients and its impact on their quality of life with different domains of well being. Randomly selected 150 patients with diabetes mellitus (type 2) out of them only 100 patients have given consent to become part of the study on the ground of anonymity. These patients are attending diabetes clinic of the medicine department of M.D.M. Hospital attached to Dr. S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur from 1st September to 30th November, 2012. These patients were included in the study as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. For study of interested object scales, International Index for Erectile function [IIEF] & WHOQOL-BREF [HINDI VERSION] were used and diagnosis after screening confirmed with complete psychological workup including mental status examination. The presenting diagnosis is based on standard criteria given by ICD-10 and the diagnosis also approximated with DSM-IV-TR. The data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. In our study population 21(21%) of patient experience some degree of erectile dysfunction. Results were displaying from mild to severe grade of dysfunction. This is also established that those who were suffering from erectile dysfunction found more impairment in quality of life in comparison to those without erectile dysfunction. In our study we concluded that patients with diabetes have higher significant of erectile dysfunction, at the same time study population were experienced poorer quality of life and found difficulty in daily functioning. This is also noteworthy in our study that patient of diabetes mellitus are itself have impaired functioning because of chronicity of illness, long running treatment and eventually unavoidable complication.
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Religiosity and mental health among Muslim youth
Page 316-319
Shaheena Parveen, Gargi Sandilya and M. Shafiq Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Thisstudy attempted to unravel the relationship between religiosity and mental health among Sunni Muslimyouth studying and living in Delhi. The main objective was to discover and explore the relationship between level of religiosity, as manifested through religious beliefs (Islamic Worldview) and practice (Religious Personality), and mental health among Sunni Muslim youth. It also involved a comparison of mental health in relation to religiosity between male and female participants. A convenience sample of 60 (30 male and 30 female) was selected. The Muslim Personality Religiosity Inventory (MPRI) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) were administered on the sample to assess religiosity and mental health, respectively. The MPRI is based on the Sunni ideological model of Islam.On the measure of religiosity, female participants scored higher whereas male participants displayed a greater mental health index. However these gender differences were statistically insignificant. Further, results showed a significant correlation between Religious Personality and certain dimensions of Mental Health which mirrors the findings of some of the similar studies conducted on Muslim population worldwide. However, gender differences in mental health in relation to religiosity were not found significant.
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Meaning in life and pain among breast cancer patients
Page 320-324
Shiksha Anand Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, UP

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Breast cancer is not only a serious physical disease, but it is often an emotionally draining disease as well. Pain has an overwhelming effect on the quality of life of a person. . Pain often involves all aspects of a person's life including physical, psychological and emotional state; disrupting daily activities, work, finances, social, marital and family life and relationships (Marcus, 2000). The present paper aims at studying the impact of meaning in life on the intensity of pain among breast cancer patients. The present study is co-relational in nature. The sample for the study was 100 breast cancer patients of stage II and III undergoing treatment. The Indian adaptation of Meaning in Life scale (Warner & Williams, 1987) and West Haven Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (Kerns, Turk and Rudy, 1985) was used. Results showed that respondents have above average level of pain and below average level of meaning in life. The co-relational analysis depicts a negative correlation of meaning in life and pain. Sub-group analysis will be done to compare the pain of respondents having high and low meaning in life. The findings suggest that meaning may be an important mechanism in adjustment to higher level of pain caused by cancer. Therefore there is a need for developing a suitable intervention program for the enhancement of meaning in life so that the pain can be managed by breast cancer patients.
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Locus of control and subjective wellbeing: Examining gender differences
Page 325-329
Komal Chandiramani Department of Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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Subjective wellbeing (SWB) is a person's evaluation of his or her life, including both cognitive judgments of life satisfaction and affective evaluations of moods and emotions. Locus of control (LOC) is an extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. The present study was designed to compare and examine the relationship between locus of control and subjective well being among male and female adults. For this, a sample of 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) was collected using convenience sampling technique. They were administered Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale (Rotter, 1966) and Subjective Well Being Inventory (Nagpal & Sell, 1985). Group differences were evaluated using t test. Group differences between male and female adults were significant on overall locus of control, overall subjective well being and its dimensions i.e. well-being positive affect, expectation ach-congruence, transcendence, social support, perceived Ill health and well-being negative affect. Moreover, significant positive relations of overall locus of control were found with overall subjective well being, confidence in coping, family group support, inadequate mental mastery and general well-being negative affect in both the groups. Also, overall locus of control was significantly and positively correlated with transcendence and perceived ill health in with male group while significant positive relations were found with general well being positive affect, expectation-congruence, primary group concern and deficiency in social contacts in the female group. Hence, both the above constructs are important in accounting for gender differences in adults.
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The relationship between patient satisfaction and service quality: A study of hospitals in Tunisia
Page 330-334
Sami Chaabouni and Chokri Abednnadher Faculty of Economics and Management of Sfax, Laboratory CODECI, University of Sfax, Tunisia

