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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 5 (2014), Issue - 11
Editor - Sunil Saini
About this Journal

Perceived intimate partner rejection, behavioral control and it's relation to personality dispositions: Resilience as a protective factor among married adults in Egypt
Page 1255-1262
Shaimaa E. Basha Department of Psychology, Helwan University, Egypt

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The aim of this study was to examine relationship between Perceived intimate partner Rejection, Behavioral control, negative personality dispositions, and resilience, among married Egyptian couples. The study attempts to find out the role of Resilience as protective factor between negative personality dispositions and Perceived intimate partner Rejection. It also aims to finding the differences between males and females in Perceived intimate partner Rejection, behavioral control, personality dispositions, and resilience. The sample consisted of 233 Egyptian married couples (M= 37,85 ; SD=9,12).(Male=99 with mean of 38.82 and SD= 7.78 and female= 134 with mean of= 37.13 and SD= 9.97).The measures used in this study were: Intimate partner Acceptance- Rejection/Control Questionnaire (IPAR/ CQ) (Rohner, 2005)translated and adapted into Arabic by the researcher. Adult personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ) Rohner (1984)translated and adapted into Arabic by (Salama, 1986), Resilience scale (Wagnild, 2009) translated and adapted into Arabic by (Shenouda & Basha, 2014). The results shows that are significant differences between mean scores of males and females in Perceived Intimate Partner Rejection; Behavioral control; Negative self- adequacy; emotional Instability; Negative world view and Resilience, favoring females. A positive correlation exists between males and females scores in Perceived Intimate Partner Rejection, Behavioral control and their scores on Negative personality dispositions (aggression/ hostility, dependency, negative self-esteem, Negative self- adequacy, emotional unresponsiveness, emotional Instability and Negative world view). A negative correlation exists between males and females scores in Perceived Intimate Partner Rejection and their scores on resilience. When the effect of resilience, is partialled out, the association between Perceived Intimate Partner Rejection and negative personality dispositions decreased in magnitude for both male
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Development and validation of mental toughness scale for shooters
Page 1263-1272
D. Ravi, K. Ramachandran and Bhhavya Defence Institute of Psychological Research, Defence Research and Development Organization, New Delhi

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The aim of the study is to develop and validate the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ). Initially 120 items were generated and finally it reduced 40 items based on item analysis. To establish the reliability, test retest (0.635) and internal consistency reliability (0.912) were identified and to study the latent structure principal component factor analysis carried out and its three factors structure explains 45.4 % of the total variance. To cross validate the latent structure, confirmatory factor analysis carried out, and it supports the three dimensional oblique model. For concurrent validity, it is significantly correlated with mental toughness scale and for convergent validity it is related with the theoretically relevant constructs. For the predictive validity the scale is discriminating the successful and unsuccessful shooters. Finally, Mental Toughness score was positively correlated with the Social desirability score, however its magnitude was relatively small.
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Cultural impact on happiness and subjective well-being of older adults
Page 1273-1280
Sargun Bedi, Healthcare Counselor Metro Hospital, Noida, UP and Gill Case, School of Life Sciences, Sr. Lecturer, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, England

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The number of older adults is increasing throughout the world. Old age has both positive and negative consequences. The changing society affects older people and their relationship within their families and communities, further affecting their well-being, which vary in different cultures. Although happiness as a state of mind is universal, it is important to understand the subjective well-being of older individuals within their cultural contexts. The objective of this study was to investigate the cultural differences amongst older adults from India and Britain in relation with happiness, subjective well-being and its contribution to the overall quality of life satisfaction, noting the gender differences as well. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 10 older adults; 5 from Newcastle, Britain and 5 from New Delhi, India. Thematic analysis was applied, following the process set out by Braun and Clarke (2006). Four major themes were identified pertinent across all the data transcripts: Social connectedness, level of satisfaction and contentment, religiosity and values, strong feelings and changing culture. With the reference to role of culture, the findings demonstrated clear differences in feelings of happiness and the level of satisfaction towards subjective well-being in old age. Moderate gender effects were also found. Their views on all aspects of their complex experiences reflecting on their happiness and well-being were broadly canvassed. The implications of these findings and consideration of the methodology are discussed in full.
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Protective factors mitigating health in middle age
Page 1281-1286
Pavitra Vasudevan, Shoma Chakrawarty and Dhanalakshmi, D., Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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The study undertook a rare challenge of exploring the protective factors in middle adulthood as most research in this area looks at these factors in the context of the young or the elderly population. The study was aimed at exploring the relationship between optimism, health, coping and social support. A sample of hundred middle-aged participants (51 women and 49 men) were surveyed using the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg &Williams, 1978), Life Orientation Test (Carver & Scheier, 1994), Ways of Coping Questionnaire (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet, et al, 1988). The results indicated that people with a more optimistic outlook enjoyed better social support and utilized more adaptive coping strategies. There were no gender differences in optimism, social support and general health, although men manifested a tendency to use more escape avoidance and positive reappraisal. Teachers tended to have poorer health outcomes and used more avoidant coping strategies. In the model predicting health, planful problem solving emerged as the strongest predictor, followed by optimism, escape avoidance and social support from a significant other. The study reinforces the value of adaptive coping strategies for the health and wellbeing of individuals under stress. It also highlights the role of personal and social resources like optimism and social support, respectively, in fostering resilience in the face of the stressors of life.
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The investigation relationship between children's' mental health and parent's education and job
Page 1287-1290
Hamid Reza Mirshekari Clinical Psychology, Sciences and Research Branch of Zahedan Islamic Azad University, Iran

