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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 4
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Locus of control, peer influence on dieting, media exposure and body image satisfaction in young adults
Page 369-372
Sneh. S. Jhaveri and Sairaj M Patki, Department of Psychology, P.E.S Modern College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Shivajinagar, Pune

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Awareness about one's body and the cases related to eating disorders are on the rise. Thus, the aim of the present study was to study the relationship between locus of control, peer influence on dieting, media exposure and body image satisfaction in young adults. The sample comprised of 62 males and 62 females, aged between 19-25 years. The tools used comprised of the Internal-External (I-E) Locus of Control scale, The Peer Influence Scale (PFS), The Media Consumption scale and Physical appearance and global self-worth subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for College students. t-test and Pearson's Product Moment correlation were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that media exposure was higher among females as compared to males. Peer influence on dieting was found to be positively correlated with media exposure and negatively correlated with satisfaction. The study also discusses the results and implications with reference to gender.
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The psychometric validation of mental health questionnaire for adults
Page 373-377
Anand Prakash Dubey and A P Singh Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science, B.H.U., Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the psychometric properties of the newly developed questionnaire related to mental health of adults. Mental health is a global concept which includes the wellness of the individuals at psychological, emotional and social level. This questionnaire consists of twenty items related to life satisfaction, psychological well-being, psychological distress, and positive orientation towards self. The sample comprises of 350 students of Banaras Hindu University engaged in higher studies. The results of reliability analysis indicate that Cronbach's α = .826 after deleting the one item from the scale. The reliability is statistically acceptable for newly developed scale. Results of the exploratory factor analysis indicate that these nineteen items are loaded on four factors (life satisfaction, psychological well-being, psychological distress, and positive orientation) and these four factors explain65.08% of total variance in mental health construct. The items of this questionnaire are framed in such manner that this questionnaire can be also useful in assessing the mental health of all normal adult population.
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Physical self-concept and physical activity of overweight adolescent girls
Page 378-382
M. Ramya Maheswari and Sheela Hemalatha Julius Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

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The aim of the current investigation is to compare the physical self - concept of overweight and non overweight adolescent girls and to find if exist, a relationship of physical self-concept with weight status and levels of physical activity among overweight adolescent girls. Expost-facto research design was used for the present study. The sample consists of 50 overweight and 50 Non-overweight adolescent girls in the age range of 16-17. Body Mass Index categorized overweight adolescent girls from their non -overweight counterparts. It is hypothesized that over-weight and non- overweight adolescent girls will not differ in their physical self - concept. Richard's Physical self - concept scale (1987) was used to collect data. The scale measures seven factors of physical self concept namely body build, action, appearance, health, physical ability, strength and satisfaction. Descriptive statistics, t tests and Pearson's r were used to analyses data. Results showed that there was no significant mean difference between overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls on various dimensions of the physical self- concept scale and the relationship between physical self - concept and physical activity was found to be weak and non-significant
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Spiritual well-being and general mental health among alcoholics and non-alcoholics
Page 388-391
Sijin K. S., Department of Psychology University of Kerala, Trivandrum, Kerala and Romate J. Department of Psychology Central University of Karnataka, Karnataka

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The present study was conducted to assess, compare and examine the inter relationship between the level of spiritual well-being and general mental health of alcoholics and non-alcoholics. The age of the sample population ranged between 20 and 60 years (M=42.4). The sample was consisted of 60 alcoholics and 60 non-alcoholics drawn from three districts in Kerala. The two groups were identical in the aspects of age, educational qualification and socio-economic status. General Health Questionnaire-28 (Goldberg, 1978), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-sp (Bredle et al., 1990) and Audit questionnaire for measuring screen for alcohol misuse (Saunder et al., 1993) were used for assessment. Data were analysed using independent sample t-test and Pearson's product moment correlational analysis. Results revealed that the group of alcoholics and non-alcoholics differs significantly on the level of spiritual well-being and general mental health indicating the group of non-alcoholics possessed better level of spiritual well-being and general mental health as compared to alcoholics. The level of spiritual well-being is significantly correlated with the general mental health of the participants and both the spiritual well-being and general mental health is inversely correlated with level of alcohol dependence.
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Homophobia and its psychological correlates among heterosexual population
Page 392-395
Tamalika Das Gupta, Clinical Psychologist University of Calcutta, Kolkata and Jayanti Basu Department of Applied Psychology University of Calcutta, Kolkata