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The main purpose of this study is to investigate relationships between patient perception healthcare quality, satisfaction patient, and behavioral intentions. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the related data in Tunisian public hospitals. Data were analysed using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings indicate that administration quality and the physical environment have the highest positive effect on service quality. While also socio-demographic variables and communication have a not very considerable effect. Recommendations were presented and suggestions were highlighted for improve the quality of care.
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Internet usage in college: A comparison of users and non users in relation to self esteem and satisfaction with life
Page 335-340
Deepika Shekhawat and Pushpa Singh Rathore Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

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Is it possible to differentiate between college students who are users and non users of internet services? Do the internet services have an impact on their satisfaction with life and self esteem? The present study aims to answer questions like these and more on the basis of data collected from a group of young college going students. Various questionnaires were filled by four hundred students from various colleges of Jaipur city, to assess the impact online activities have on their psychological being. Statistical measures like t test and ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences between students who used internet services as compared to those who did not with regard to their satisfaction with life and self esteem.
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Well-being and emotion regulation in emerging adults: The role of religiosity
Page 341-344
Sapana Singh Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP

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For a long time psychologists have been interested in the role religion plays in the interpretation of and response to life events as well as it influences on individual and social lives. Religiosity has been considered as a source of meaning that gives stability to individuals in situations of uncertainty and contributes to their psychological health and well-being. A distinction has been made between intrinsic religiosity and extrinsic religiosity. Research findings suggest that intrinsic religiosity positively correlates with different indicators of well-being, whereas extrinsic religiosity negatively affects health, well-being and achievement. Religiosity also influences emotion regulation ability of a person. The present study analyzes the role of extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity in emotion regulation and well-being during the early adulthood period. The sample included 150 adults, between 20 to 25 years of age drawn from different departments of Banaras Hindu University. Data were collected with the help of Age Universal I-E Scale, Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. The statistical analysis of data revealed interesting findings. In the study, no clear distinction of extrinsic and intrinsic religiosity found. Participants with high level of religiosity have been reported higher well-being. It has also been found that participants with high level of religiosity use more functional strategies and less dysfunctional strategies to regulate their emotions. As reviewed before, religiosity revealed as a culturally sensitive and defined concept.
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A study of the opinion of the players about the effectiveness of schemes and policies of the government for promoting the body-building in India
Page 345-349
Rajesh Kumar District Child Protection Officer, Jhajjar, Haryana

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The present research was aimed to study the opinion of the body-builders about government policy to promote body-building as a sport. The research adopted the survey method to conduct the research by using random sampling technique on total 100 respondents. The data was collected by administrating a self made questionnaire. The findings of the study show that there is a lack of favorable government support to promote the performance of bodybuilders at international level as well as also at national level. A large portion of respondents gave the responses in opposite to the government policies and programs for bodybuilders. So, the sportspersons are finding no bright future in bodybuilding and so they are avoiding going in the area of bodybuilding and those who have already chosen bodybuilding are having low motivation for performance.
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Health related quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients with special emphasis on gender and mode of treatment
Page 350-353
Vidya Bhate Research Scholar, University of Pune, Pune and Shobhana Abhyankar Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune