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Working mothers with higher education have higher expectations of their children and the issue of mental health in children is reduced in presence of inappropriate behavior. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between mental health of children and parent's education and job. This study is cross - correlation. Sample included 250 students who were selected using random cluster of four school districts. This questionnaire is Demographic characteristics and General Health Questionnaire. For data analysis, statistical parameters such as mean and standard deviation, regression tests, and independent t-test were used. Multiple regression analysis with simultaneous entry for predicting mental health (total) show that adolescent with parental education, parental education has no significant association with mental health. Results indicate that working mothers have less time to consider the social and emotional needs of their children themselves so mental health of their children are than less. Style and mental health skills training course is recommended for children and its related factors established for parents and parents to be rise of aware.
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Relationship between emotional intelligence and coping strategies among Baccalaureate nursing students: An evaluative study
Page 1291-1295
Vithoba Mhalkar, Manipal College of Nursing Manipal University, Karnataka, Linu Sara George Department of Fundamentals of Nursing MCON, Manipal University, Karnataka and Asha Nayak Department of Mental Health Nursing MCON, Manipal University, Karnataka

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Over the years man's ability to perform has been judged by the intelligence he possesses, but it is evident intelligent quotient accounts only for about twenty percent of our success. The major attributes called Emotional Intelligence is critical to personal and professional success. Salovey and Mayer (1990) first coined the term emotional intelligence (EI), referring emotional intelligence as an ability to recognise the meaning of emotions and their relationship and to reason out and solve problems on the basis of the understanding. They further stated that EI develops with age and emotional skills can be learned. Nursing as a profession demands greater deal of understanding as we work with humans .Navigating through all emotions takes tact and cleverness especially if they hope to succeed in life. This is where emotional intelligence becomes important and integral part of their professional and personal life. This study aimed at assessing the EI of nursing students as well as the coping strategies used by them by using emotional intelligence inventory (EI) by Immanuel Thomas and coping strategies scale respectively at Manipal College of Nursing ,Manipal . Out of 74 participants, those having low and very low emotional intelligence(27) were subjected to emotional intelligence enhancement programme covering different facets of EQ of 10 hours divided into 5 days and post test was carried out after one month of intervention. The study group had significantly better improvement on overall emotional intelligence (p<0.001), personal efficacy (p<0.001), interpersonal efficacy (p<0.001), intrapersonal efficacy (p<0.001) and coping strategies (p<0.001). The Pearson correlation co-efficient also showed a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and coping strategies(r=0.504, p<0.001). It was also evident that students adopted better coping strategies like positive re-appraisal and seeking social support post EI enhancement programme.
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A study on relationship between forgiveness, resilience and marital satisfaction among married individuals
Page 1296-1301
Gayatrivadivu, Poonguzhali, Ofelia and Vijayabanu, Department of Counseling Psychology, Madras School of Social Work, Chenaai

