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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 7
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Commonly used substances, factors contributing to substance use, and their behavioral impacts: the case of Halaba secondary school students in Ethiopia
Page 678-682
Gete Tsegaye,Department of Behavioral Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

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The purpose of this study was to identify commonly used substances among secondary school students, factors contributing to substance use and their behavioral impacts. Halaba secondary school was purposefully selected due to its strategic importance regarding substance use. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 311 female and 500 male students out of the total number of 5,518 grades 9 through 12 students. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data and three focus group discussions were conducted with 24 key informants. According to the finding of this study khat followed by inhalants was found to be the most commonly ever used substance . Peer pressure, poor academic performance, family drug use, conflict between parents, poor parental guidance and combination of the factors were reported to have contributed to substance use behavior. In addition, substance users were found to be more anxious, discouraged and unhappy also prone to relationship problems compared to their non substance user counterparts. Moreover, more substance users were involved in sexual practices compared to the non substance users. An integrated approach involving the government , the community and religious leaders schools and parents should be used to control and prevent substance use among school children in Ethiopia.
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The influence of economics in cognitive activities and a correlation study on economics and study skills of the students
Page 683-686
D. Manikandan and Surendra Kumar Sia Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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There have been many researches on the cognitive activity particularly about decision making. Researchers having varied backgrounds such as management, psychology, consumer behaviour, Education and Military science, to name a few are aiming to analyse the factors influencing the cognitive activities And also researchers attempt to investigate the impact or relevance of particular factor in the cognition process and such researches are increasing in the field of Behavioral Economics. This article analyses the interrelationship between cognition, economical status (Socio economic environment of family) and their influence in the study skills of the children.
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Depression, anxiety, stress and suicidal ideas in adolescent victims of human trafficking and sexual abuse in a sheltered home at Ranchi, India
Page 687-690
Aparna Rani, Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand and Manglesh Kumar Manglam Department of Psychology, Central University of South Bihar, Patna, Bihar

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Children particularly girls are trafficked for their value in commercial sex work. Even otherwise they are often the victims of sexual abuse when they are trafficked for other purposes. Data pertaining to such issues are sparse and tenuous to collect. Moreover limited research exists on the psychological consequences of the double impact of human trafficking and sexual abuse. The present study aims to explore the severity of stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in a group of adolescent girls with past history of sexual abuse, living in a sheltered home for victims of human trafficking. Thirty-nine consenting participants from the abovementioned site were interviewed to gather socio-demographic information, details on sexual abuse, and then evaluated on a self-administered Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and finally a researcher administered Scale for Suicidal Ideation. Girls between 10 to 17 years, all illiterate hailing from rural background and mostly belonging to lower caste Muslim background reported of multiple occasions of sexual abuse (mostly rape) by perpetrators unknown to them. The participants reported of considerable negative psychological state at the time of evaluation (severe or more levels of depression and anxiety and moderate levels of stress). Stress symptoms correlated positively with suicidal ideation. The study is indicative of high magnitude of psychological suffering in this population which rehabilitation services should be considerate of.
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Perceived social support and psychological well-being among teenagers: The role of gender and optimism
Page 691-694
Sairaj M. Patki, Department of Psychology (post-graduate Section) Modern College of Arts, Science, and Commerce, Shivajinagar, Pune, Maharashtra

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The amount, type, and quality of social support available to teenage students go a long way in determining their well-being. Optimism may however influence the perception of effectiveness of these supportive agencies when coping with the stressors. The present study thus aimed at investigating the relationship between the teenagers' optimism, perceived support, and psychological wellbeing, in the light of gender-differences. The sample comprised of 116 students (57 Boys and 59 girls) studying in grades 8th through 12th. Social support from friends was found to predict psychological well-being among boys (β = .353, p < .01), whereas in girls, social support from family predicted psychological wellbeing (β = .457, p < .01). Optimism, though a valid predictor of psychological well-being, failed to emerge as a moderator of the relationship between perceived social support and psychological well-being.
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Need assessment in persons with schizophrenia
Page 695-698
Lavinia A. M Lyngdoh, Arif Ali, Buli Nag Daimari, Sonia P. Deuri, Aitalin Lyngdoh and Harikrishnan U. Department of Psychiatric Social Work, LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam