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India is perhaps facing the biggest epidemic of non-communicable diseases and has the largest number of diabetic patients. Diabetes seriously affects health related quality of life (HQoL). The present study aimed at studying the relationship of HQoL with gender and mode of treatment in Type 2 diabetic patients. Health related quality of life questionnaire (HQoLQ) and a personal data sheet were administered to a sample of 75 diabetic patients from a private hospital in Pune. Details of mode of treatment (tablet or both tablet and insulin) were availed from the patients. The obtained data were subjected to point bi-serial correlation. There was a significant negative correlation between gender and HQoL (rp, bis = - 0.26, p < 0.01), and treatment mode and HQoL (rp, bis = - 0.340, p < 0.05). The results implied that female diabetic patients had a poor HQoL as compared to male patients, and that the patients who took only tablet had a better HQoL than patients who took insulin and tablet both. Data were further subjected to multiple regression analysis to find out relative contribution of individual factors in predicting HQoL. Gender (β b = - 0.340, p < 0.01)) was a stronger predictor of HQoL; it contributed 12% variance to HQoL. Mode of treatment (β = - 0.225, p < 0.05) contributed 5% variance. The study thus highlights the importance of gender and mode of treatment in predicting HQoL in diabetic patients.
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Assessment of somatic symptoms among school going children: A study from north east India
Page 354-357
Arif Ali and Suman Borah Department of Psychiatric Social Work, LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam

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Somatic symptoms are commonly reported among young children. Research indicates that somatic symptoms could inflict limitations on daily living, social function and participation in school life. The aim of the study is to assess somatic symptoms among school going children. The cross sectional study was conducted in two schools from Tezpur, Assam. The school was selected using purposive sampling method keeping in view of operational and feasibility to collect the sample. Socio -demographic sheet, Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) and The Duke Health Profile (DUKE) was administered to the subject's. On children's somatization inventory 10.8% respondent reported some headaches and 4.1% children's reported a lot headaches, feeling low in energy or slowed down (some 11.7% and 7.5% a lot ), Pains in your lower back(some 11.7% and 5% a lot ), Hot or cold spells(suddenly feeling hot or cold for no reason) reported by 9.2% (some) and 2.5 % (a lot ),Weakness(feeling weak)in parts of your body (some 13.3% and 4.2% a lot ), Heavy feelings in your arms or legs(when they feel too heavy to move) some 10.8% and 1.6% a lot ), Pain in your stomach or abdomen(stomach aches) (some 11.7% and 3.3% a lot ), Pain in your knees, elbows or other joints (some 15.0% and 7.5% a lot ) and Pain in your arms or legs (some 17.5% and 11.7% a lot). Significant positive correlation was found between the children somatic symptoms and anxiety ((p=348, p≤ 0.01 level).), depression (p=.364, p≤ 0.01 level), anxiety-depression (p=.387 p≤ 0.01 level)), pain (p=.337, p≤ 0.01 level)). The study shows that somatic symptoms are present among school children and it has a significant relationship with depression, anxiety, and pain .Thus early diagnosis and treatment will lead to improved clinical outcome and psycho social functioning among children.
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Status and awareness of HIV/AIDS among antenatal Indian women
Page 358-361
Leema, P. Vanamail, Rohini Sehgal and Alka Kriplani Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, AIIMS, New Delhi