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Forgiveness is described as the ability of letting go of transgression leading to positive feelings. Resilience is the ability to successfully adapt and cope through challenging situations. Thereby Forgiveness and Resilience helps in resolving problems successfully in any relationship including marriage. Resolving problems and reconciliation of relationship enhances Marital Satisfaction. Today the divorce rates are increasing. Statistical data about divorce rate in India is alarming. One of the reasons could be lack of the ability to accept and face challenges and couples reluctance in asking and granting forgiveness during the tough courses of their relationship leading to a decline in Marital Satisfaction. Hence the present study intended to find out the influence of Forgiveness and Resilience on Marital Satisfaction. Using purposive sampling method a sample of 233 married individuals was selected. Tools used for data collection include i) Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Connor, & Davidson, 2003) ii) Heartland Forgiveness Scale (Thompson, Snyder, & Hoffman, 2005) iii) ABC Scale of Marital Relationship (Swaminathan & Napinai, 2009) .Statistical analysis included Karl Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Students 't' test. Statistical analysis revealed that there is a significant correlation between i) Forgiveness and Resilience ii) Forgiveness and Marital Satisfaction iii) Forgiveness and Marital Relationship. It also revealed that there is no significant correlation between Resilience and Marital Relationship. There is no significant difference between Men and Women in i) Resilience ii) Forgiveness iii) Marital Satisfaction iv) Marital Harmony. There is a significant difference among Men and Women in i) Marital Adjustment ii) Marital Relationship. The study emphasized on factors that contribute to a satisfied Marital Relationship aided by factors like Forgiveness and Resilience.
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Receptive and expressive speech dysfunction in patients with bipolar affective disorder (mania) and single episode mania
Page 1302-1305
Amit Kumar, Ashoka Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital & De-addiction Centre, Jalandhar, Punjab and Jai Prakash Department of Clinical Psychology RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand

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Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of articulation, voice and fluency. In mania speech is rapid and loud that is difficult to interrupt. In extreme cases speech may become so disorganized that it is incomprehensible. The present study aims at to compare the dysfunction in receptive and expressive speech in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder, Mania and Single Episode Mania. The sample consists of 30 bipolar manic and 30 single episode manic patients selected from different wards of Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) Kanke, Ranchi. Scales of receptive speech and expressive speech from Luria Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery were administered individually. The findings revealed that there is significant difference between two groups on both receptive and expressive speech scale. Patients with BAD (mania) showed more dysfunction in receptive speech and expressive speech in comparison to patients with single episode mania.
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Personality factors: Comparison across gender and community of the adolescent students
Page 1306-1311
Deepa Ghosh Department of Psychology, N. S. Mahavidyalaya, Udaipur, Tripura

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The present study attempts to determine the personality traits of the tribal and non-tribal adolescent students of Higher Secondary Schools and Colleges. Further it aims to investigate the differences between the personality traits of tribal and non tribal students. It also aims to investigate and compare the personality traits of male and female adolescent students. The sample was randomly selected from two government schools and two colleges of sub urban areas. The sample comprises of 127 subjects aged from 17-23 years. Among them 31 was tribal students and 96 was non-tribal students. Further male students were 64 and female students were 63. NEO-Five Factor Inventory was used as an instrument for this research. The data were analyzed by using t-test. Findings reveal significant differences between tribal and non-tribal adolescents on neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness. Results further revealed that female adolescents possess higher neuroticism and agreeableness than male students. But females scored lower than male students on conscientiousness. The findings can be used to develop the personality enhancement intervention programs for the adolescent students.
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Impact of negative Air Ion exposure on attention
Page 1312-1315
Dipti Arora, Department of Psychology GHS Palra, Gurgaon, Haryana and Promila Batra Department of Psychology Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana

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Processing of different stimuli or attention has widespread psychological consequences in one's life. Without attention, perceiving, thinking, learning, deciding and acting is not possible as it is the gateway to all these processes. But in this era of high workload, stress, competition and technological advances attention capacities are deteriorating a lot. Decline in attention can have far-reaching effects on one's ability to function adequately and efficiently in everyday life at work home and elsewhere. Thus, it is important to enhance attention. Various techniques are available for enhancing other cognitive processes such as memory, learning etc. but, the techniques for enhancing attention are yet not well established in the existing literature. Moreover, the techniques available for enhancing attention are very few and require a lot of training, time, effort and experience for implementing them. Negative air ion therapy could be one such technique that does not require much training, is easy and economical to handle the attention disorder and has been shown to exert a positive effect memory and learning. If this therapy can enhance memory and learning, it is quite possible that it can also affect attention and if it shows same impact on attention, it can have wide implications. Keeping this in mind, present work was designed to study the impact of Negative air ion exposure on Selective and Sustained attention. A two group pre post design was employed. A sample of 30 students (n=15) studying in class 8th and 9thin the age range of 14-16 years, with an average span of attention was selected. Experimental group was given an exposure of 1000-1200 ions/cm3 for 10 days and no exposure was given to control group. Subjects were tested on two simple tasks i.e. Selective and Sustained attention before and after the ionic exposure. The results revealed that negative air ion therapy enhances the Selective and Sustained attention of adolescents.
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Relationship between spiritual intelligence and creativity of secondary school students
Page 1316-13-20
Rasol Davoudi, Department of Educational Sciences Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran and Zahra Ataei Zanjani Nezhad, Department of Educational Researches Zanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