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The present study is an attempt to compare homophobic and non-homophobic individuals in terms of Defense styles used, Type D personality (Negative Affectivity & Social Inhibition) and Gender Role Identity. A sample consisting of 150 persons with age ranging from 20 40 years, both male & female were taken from in and around Kolkata. The sample was divided in high homophobic and low homophobic subgroups depending on the score obtained on Index of Homophobia. The statistical analysis of the data included mean, standard deviation and independent sample t test. The results indicated that there is a significant difference between high homophobic and low homophobic individuals in terms of humor, acting out, passive aggression, denial and dissociation. Moreover there was no significant difference found between high homophobic and low homophobic individuals in terms of Type D personality and Gender role.
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Correlates of neuropsychological functioning and emotional disturbance in MR children
Page 396-400
Amra Ahsan Amity Institute of Behavioural and Allied Sciences, Amity University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Neuropsychology is a subspeciality of psychology concerned with the study of relationship between brain and behavior and thus it is primarily concerned with evaluating changes in behavior and cognitive functions associated with brain dysfunction by using psychological tests and other assessment techniques. Clinical Neuropsychology uses the principles and procedures of neuropsychology in clinical setting to understand brain related problems or clinical conditions, to intervene into them, to manage them, and to rehabilitate persons suffering from cognitive and behavioral problems due to neuropsychological impairments. Children with emotional disturbance are a heterogeneous group of people with a variety of strengths and needs. Much is known about the school and community factors that place young people at risk for developing emotional disturbance and about what must be done to improve school and community results for them. A number of researchers have reported an association between neuropsychological impairment and psychiatric disorders. There has been relatively little research on the neuropsychological functioning of emotionally disturbed children. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the dimensions of Neurospychological functioning and emotional disturbance inMR children. The results indicated that there was a positive and significant correlation between the dimensions of neuropsychological functioning like orientation, attention and memory and between the dimensions of emotional disturbance like inability to learn, relationship problems and inappropriate behavior in MR children. Further, it was found that there was a significantcorrelation between dimension of Neuropsychological functioning and Emotional disturbance of MR children.
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Group counseling and yoga practices: Effective tools for reducing the aggression of adolescents
Page 401-405
Priyanka Saraf Department of Clinical Psychology, D.G. College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh

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This study examined the impact of group counseling & yoga practices on aggression of adolescents. A assessment was made for measuring the post effect after offering yoga practices & group counseling, Sample on 120 adolescents in Experimental & Control groups, 30 female & 30 male adolescents in each group have been taken as subjects from International & Public Schools of Delhi (CBSE board) aged 14 to 18 years (Late Adolescents), sample have been selected by using Quota Sampling, Aggression questionnaire was administered (pre test) on them. After offering the intervention package (Bhramari Pranayam, Yoganidra, Group Counseling & Atma Bodha & Tatva Bodha ki Sadhana), a post test was administered upon same subjects, Data was analyzed by using the 't' test, results revealed that aggression of adolescents reduced in experimental group, In control group results of pre & post test for girls were same, but not of boys, perhaps due to some environmental factor, It concludes that yogic practices & Group Counseling techniques are effective in reducing the aggression of adolescents.
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A study of the empowerment of diabetics type-1
Page 406-409
Supriya Sioni and Kamayani Mathur Department of Psychology, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat

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Diabetes Mellitus(DM) is a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both (WHO 1999). Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most common endocrine and metabolic conditions among children.With 70,000 newly diagnosed young people every year, the prevalence of type 1 DM is growing globally.Patients with diabetes must make aseries of daily decisions involvingnutrition, physical activity, medication,blood glucose monitoring, and stressmanagement. Empowerment plays a big role in managing diabetes.Patient empowerment refers to a process where people gain greater control over decisions affecting their health. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between Diabetes Empowerment and type 1 diabetics in relation to Glycemic control and gender. Purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 40 type 1 diabetics equally divided genderwise and as per their glycemic control from various hospitals of Ahmedabad aged 15-25 years. Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) was used to measure diabetes-related psychosocial self-efficacy.The results were statistically analysed using 't' test. The findings revealed thatdiabetes empowerment was found to be more in diabetics having good glycemic control (HbA1c < 7.5) than diabetics having poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 7.5). Type 1 female diabetics had better empowerment than male diabetics.
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A comparative study of self-esteem of advantaged and disadvantaged children
Page 410-414
Heena Parveen, Department of Psychology, Noida International University, Noida and Mehmudunnisa, Zareena Jabeen and Naima A. Gulrez Department of Psychology, Aligarh University, Aligarh, U.P.