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To achieve the goal of HIV free generation, it is essential to prevent the mother to child transmission. Aim of this study is to assess the level of understanding and status of HIV(human immunodeficiency virus)/AIDS(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) among antenatal women in a tertiary health care centre New Delhi. It is an observational study with purposive sampling method.100 consented interviews were conducted by a semi structure interview schedule during the gestational period of (16-28) weeks of pregnancy. Maximum study participants belonged to the age group of (26-30) years mean age (26.3) SD 3.5years ranges from (19-36) years and major religion was Hindu. More than 50% respondents were professionals or graduates & postgraduates.54% women were multigravida as they conceived more than once. Mean family income was 24,270 per month (SD 21,714) it ranges from 4000 to 1 lac per month. Only 31% women knew HIV as a virus which causes AIDS, where as more than 53% participants had a correct concept about AIDS as disesase.58% respondents did not exactly know about HIV &37% about AIDS. 30% of pregnant mothers thought that breast milk could transmit HIV to infants but equal number of mothers' disagreed with the above said source of transmission.40% participants were in a state of dilemma about the breast milk and vaginal discharge as a carrier of HIV virus. All 100 pregnant women were screened for HIV ,but two of them did not get their test reports at the , time of interview. Out of 98 cases 4 were seropositive*. Two women knew their status before pregnancy, one case was referred from a primary health centre ,only one case was diagnosed during the routine pregnancy care.39 spouses were screened with their consent out of which 2 diagnosed sero positive.* In one case both husband &wife were seropositive but in another case wife found to be seronegative Statistically significant association was found between education of respondents, their family income and gravida
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Psychological and physiological issues of retired life in Pakistan
Page 362-367
Mahreen Iftikhar, Anwaar Mohyuddin and Hafeez-ur-Rehman Chaudhry Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

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The research was conducted in Wah Cantt, District Rawalpindi Pakistan. Qualitative research techniques were employed to acquire first hand field data. The main intend of the study was to emphasise on the post retirement problems among retirees. An effort was done just to accumulate information about psychological, physiological and physical problems of retirees. The paper focuses on various consequences of these problems including anxiety, hypertension, insomnia, cellular breakdown, blood pressure, loosened physical energy etc. Somehow all such were effecting the peoples' functioning and coordination with society members as their minds remained pre-occupied with stress due to their illness and weak physical health. These people were mostly cared by their family members. Unmarried people are normally takencare by themselves, neighbours or relatives as they do not have families. Thus, researcher concluded, despite of it that retirees were facing certain psychological, physiological and physical problems still they were happy and leading contented life and prayed to Allah for their good health, better future of their children or grand children. Hence, in our culture and religion much respect and care with elders is prescribed.
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Psychological well-being among adolescents: Role of prosocial behaviour
Page 368-370
Rajesh Kumar Department of Psychology, Government College, Bapauli, Panipat, Haryana

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The present study was an attempt to investigate the relationship and significance of mean difference between Prosocial Behaviour and Psychological well-being among adolescents. The sample of 200 adolescents of IX and X classes with age range between 14 to 16 years who were administered psychological tests i.e. Ryff's Psychological Well-being Scale (PWB), 1989b and Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM), Carlo & Randall, 2002. Product Moment Method was used to see the relationships between Prosocial Behaviour and Psychological well-being. Results reveal that psychological well-being is significantly positive correlated with prosocial behaviour. To see the significant mean difference, t- test was used. Results show that Boys are high on Autonomy and Environmental Mastery the measures of Psychological well-being and Public Prosocial behavoiur where as Girls are high on Altruism, Complaint and Emotional Prosocial behavoiur as compared to their counterparts.
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Identifying differences of the level of worry with GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) based on gender among engineering students using PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire)
Page 371-374
Ranju Lal and K. R. Chaturvedi Department of Management, Krishna Institute of Engineering & Technology, Ghaziabad, U.P. and Pramod Pathak Department of Management, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad