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The main purpose of this research was to study the relationship between spiritual intelligence and creativity of students, for this reason, in addition to theoretical studies and literature review, data collected by the questionnaire spiritual intelligence and creativity that their reliability was respectively 0.89 and 0.85. The study sample consisted of all public high school students in Zanjan city's District 2, which of their number were 11,149 subjects. From above population, 360 subjects were selected as sample by using multi-stage cluster sampling. Research methods in terms of purpose were practical and method of data collection was descriptive; correlational. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analyzing the data which in general, students are above average in terms of intelligence, creativity, intellectual and social supposedly located. Also, a significant correlation was found between spiritual intelligence and creativity of the students so that the equation can predict the extent that these variables also showed creativity.
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Impact of leader's EQ on employee's organization commitment
Page 1321-1324
Dharini, Shefali Arora and Sanya Marwah AIPS, Amity University, Noida, UP

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Emotional intelligence has become a popular topic in the business in recent years. Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. To be effective, leaders must have a solid understanding of how their emotions and actions affect the people around them. The better a leader relates to and works with others, the more successful he or she will be. Emotionally intelligent leader in a way contribute to the enhancement of employee's attitude, interest, commitment in some way. This paper attempts to study the impact of leader's EQ on the employee's organization commitment. The researcher has used EQ test and Allen and Mayer organizational commitment scale, and administered it on 9 leaders and their team respectively and the findings were studied.
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Response inhibition in children with conduct disorder: A preliminary report
Page 1325-1330
Prateeksha, S., Department of Psychiatry Yenapoya Medical College Hospital, Mangalore, Roopesh, B. N. Department of Clinical Psychology National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bangalore and Vijayasagar, J. K. Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neuro Sciences, Bangalore

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Response inhibition is a process that enables a person to suspend an ongoing behavioral response in accordance with an unexpected event. Children with deficits in response inhibition therefore would find it difficult to process errors, incorporate feedback and modify their actions. Conduct disorder has been known to have poor prognosis and are associated with socio-occupational impairments, disorganized families and clashes with law and order. The facilities available to these children and family needs to be cost effective and hence a better understanding of the core nature of the problem would lead to building programs that shall prevent them from being burden to the prevailing system. The study examines Response Inhibition in children with conduct disorder in comparison with Typically Developing Children. The sample comprised of two groups- Children with Conduct Disorder & Typically Developing Children (n=13) aged 11-15 years were assessed on response inhibition using Stroop type of tests-Word & Picture and Stop Signal Test (SST). The resulting data was analysed using Mann Whitney U Test and Spearman's rho. Significant group differences were noted between the two groups in a subtest of Word Stroop Test. Findings support provision for Inhibition Training as part of management of children with Conduct Disorder.
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Sense of coherence and coping style of parents with children having autism spectrum disorder
Page 1331-1334
Samridhi Pareek and Kanika Jindal Department of Psychology, The IIS University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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The present study aims at outlining the relationship between sense of coherence (SOC) and coping styles of parents having children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample consisted of 30 mothers and 30 fathers, of children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between the age group of 30-40 years, residing in Jaipur city. Standard psychological tests included orientation to life questionnaire-13 (Antonovsky, 1987) and coping response inventory (Moos, 1993). To assess the difference between the means of males and females t-test was applied, while Pearson's correlation was used for the assessment of relationship between the dimensions . It was found that mothers having low SOC used emotion focused coping while fathers with low SOC engaged in problem focused coping. The result also indicated that sense of coherence is positively related to problem focused coping and inversely related to emotion focused coping. Results however revealed no significant difference between the level of sense of coherence of fathers and mothers having children with autism spectrum disorder.
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Mother and father attachment across gender in slum adolescents
Page 1335-1338
Sudha Katyal Department of Human Development and Family Relations, Govt. Home Science College, Chandigarh, Punjab

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The present investigation attempted to get an insight into mother and father attachment of adolescents living in slum areas as well as to find out gender difference, if any, in their parental attachment. The study was carried out on a sample of 100 adolescents (50 Boys + 50 Girls) aged 13- 17 years, from four randomly selected slum areas of Chandigarh. Standardized tool was used to assess mother and father attachment among subjects. The findings revealed that majority of boys were found to have moderate level of attachment with their mothers, while majority of the girls had high level of attachment with them. As far as attachment with father is concerned, both boys and girls fell into moderate category. The findings depicted significant difference in alienation and attachment with mother of boys and girls, with girls having less alienation and more attachment with mothers than that of boys. Significant difference was also observed between boys and girls with regard to communication with father, with girls having more communication with their fathers than those of boys.
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Who is more depressed?: A study among persons with disability
Page 1339-1341
Anjana Bhattacharjee and Khousbo Chhetri Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura