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An important concern of social sciences particularly psychology is to focus on researches which would contribute towards enhancement of quality of life and alleviating problems, which prevents individuals from achieving their highest potential? Children who are the future, architects of our society should be given special attention. The way of self evaluation along a positive and negative dimension, play an important role in the development of self-esteem among school children. In the present paper an attempt was made to find out the factors which help in self evaluation and how young students suffer from and how can we help them. This is an area which should be taken up for serious study. The objective of present study was to compare the self esteem of children studying in advantaged and disadvantaged school conditions. The sample of the study comprised of 100 adolescent students. 50 from advantaged school drawn from the Al Barkat public School, Aligarh affiliated to CBSC New Delhi and 50 from Union School of Aligarh.
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Role of critical thinking, optimism about future and learning oriented behavior on academic performance of high school students
Page 415-418
Anam Siddiqi, Asma Nisar, Samra Khan and Shamikh Arsh Department of Applied Psychology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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The present study is an attempt to explore whether critical thinking, optimism about the future and learning oriented behavior play a role in predicting the academic performance among high school students.This study will be conducted on a sample of 60 high school students. The sample will first be divided into two groups based on their academic performance. The high performance group will be composed of all those students scoring higher than 55% while the low performance group will comprise of those scoring less than 55%. The two groups were then assessed on critical thinking, optimism about future and goal oriented behavior using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), revised life orientation task (LOT-R), and learning goal orientation scale by Button et al respectively. The data will be analyzed in SPSS using regression analysis and independent sample t - test to find out whether the academic performance of high school students is determined by critical thinking, optimism about future and learning oriented behavior.
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Role of optimism in the well-being of undergraduate students in Goa
Page 419-422
Brian Pacheco and Shanmukh V. Kamble Department of Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnatak

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The present study was designed to study the relationship between optimism and well-being . The sample for the study comprised of 500 undergraduate students from colleges in Goa. Five measures'Life Orientation Test - Revised' by Scheier and Carver (1994), 'Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)' by Watson, Clark and Tellegen (1988), 'Subjective Happiness Scale' by Lyubomirsky and Lepper (1999),'Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)' by Radloff (1977), and 'Satisfaction with Life Scale' by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin (1985) were administered to participants. The findings of this study indicate a moderate positive relationship between optimism and subjective well-being. Optimism was positively correlated to positive affect (r=.486, P<0.01), happiness (r=.436, P<0.01), and life satisfaction (r=.472, P<0.01), and negatively correlated to negative affect (r=-.357, P<0.01) and depression (r=-.457, P<0.01).
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Identifying symptoms of stress among university students
Page 423-425
Iram Naseer, Independent Scholar, Psychology, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Stress in modern life lead to several mental, emotional, physical, social, spiritual problems among students. The present study was carried out to compare the stress-related symptoms among male and female students studying in professional and non-professional courses. Stress Symptoms Check List prepared by Husain (2006) was administered to them. Result indicates that professional and non-professional students perceived the same level of stress related symptoms. Female student as compared to male students perceived higher level of mental stress, environmental stress, social stress and spiritual stress-related symptoms.
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Perceived stress and anxiety among parents of the children with intellectual disabilities
Page 426-429
Ritu Kalgotra and Jaspal S. Warwal Department of Education, University of Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir