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This study identifies the differences in the level of Worry based on Gender among second year B. Tech. students in Engineering College. PSWQ was the instrument used to collect data from 500 B. Tech second year students. Students chosen through random sampling from Engineering college in Ghaziabad, India. To determine gender differences among the respondent's independent samples t-test was used via SPSS version 20. The result of research showed that male and female respondents differed significantly in their level of worry perceived. Worry or anxiety disorders often go unrecognized and untreated in India, which puts the students at risk for developing additional difficulties such as academic failure, depression, substance abuse and more often suicidal attempts or suicide.The present study identifies the level of Worry with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in a sample of 500 engineering students using PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire). Along with the study some useful suggestive measure or remedies for reduction of worry will be discussed.
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Burnout among school teachers in relation to their psychological well-being
Page 375-378
Baljeet Kaur Research Scholar, Singhania University, Rajasthan and Agyajit Singh Ex--Head, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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The present study aims to (i) to measure three dimensions of burnout i.e.; emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment, as well as psychological well-being, (ii) to find the differences on three dimensions of burnout, and psychological well-being between male and female teachers and (iii) to study the relationship between three dimensions of burnout of teachers and their psychological well-being. The hypotheses were that there would be no differences on three dimensions of burnout, and psychological well-being among school teachers on the basis of sex, (ii) there would be a negative relationship between three dimensions of burnout and psychological well beings of the teachers. The sample of the study consisted of 400 school teachers, out of which 200 were male teachers and 200 were female. They were administered two standardized tests. (1) Maslach' Burnout Inventory (M.B.I., 1986) by Maslach, Jackson and Schwab, (2) P.G.I. General Well-being Inventory by S.K. Verma & Amita Verma. The results of the study were that (1) there were no sex differences on burnout and psychological well-being of the teachers; (2) there was no relationship between burnout of teachers and their psychological wellbeing.
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Psychological well-being of diabetics people
Page 379-381
Manju and Randhir Singh Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana

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The present study examined the Psychological Well-being of Diabetics People, It is a comparative study. A sample of 200 subjects have taken, out of these 100 are already diagnosed type 2 diabetics and 100 are normal controlled. Both groups have half male and half female. The Age range was 35 to 55 years. To assess Psychological Well-being, Carol Ryff. Psychological well-being scale was used. It was found that the people suffering from diabetes were lower psychological well-being than normal controlled.
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Effect of relaxation and CBT in reducing symptom of general anxiety disorder and stress
Page 382-386
Neda Karbalahei Hossein Department of Psychology, North Campus, University of Delhi, Delhi

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This descriptive research aims at comparing the efficacy of the cognitive behavior therapy with relaxation therapy in reducing symptom of general anxiety disorder and stress. It is obvious that CBT and RT are so important in reducing the symptom of GND as well as stress. The main reasons of stress and general anxiety disorder are beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes. Further, irrational thoughts and CBT which are based on negative thoughts and beliefs can be effective in treatment of stress. This article seeks to concentrate and analyze the effectiveness of CBT and RT on the decreased symptom of GND and stress. In other word, there is a significant relationship between all these factors.
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Geriatric psychology: The source of inspiration for old age
Page 387-391
Kanika Jain and Shivani Khatri CM DAV College for Women, Chandigarh

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Empty nest syndrome is a general feeling of grief and loneliness that parents may feel when their children leave home to live on their own for the first time. It is seen when children grow into young adulthood and are sent off into the world. The household physically shrinks from several to two: - husband and wife, or one in case of a single parent. A complete description of the syndrome goes beyond just missing one's children. Although there is no clinical diagnosis for this syndrome, researches in western countries have shown that the number of parents going through such a condition is quite high. Empty nest syndrome can lead to feelings of depression and spur marital conflicts. It may also make individuals more prone to alcoholism and identity crisis. Other symptoms include profound despair, loss of self esteem, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration, sleeplessness, loss of appetite and sexual desire, inability to deal with daily affairs, and the inability to relate to anything in a positive manner. Coping with it requires self-initiative that includes being positive about children leaving home, joining hobby groups or professional associations, discussing feelings and problems with loved ones, doing things you have always wanted to do and staying happy. Cognitive behavioral therapy and counseling helps relieve related depression. While the time when children leave home can be a hard time for parents, another school of thought believes that it is a period of relaxation, enjoyment, new freedom, a time for improving the relationships with each other and learning new activities of interest. Not much research has been done on empty nest syndrome. However, it generates a lot of interest. The present paper discusses empty nest syndrome in detail.
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Effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in reducing depression and anxiety in women with breast cancer
Page 392-394
Masoud Hejazi and Afsaneh Sobhi Department of Psychology, Zanjan Branch Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran and Fereshteh Sahrzad Department of psychology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

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This study examines the impact of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in reducing depression and anxiety in women with breast cancer in Tehran. This is experimental study by pre-test - post-test with control group. In this study, 30 women with breast cancer were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. For data collection Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that dialectical behavior therapy in reducing depression and anxiety in women with breast cancer is significant.
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A comparative study of depression among adolescents in relation to gender, domicile and family type: With special reference to Kashmir
Page 395-397
Aaliya Akhtar Department of Psychology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, M.P.