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The objective of the present study was to ascertain the level of depression among persons with physical disability and to compare it with their normal counterparts (persons without any disability). Again the study investigated the impact of gender on the depressive feeling of the disabled persons. For the said purpose the study was carried out among 100 individuals. Among them 50 were persons with physical disability and rest were normal subjects. The persons with physical disability were selected purposively from DDRC (District Disability Rehabilitation Centre) Agartala and the matched normal population was also selected purposively from Agartala town. Beck Depression Inventory was used for data collection. Findings revealed that the persons with physical disability had high level of depression in comparison to their normal counterparts. Further the visually disabled persons possessed more depression than the persons with locomotor disability. However the study did not reveal any effect of gender on the depressive feeling of the disabled.
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Gender differences in attentional impairment in early onset schizophrenia: A neuro-developmental perspective
Page 1342-1345
Deyashini Lahiri, Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand and Amool Ranjan Singh, Department of Clinical Psychology, Ranchi Institute of Neuro Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand

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Gender specific vulnerability of the brain to neuro-developmental disruption leading to schizophrenia has been evidenced. Gender differences have been noted in two neuro-developmentally underpinned variables- Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) and attentional impairments in schizophrenia. We aimed to compare attention and MPAs in male and female patients with schizophrenia; to find predictors to discriminate the group based on gender; and to assess the influence of MPAs on the association between attentional impairments and gender in schizophrenia. : Thirty patients with early onset schizophrenia (in remission) were recruited. While attention was assessed using the Digit span, the Digit vigilance and the Trail Making Tests, MPAs were comprehensively assessed using the 55 item Extended Waldrop Scale. Study variables were analyzed using parametric measures. Male schizophrenia patients were found to have significantly higher MPAs in skull/scalp, which discriminated the gender based classified groups. There was no significant correlation between gender and attentional measures, even with controlling for MPAs. This study supports the finding that total and specific cranio-facial MPA scores and, impaired attention are indeed illness markers in schizophrenia patients. We conclude that although present in higher numbers in male schizophrenia patients, neuro-developmental anomalies do not intercede the relationship between gender and attentional impairment.
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To study personality traits as predictors of college adjustment among students
Page 1346-1350
Priyanka, Nadeem Luqman and Nitika Grover, AIBAS, Amity University, Gurgaon, Haryana

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The main objective of the paper is to investigate the specific personality factors which are making impact on the college adjustment level of new students. Personality keeps on varying at different age levels. Adolescent is the age which shows maximum variation in personality especially when we move from school to college. During this time, an individual make important life decisions, develop their personal and professional identities, interests and values, and evolve from adolescence to adulthood. Hence, it is very important for an individual to adjust well in college. College adjustment by each student will vary depending on background, experience, and prior schooling. In order to investigate the above mentioned objective investigator collected the sample of 160 first year students from Amity University, Gurgaon. The measures used were NEO-FFI-3 and College Adjustment Scale (CAS). Keeping in view the nature and purpose of the study investigator applied regression and t-test. Analysis result show that three factors are playing significant role in college adjustment i.e. neuroticism, openness and conscientiousness. High level of neuroticism leads to lower level of college adjustment and Individuals high in Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness have consistently demonstrated better overall adjustment to college life than students who score low.
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Effect of mid-life crisis on quality of work life of R&D employees' in India
Page 1351-1353
Nikita Agnihotri, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi and Praval Jain, BPIT, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi

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Nowadays, quality of work life is an integral part of work place. Most importantly employees' ability to handle mid-life crisis attributing to sudden depression, change in social patterns and decline in body energy etc. has become significant contributor to achieving or not achieving quality of work life at their work place. This study measures the quality of work life in R&Dorganisation and also identifies the effect of midlife crisis on quality of work life. Using simple random sampling 142 employees were sampled from leading R&D organisations using cross-sectional study design. The participants were individually administered Work-Related Quality of Life Scale (WRQoL) and self-designedMid-life crisis questionnaire. Correlational analysis indicated that Quality of work life is negatively correlated with midlife crisis and its dimensions. Also, Physical symptoms contributed as a strong predictor of quality of work life. Further implications of the study are discussed in the paper.
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Relationship between self-perception and CD4+ count in person living with HIV/AIDS
Page 1354-1356
Deepak Pandey and Priyamvada Shrivastava School of Studies in Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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The purpose of this study was examined the relationship between self perception and CD4+ cell counts in men and women living with HIV/ AIDS in Chhattisgarh, INDIA. 100 men and 100 women living with HIV and enrolled for ART centers were considered as sample of the study. CD4 cell counts over 6 months period was considered. Self perception of the participants was assessed with the help of a scale measuring self perception; linear regression analysis findings reveal significant contribution of the self perception and education in enhancing CD4+ counts. The results indicate that higher education and positive self perception is important in increase in the immune response of the HIV patients.
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A study on burnout and well-being among school teachers belonging to socially dis-advantaged sections
Page 1357-1361
Kranti Sihotra and Palak Malhotra Department of Psychology, GCW Parade, Jammu