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Parents having an intellectually disabled child experiences impact on their psychology and feel continuously stressed. The sample of the intellectually disabled children was taken from the special schools of Jammu district of J&K state. Total of 60 children were selected and were categorized as groups as X, Y and Z. Group X comprises of 40 parents (20 mothers and 20 fathers) of profound and severe intellectual disabled children. Group Y comprises of 40 parents (20 mothers and 20 fathers) of mild and borderline intellectual disabled children. Group Z comprises of 40 parents (20 mothers and 20 fathers) of intellectually healthy children. Parents were administered with the Family Interview for Stress and Coping in Retardation, (FISC) Section 1, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). The results indicated that the mothers of group X experiences more stress as compared to mothers of group Y and Z. Mothers in all the groups have comparatively more level of anxiety than the fathers. There exists the positive correlation between levels of anxiety and perceived stress. (HARS and FISC scores) among mothers and fathers in the groups X, Y and Z.
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Needle stick and sharp injuries among house-keeping workers: A case study of a city hospital
Page 430-433
Raman Sharma, Ravinder Yadav and Vipin Koushal Department of Hospital Administration, GMCH, Chandigarh, Meenakshi Sharma Project Scientist, Department of Pediatrics, GMCH, Chandigarh, Pallvi Aggarwal JRF, Department of Psychiatry, GMCH, Chandigarh and Varinder Saini Department of Medical Records, GMCH, Chandigarh

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Needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSI) among Health Care have a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality. Preventing NSSI is an essential part and every healthcare facility should have an infection control program in work place. A two months descriptive study was conducted in city hospital, Chandigarh to evaluate NSSI among Housekeeping Workers (HkW) specifically to determine the occurrence of NSSI, circumstances under which NSSI occur and measures to prevent NSSIs. Out of 434 HkW, 244 were identified at risk of NSSI. The self structured questionnaire were administered to participants to assess awareness and importance of handling BMW, education and training of BMW handling, causes of injuries etc. 93.0% (214) of HkW had knowledge of segregation, categorization and significance of color coding, 96.5% (222) were well aware of the efforts taken by the hospital authorities in the BMW management. No HkW has ever been imparted training regarding BMW management and all came to know while working in the hospital only. After NSSI exposure 32% (74) of HkW responded immediately, 10 per cent took action later on the same day while the rest did not take any action. When asked about factors for NSSI, 94% (214) responded that they themselves were responsible. NSSIs are observed in all categories of Healthcare workers (HCW) and there is a scope for improvement in safety protocols. Preventive strategies have to be devised and reporting must be made mandatory. Such programs and innovations are necessary for all HCW safety and security.
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Recent advances in management of Giant Cell Tumor
Page 434-436
Virender Kumar, Department of Orthopaedics and Joint Replacement Surgery Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi, Mamta Singhroha Department of Radiodiagnosis, Regional Diagnostic Center BPS Medical College, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat, Haryana, Ruchi Dabasd Department of Ophthalmology, BPS Medical College, Sonipat and Mahesh Kumar Sr. Resident, Department of Pediatrics, B.D. Sharma, PGIMS, Rohtak

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Giant cell tumor (GCT) was first described by cooper and Traver in 1818. More prevalent in India and China constituting around twenty present of all bone tumors with a female preponderance. GCT of bone is characteristically homogeneous pale brown, firm though friable associated with secondary haemorrhagic changes. The presence of Multinucleated Giant cell along with mononuclear spindle shaped stromal cells is pathognomic. On a radiograph, they are characterised by lytic tumor surrounding with a poorly defined zone of sclerosis often eroding the cortex. They may present as an eccentrically located expansile lesion. Recurrence of the tumor has been noticed and hence long-term follow-up is necessary.
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Assessment of emotional quotient of parents of babies admitted to NICU
Page 437-441
Srushti Agrawal, Anjali Edbor and Pankaj Singh NKP Salve Institute of Medical Science, Digdoh Hills, Nagpur, Maharashtra