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In the present study, the level of depression was examined in a sample of 120 adolescents (60 boys and 60 girls) with equal participation from different domicile types (60 from rural and 60 from urban areas) and different family types (74 from joint and 46 from nuclear families). The measure used for collecting data was Beck Depression Inventory. The results of the study revealed a significant difference in the level of depression between the boys and girls. Girls were found to be more depressive than boys. Also a significant difference was found between rural and urban adolescents, and joint and nuclear family adolescents with rural and nuclear family adolescents were found to be more depressive than their counterparts.
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Elderly abuse and neglect: The challenges ahead
Page 398-401
Rumeena Surjit Singh Department of Psychology, P.G.G.C.G, Sector- 42, Chandigarh

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There are 77 million older persons in India today, and the number isexpected togrow to177 million in another 25 years. As the number and percentage of individuals 65 and over has increased in this country, so has the incidence of elder abuse. According to the HelpageIndia report on elderly abuse, 2012, 31% of older persons reported facing abuse. More than half of those abused were facing it for more than 4 years and all these were facing multiple forms of abuse. 24% older people faced abuse almost daily. Unfortunately, the prevalence and nature of this growing problem has generally remained hidden from public view. In the light of these facts, it is imperative that both professionals and lay persons become more aware of the scope and many issues surrounding this sensitive topic. Taking this scenario into consideration the present paper attempts to highlight and discuss the various types of abuse the elderly are being victimized to. Furthermore, the paper also provides certain recommendations and preventive strategies to curb the same.
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Growing up in global techno India: Children in urban family and their behavioural pattern
Page 402-403
Harasankar Adhikari, Social Worker, Kolkata, West Bengal and Olimpia Das Students Psychologist, LISSAH, Kerala

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The construction of social world depends on micro and macro world of a child. It includes altogether the parental relation, sibling/kin relation, neighbourhood/peer relation and parental education and economy. The integration and coordination of these worlds are considered as appropriate control strategies for psycho-social, moral and other development of a child. But in present global techno India relational pattern has been turned into a truncated one. Most of the children grow up as single in this context. In place of that modern technological appliances and its uses have occupied major role in their daily life. It has impacted on their childhood behavior which is bored. Thus the objective of this study was to explore the childhood behavioral pattern and remedial measures to improve it. For this purpose 50( N=50 = 25 male + 25 female) single child of 8-10 years of age from urban family of Kolkata City was randomly selected and they were the students of a reputed English Medium school. Personal interview in semi-structured schedule, group interaction and activities, interview with teachers and parent(s) were used to collect data and assessment was done to diagnose their magnitude of behavioural pattern. It revealed that 90% of them had problem in their behavior including inattentive, quarrelsome, arrogant, absentmindedness and so forth. The use of technology would be replaced by active relational pattern in their micro world for their improved mental health.
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Effectiveness of humor on stress in children with cancer
Page 404-405
Mina Nikoravesh, Zhanet Hashemi Azar and Farangis Kazemi Allameh Tabatabai University, Iran

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This study aimed to determine effectiveness of humor on stress in children with cancer. The research method is semi-pilot with structure of group pre-test and post-test. The population of study was all children with cancer. The present sample of children aged 7 to 9 years in Shohada and Mofid hospitals that 8 patients are available. Device used by research question - a verbal and visual stress symptoms in children and satires. Statistical analysis of data was performed by using t-test. Results showed no effect of humor on stress reduction for children with cancer, but due to changes in raw scores can be seen in some children, this can be attributed to limitations and problems during the study. Considering humor because changes in raw scores of children have been doing some research on different physical space recommended and also to overcome limitations of research, designing appropriate instruments to measure stress symptoms in children is recommended.
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