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The present study tried to analyse related but distinct concepts. It sought to study the relationship between burnout and wellbeing among socially depressed classes. Burnout is a psychological term that refers to long-term exhaustion and diminished interest in work. Burnout has been assumed to result from chronic occupational stress. Job related well being is the extent to which people are satisfied with their jobs. A normative survey method was used. Stratified random samples of members of the school teachers (N=104) 52 male and 52 female teachers working in Jammu district was taken. Maslach Burnout Inventory and Job related affective wellbeing scale JAWS were used as measuring instruments. The data obtained was analysed statistically. The results indicated that burnout accounted for significant increments in lower wellbeing associated with job. Also being part of socially depressed class was not significantly associated with burnout and well being.
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Parent-child relationship predict emotional maturity among school going students
Page 1362-1364
Aashima Jasoria, Ram Kumar Gupta, and Mukta Singhvi Department of Psychology, Univeristy of Rajasthan, Jaipur

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The present study was intended to determine whether the parent child relationship would predict emotional maturity among school going students. Thirty participants with ages between 16 and 17 years (group mean age ± S.D., 16.25 ± 0.44) who were studying in a school at Alwar district in the state of Rajasthan were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were assessed for emotional maturity using emotional maturity scale and for parent child relationship with parent child relationship questionnaire. Emotional stability scale was categorized in five dimensions. The parent child relationship questionnaire was sub-categorizes into 10 subunits. Pearson correlation analyses were performed using PASW (SPSS version 18.0) to determine how the parent child relationship would predict emotional maturity among school going students. Neglecting parent child relationship significantly negatively correlated with emotional stability of the child (p <0.01). Emotional maturity showed negative correlation with indifferent parent child relationship (p <0.05) and neglecting parent child relationship (p <0.05). The results suggest that the neglecting parent child relationship negatively affects emotional maturity of the school going students.
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Comparison of two point discrimination in dominant & non- dominant (right vs. left) limbs in healthy adults
Page 1365-1368
Neerja Thukral, Department of Physiotherapy SGT University, Budhera, Gurgaon, Haryana and Pooja Bhatia MPT (Neurology), Department of Physiotherapy Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar

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The present study compared two point discrimination in the dominant and non-dominant i.e. right and left sides of an individual in order to investigate the existence of any intra-individual differences in sensory perception. A total of 100 healthy adults aged between 20 & 50 years were selected and two point discrimination was assessed using baseline aesthesiometer. 8 skin areas were assessed, areas being: a) mid-lateral forearm, b) mid-medial forearm, c)palmar surface of distal phalanx of thumb, d) palmar surface of distal phalanx of long finger, e) medial leg, f) distal lateral leg, g) tip of great toe, h) over 5th metatarsal space. The results demonstrated that tactile sensibility varies in different areas of body in an individual. It was also found that two point discrimination values differ in dominant and non-dominant limbs in healthy adults. Conclusion: Intra-individual differences exist when dominance is taken as criterion.
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A study of values and ego strength in intermediate students of working mothers
Page 1369-1372
Sarwat Jabeen Department of Psychology, Nirmala College, Ranchi, Jharkhand

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The family is one of the primary groups of society concerned with face to face relationship. A child’s earliest education is received in his family. It is here that his basic ideas, ideals as well as many attitudes towards himself and his associates are initiated which determine his later adjustment to school and other out of home situations. The economic status, attitudes and behavioural experiences of parents and family environment, all influence the child’s behaviour and attitudes, both directly and indirectly. In a family the role of the mother in the development of the child is very vital. A child usually spends maximum time with its mother. It is, therefore, the mother alone who leaves a strong and a long lasting impact on the child and lays the foundation for its future development. She acts as a model and the way in which she is perceived by the child determines many of the behavioural choices the child will make later. The early warmth and affection of a mother is associated with calm, happy and cooperative behaviour of the child. She disciplines the child and guides it towards a career. A mother has more opportunities than the father to influence the child’s growth and behaviour. To study the difference in the value of students (boy & girl) of working and non-working mothers. To study the difference of ego strength of students (boy & girl) of working and non-working mothers. There exists significant difference in the value and ego strength of students of working and non-working mothers. Comparison between Intermediate students of working mothers and of non-working mothers on all the variables under study, i.e., values and ego strength. “Study of Values” Test developed by R.K. Ojha was used to collect data concerning six values, viz., Theoretical, Economic, Aesthetic, Social, Political and Religious. Ego strength scale of Hassan will be used to measure students ego strength. For the present study t-test and Descriptive Method was used. Because it is conside
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Assessment of effectiveness of coping enhancement interventions on ways of coping and depressionamong people living with HIV: A study from HIV community care centre in Tamil Nadu
Page 1373-1375
Dhanalakshmi, S. R., Research & Development Centre Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Kanagasabapathy, V. GLRA India Chennai, Santhanam, T., Senior Faculty, SDS Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Chennai, and Subramanian, S. Department of Psychology Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