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The aim of the study was to identify the impact of birth of a preterm baby on the emotional states of the parent. In addition to this, it also assessed the impact of preterm birth on various aspects of the family life.. Keeping in mind, the assessment of the emotional quotient of parents of NICU admitted babies was carried out by using a prevalidated questionnaire by IBHQ. About 76 parents of NICU admitted babies from NKPSIMS &Lata Mangeshkar Hospital, Nagpur, India. The results show that, there is significant difference seen in the means of daily routine of parent, parental attitude and financial consequences of babies above and below 2 kg of body weight. There is a significant difference observed in the means of parental attitude of babies of primigravida and multipara women. The study also shows that parents' emotional state is positively correlated with their physical state, daily routine, & attitude as well as with financial state. Similarly, positive correlation is seen between their physical state with daily routine, attitude, and financial state. The daily routine of parents is positively correlated with their attitude. While there is a negative correlation observed between the financial state of parent with their daily routine and also with the parents' attitude. This study gives us a broad idea regarding the changes in the attitude of the parents due to the long stay in the NICU. This is also related to parents' counseling & communication skills by NICU staff & junior doctors. It also focuses on the need to improve the counselling abilities of junior doctors with a view to alleviate the anxiety of parents.
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To study the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) amongst adolescent children referred for behavioral problems
Page 442-445
Pankaj Singh, Sudha Ojha and Rubeena Jabeen Ansari NKP Salve Institute of Medical Science, Digdoh Hills, Nagpur, Maharashtra

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The present paper is an attempt to examine the Prevalence of ADHD in adolescent in age group 11-16 years referred for behavioral Problems, to identify the Gender difference in the Prevalence of ADHD, and to identify the presence of any co-morbid factors associated with ADHD. This study was conducted at central India at NKPSIMS & LMH Nagpur. During August 2014 to November 2015 (15 months), include Adolescents Boys/Girls , referred by school for behavioral problems ,were included in the study (N=148), The data were analysed with the help of compared “t” test, They were assessed with the help of validated Questionnaire CONNERS MHS (Multi Health Systems) and socio-economic status was assessed with Modified Kuppuswami scale. Based on this study it shows Significant difference in the score for Inattention male adolescents (M=42.14) and female adolescents (M=46.79), t- Score -1.381, significant at 0.05 level. Hyperactivity area, male adolescents (M=50.34) and female adolescents (M=42.49), t- Score 2.456, significant at 0.05 level and Defiance/ Aggression, Male adolescents (M=56.35) and Female adolescents (M=46.52), t- Score 5.452, Significant at 0.05 level. Based on this study it shows that, consistency is imperative to successful behavioural change and management. There is blinded evidence that they improve parenting and decrease adolescents issues (aggression, hyperactivity, family relationship and educational).
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Modernization in relation to value orientation of college going students: A study of Kashmir valley
Page 446-448
Bilal Ahmad Naikoo Doctoral Fellow, Department of Education University of Kashmir, J&K and Shabir Ahmad Bhat Doctoral fellow, Department of Education Lovely Profession University, Jalandhar, Panjab

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The purpose of the present study is to investigate the difference on modernization and value orientation and examine the relationship of modernization andvalue orientation among college students. The present study is descriptive in nature and the data were collected using modernization and value orientation scales through survey method. Current study constitutes a sample of 400 college students selected through random sampling technique. The study revealed a significant difference between male and female college students on modernization on the other hand male students show significantly higher results on three dimensions of value orientation (Cosmopolitanism, Scienticism, Ventuersomeness, Progressivism value orientation) as compared to female students. Results also reveals that there is no significant difference in the other two dimensions of value orientation (Autocratism-Democratism and Non-Empathy-Empathy value orientation) of male and female college students. Further results revealsin-significant positive relationship between modernization and value orientation of college students. Outcomes of present study suggested the educational program should be designed in such a way that it is conducive to bring desirable attitudinal change in order to bring modernization among all students irrespective to their gender.
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Self-concept and home environment among adolescents
Page 449-451
Priyanka Vijayan Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

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The word 'adolescence' comes from the Latin word 'adolesere' which means 'to grow'. Adolescence has been described by Stanley Hall as 'the storm and stress of human life'. The most important fact about adolescence is that it is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. In preparing for adulthood an adolescents self concept and home environment plays an important role. The participants comprised of adolescent students belonging to the age range of 15 to 20 years selected randomly from recognized educational institutions in Thrissur district of Kerala state. The tools used in the study were Self-Concept Inventory was developed by Dr. Raj Kumar Saraswat, it provides six separate dimensions of self-concept, viz., Physical, Social, Intellectual, Moral, Educational, and Temperamental self-concept. It also gives a total self-concept score and Home Environment Scale developed by Sarla Jawa (1997). The results revealed there are significant differences among three age groups in self concept but no change in home environment and lack of gender differences in self concept but significant differences in home environment among the adolescents. The present study implicates that with improved home environment the self concept of adolescents can be increased.
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Students predict risky behaviors based on personality traits and emotional intelligence
Page 452-454
Hossein Aflakifard, Department of Educational Sciences Farhangian, University, Iran and Fatemeh Hamidi Department of Counselling, Marvdasht Branch Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

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The aim of this study was to predict risky behaviors of high school students based on personality characteristics and emotional intelligence in the area 2 Education of Shiraz. Due to the nature and purposes of research is used of the practical and implementation of the correlation method. The study included all students of secondary education in the area 2 Education of Shiraz, 94-93 academic year that was selected 120 persons as the sample size by multi-stage cluster sampling. For data collection was used of questionnaires, dangerous behavior by the United States Center Disease Control and Prevention (1989), Personality characteristics questionnaire of Aisenck (1975) and emotional intelligence questionnaire of Sebria Shrink (1995) that were confirmed validity and reliability. Analysis of data from questionnaires completed at two levels of descriptive and inferential statistics. In the descriptive statistics were used such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics, were used Pearson correlation analysis, regression analysis. The results showed that there is no a significant relationship between of personality characteristics and risk behaviors of students, there is no a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and risk behaviors of students, personality characteristics are able to predict of their high-risk behavior, personality characteristics and emotional intelligence are able to predict of their high-risk behavior.
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Comparison of depression of alcoholics and drug addicts versus non-alcoholics and non-drug addicts
Page 455-457
Kiran Maheshwari, Department of Psychology MJRP University, Jaipur, Rajasthan and Desh Bandhu Sharma Pacific University Udaipur, Rajasthan

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Alcohol is one of the most widely used drug substances in the world. For many people, drinking alcohol is nothing more than a pleasant way to relax. People with alcohol use disorders, however, drink to excess, endangering both themselves and others. In the mental health area alcoholism is caused mostly by depression, on the other hand it also leads to depression stress. The present study aims to compare depression among alcoholics & drug addicts and non- alcoholics & non drug addicts. It was assumed that depression may be the risk factors for alcoholism. A sample of 300 people was randomly selected from Rajasthan. Depression scale by bhatnager were used to collect data on depression . t-test was administered to compare two groups. The result of the study showed that alcoholic and drug addicts group was higher on depression than the non alcoholic and non drug addicts group.
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Effect of gender and location on locus of control among college students
Page 458-460
Ramesh D. Waghmare Department of Psychology, Godawari College Ambad, Jalna, Maharashtra

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The aim of the present research is to examine the effect of Gender and Location on Locus of control among college students. A sample being 120 arts college students selected in this study, in each 60 male students (30 urban and 30 rural student) and 60 female students (30 urban and 30 rural students). Ratters Locus of control scale by Anand kumar and srivastava. The scale was use for data collection 2x2 factorial design was used and data were Analysis by Mean, SD and 'F' values. The finding of present study revealed that there is significant difference between locus of control than male and female college students. Female high internal locus of control than male students and male external locus of control than female college students. No significant difference between locus of control than Urban and Rural college students.
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Happiness and well-being
Page 461-464
Shabnam Qayoom and Akbar Husain Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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All of us really want happiness and the pursuits of pleasures, wealth, or power. Why then do not we simply choose to be happy whenever we wish rather than waiting for happiness to come to us as something beyond our control? Why we do not feel happy all the time? The answer is we do not see happiness as a choice. To few people happiness can be attained through wealth and power. Happiness improves an individual's well-being. In the realm of well-being everything depends on an individual's level of happiness. Earlier the conceptualization of happiness and well-being were the province of philosophers. Now, these concepts got popularity in research in the field of positive psychology. In this chapter we explain the various interpretations that have been offered by philosophers and psychologists, and Islam in conceptualization of the happiness and well-being. This chapter would explain happiness in Islam, happiness: concept and definitions, well-being: concept and definitions, happiness and subjective well-being, andHow happiness can improve an individual's well-being? At the end it has been emphasized to study the relationship between happiness and well-being.
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