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The experience of being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS is extremely stressful and therefore HIV and psychiatric diagnoses are often co-morbid. Over the past decade, significant medical advances have ensured better treatment for people living with HIV but significant challenges remain in dealing with the depression coping with the disease. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of coping enhancement interventions on ways of coping and depression among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). Quasi-experimentalstudy was conducted among adult PLHIV (aged 18 years and above) attending a Community Care Centre (CCC) at Perambulur in Tamil Nadu. The study participants were selected from the PLHIV registered at the Centre within 2 years of the commencement of the study.Coping was assessed using' Concern and Coping with HIV scale (Vosvick, Martin, Smith, & Jenkins, 2008) CCHIV Scale. Depression was assessed using Hamilton Depression Scale. Coping enhancement intervention included group counseling on health, education and financial issues and also included a step-wise problem solving process wherein PLHIV's major issues in health problems, educational problems, and financial problems were provided with probable options to solve identified problems and followed up. Specifically, it addressed physical health issues such as education about HIV/AIDS, nutrition, adherence to medications, psychological issues such as worries related to HIV, stigma, disclosure, anger, etc. and livelihood concerns such as education, finance, hopes for the future of their family - the predominant therapies in the coping intervention was cognitive behavioral. The post-intervention assessment interview was administered 6 months after the intervention. The intervention was effective in improving adaptive coping behaviour and decreasing the severity of depressive symptoms. As a result of the intervention, there was a decline in the maladaptive coping behavior but it was not found to be statistically s
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100 INR

Societal preconditions and women's health
Page 1376-1379
Aruna Chinnappan, Department of Sociology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry

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In ensuring quality life, health occupies priority especially for women. It is important because their biological conditions and societal preconditions affect the overall health practices. The social preconditions are by way of their social status and position, and other specific cultural practices of the society. From a social structural perspective gender roles have been identified as major determinants of health status (Doyal, 1995). Cancer is a major cause of death in South Asian women (Bhopal & Rankin, 1996) and there is a low uptake of screening tests. The paper addresses the impact of culture in addressing the health seeking behaviour of women and the distinct phases in health seeking behaviour through Thaddeus and Maine (1990) model. It explores the socio-cultural processes that influence women's decision making at each phase. The study findings indicate women pay less attention to their own body and health as it is viewed as self-centered and hesitate to discuss reproductive health issues for fear of jeopardizing the social status. In addition, financial constraints, dependency, lack of time and the sacrificial nature of women for which they are used to, intervene in accessing health care.
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100 INR

Erectile dysfunction in male psychiatric patients
Page 1380-1382
Shweta Sharma, Department of Psychiatry Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi and Satydhar Dwivedi Department of Clinical Psychology Institute of Mental Health & Hospital, Agra, UP

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The Present study was conducted to see erectile dysfunction in male psychiatric patients. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction is higher in persons with mental disorders. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia limit the capability for interpersonal and sexual relationships. The Sample consisted of 30 psychiatric patients from in-patient and out-patient ward of Post Graduate Institute of Behavioural and Medical Sciences and 30 normal controls from general population, Raipur, Chattisgarh. Erectile dysfunction was reported in 27% and 13% in 'patient group' and 'control group' respectively.The finding have been discussed in the light of the existing literature and a future direction for research has also been proposed. The conclusion of study was focused on the use of identifying sexual problems among psychiatric patients because most sufferers do not seek help either due to feeling of embarrassment or because they do not view it as a medical problem.
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Examining the relationship between depression and religious orientation among Kashmir university students
Page 1383-1385
Touseef Rizvi, Nasirah Hamid and Shams Un Nisa Department of Psychology, University of Kashmir, Kashmir

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The present study was undertaken with the purpose to investigate the correlation of Depression and Religious Orientation (Intrinsic & Extrinsic) among Kashmir University students. The sample consisted of 200 students studying in various departments of the university. The findings of the study indicate that there exists a negative correlation between depression and intrinsic religious orientation. It was also found that students differ significantly on religious orientation (intrinsic & extrinsic) as far as their gender is concerned. Females were found to be more intrinsically oriented and males were found to be more extrinsically oriented. No significant differences were found in depression of participants as far as the gender is concerned and results also revealed that there is an insignificant correlation between depression and extrinsic religious orientation.
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A study to help understand and evaluate the comparative restraint efficiency of the living body cell and military defence mechanisms when perceived through a fall in ethics and value system
Page 1386-1390
Subramanya D. Sanbhat Department of Fabrication Technology and Erection Engineering, Fr. Agnel Polytechnic, Vashi, Navi Mumbai

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Since the ancient days human beings have fought evil forces with all the available might; be it spiritual and/or muscle power. Let us name the two confronting groups as defenders and infiltrators. Now considering the Indian perspective, we assume its position to be defenders as could be seconded by availing historical facts. However, in this endeavour knowingly or unknowingly the knowledge that the Veda's say "Yatha Pindetatha Brahmande" which means what is going on within you is same as what is going on in the universe Or what arrangements exists at the micro level exists at the macro level also seems to have been sidelined as perceived by the fall in values and ethical practices albeit worldwide leading to tremendous loss of life and property for the defenders during confrontations. This may be attributed to the absence of a bench mark for comparing the restraint efficiency of the existing defence mechanisms and hence inability to correct the system's output deviations if any in this age old institution of defence and arms. This paper therefore attempts to identify the similarities in them (macro) with the body cell (micro) defence mechanisms when subjected to sources of decay in the practice of ethos and values so that ways and means could be found for understanding and achieving a successful restraint strategy leading to maximum destruction of infiltrators and minimum loss for the defenders.
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100 INR

Object relations of M: A leprosy patient
Page 1391-1394
Archana Shukla Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, UP

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The present study attempts to cast a glance at the object relations of a 50 year old female leprosy patient (named M in the present study) from Jyoti Nagar Leprosy Rehabilitation Center, Mohanlal gang, Lucknow. In the present study, self object relationship has been operationally defined in terms of responses on Rorschach test, which has been analyzed in the perspective of Lerner (1991) Object Relations Theory. Results brought to fore a self image engulfed with helplessness, being consumed and eaten by the hostile world. M seems to reflect a schizoid character with sub features of depression and obsessive compulsive. Empty depression is evident. It seems to be cut and dry protocol.
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Comparative study of stress level and work adjustment among the employees of public sector and private sector
Page 1395-1397
Manasvi Shrivastav, Junior Research Fellow (ICMR) Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar and Anuradha Kotnala Department of Clinical Psychology DSVV, Haridwar

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Work and occupation derive from the fundamental needs to satisfy hunger and thirst, and to provide for bodily care and shelter. They have their roots in one or more of the basic drives. In the present study stress level of employees and their work adjustment has been studied. Stress in the job may be the result of several factors: changes in life styles, breaking down of traditional expansion, increased importance of meeting work deadlines and the high level of competitiveness. Adjustment is the second factor which is studied as related to work and working conditions. There are two independent variables in this research (i) Public and Private sector employees and (ii) income of the employees. Two dependent variables are (i) stress level and (ii) work adjustment. This research has been conducted among total 80 employees, 40 from private sector and 40 from public sector. These employees further divided into 20-20 as High Income Grade and Low Income Grade employees. Ex post facto research design has been used in research. To assess stress level, stress scale has been used which was developed by Singh; and to assess adjustment, adjustment inventory has been used which was developed by Misra and Srivastava. There are ten hypothesis has been developed by the researcher for research. There are significant difference has been found in work adjustment among High Income Grade and Low Income Grade employees of public sector, significant difference has been also found in the level of stress among Low Income Grade employees of public sector and Low Income Grade employees of private sector.
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A comparative study of mental health of working women and housewives
Page 1398-1400
Muntazir Maqbool, Neharshi Shrivastava and Manju Pandey Department of Psychology, HNB Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand

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The main purpose of present study was to find out the Mental Health of working women and Housewives. The sample consists of 100 women (50 working women and 50 housewives) randomly selected from Baramulla district of J&K state. The research tool used to assess Mental Health of working women and housewives was Mental Health Questionnaire (M.H.Q) developed and standardized by Dr. Kamlesh Sharma. Here 't' test was applied for statistical analysis of data to check the significance of difference in mental health of working women and housewives. Difference in mental health level of working women and housewives was significant at 0.05 level so null hypothesis was accepted and result shows that the housewives has better Mental Health in comparison to working women.
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100 INR

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