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The assessment of the needs for persons with schizophrenia has been an important concern for providing adequate psycho social care. The present study aim to assess the need in persons with schizophrenia. The research setting was at the Outpatient Department, LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Based on convenience sampling technique, samples of 60 subjects with diagnosis of schizophrenia were selected. Patients attending Outpatient Department for follow up in the age range between 18 to 60 years of both the gender were included. Patients with any organic involvement, who have any significant physical illness and with co morbid disorder were excluded. Socio-demographic and Clinical Datasheet, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and The Camber well Assessment of Need were administered.: In the need assessment of person with schizophrenia it was found that 6.7% have unmet need in accommodation, 11.7% have unmet need in physical health, 15.0% have unmet need in psychological distress, 33.3% have unmet need in intimate relationship, 20.0% have unmet need in basic education, 11.7% have unmet need in looking after home, 11.7% have unmet need in self-care, 20.0% have unmet need in day time activity, 31.7% have unmet need in company,30.0% have unmet need in sexual expression, 26.7% have unmet need in child care, 10.0% have unmet need in telephone, 23.3%unmet need in transport, 21.7% have unmet need in budgeting money, 26.7% have unmet need in getting all the money that they are entitled to. Schizophrenia required a diverse range of interventions. Beside pharmacological intervention there is an equally vital psychosocial intervention are required in promoting independence, decreasing disability and enhancing quality of life in person with schizophrenia.
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Effects of emotional intelligence on stress, psychological well-being, and academic achievement of adolescents
Page 699-702
Marikutty. P. J., Department of Psychology U. C. College, Aluva, Kerala and M. I. Joseph Department of Psychology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanakrit, Kalady, Kerala

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In view of the significance of emotional intelligence in the lives of human beings, the present study investigated the preventive, therapeutic, and moderating effects of emotional intelligence on adolescent stress. It also examined the impact of emotional intelligence on the academic achievement of adolescent students. The participants comprised of 2,060 adolescents belonging to the age range of 14 to 19 years, selected randomly from 31 educational institutions in Ernakulam district of Kerala. Emotional intelligence was found to be significantly related to adolescent stress (inverse relationship) and psychological well-being, thus supporting the preventive and therapeutic effects of emotional intelligence on adolescent stress. However, significant moderating effect was observed for only one of the ten stress dimensions. Adolescents who have high academic achievement were found to have higher levels of emotional intelligence.
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Well-being among special school educators
Page 703-706
Rajesh Kumar Mourya and R. N. Singh Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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Present study was conducted to examine the role of life satisfaction and positive-negative affectivity in well-being among special school educators. Sixty eight special school educators (31 male and 37 female) aging between 26-55 years constituted the sample of the study. They are employed at different schools devoted to educate physically and mentally challenged children. The participants were administered Pandey's positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS), Diener's satisfaction with life scale and mental health continuum-short form(MHC-SF). The correlational approach was used to see the relationship which revealed that life satisfaction and positive-negative affectivity jointly predict well-being among special school educators. Further analysis indicated that life satisfaction was slightly but positively correlated with positive affectivity, whereas it correlated with negative affectivity negligibly. As regards gender difference, male and female special educators did not differ significantly in positive-negative affectivity and life satisfaction. The results are thoroughly discussed and interpreted and implications of the findings are underlined.
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Resilience of parents having children with intellectual disability: Influence of parent and child related demographic factors
Page 707-710
Anugraha Merin Rajan and J. Romate Department of Psychology Central University of Karnataka, Gulbarga and G. Srikrishna Department of Rehabilitation Psychology, National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, Secunderabad

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Resilience is an important phenomena explains the parental process of making quality adaptations involved in raising a child with intellectual disability. The present study examined the resilience of parents having children with intellectual disability and analysed it across the demographic variables related to parents (age, gender, education, years lived with the child after diagnosis) as well as children (age, gender, intelligence quotient).Sixty parents (30 fathers and 30 mothers; mean age: 38.93±8.06) having children with intellectual disability recruited through purposive sampling were assessed using Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (2003).Parents displayed qualities of resilience with half of them reporting high resilience. Among the demographic variables, t test revealed that education made a significant difference in their experience of resilience. However resilience was found to be functioning independent of parental age, gender, and years lived with the child after diagnosis; child's age, gender and IQ.The study highlighted the internal strengths possessed by the parents in the midst of hassles associated with raising a child with intellectual disability. Utilizing these strengths in the rehabilitation process can improve the quality of life of them as well as the child with intellectual disability.
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Satisfaction with life in relation to perceived parental rearing styles
Page 711-713
Rashmi Rani, Lok Nath Singh and Arun Kumar Jaiswal Department of Psychology, Mahatma Gandhi Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor in a vulnerability model of psychopathology and connected to child' psycho-social development and social problems as such, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived parenting rearing styles and satisfaction with life in adult Indian married couples. Therefore, psychometrically validated Hindi version of instruments for the assessment of the perceived parental rearing styles (PPRSQ) and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) were administered on a sample of 600 married Indian Hindi speaking couple which included 50 % male and 50 % female persons with 10 to 20 years of married life. The instruments were filled out by the participants. The results of step wise (backward) regression analysis revealed: (i) the four factors of PPRSQ (parental rejection, emotional warmth, over protection and favouring subject) predicted (a) a total of 8.371% of variance, (b) rejection, emotional warmth and favouring subject (deleting over protection factor) predicted a total of 8.318% of variance, (c) emotional warmth and favouring subject together (deleting rejection and over protection factors) predicted a total of 8.201% of variance, and (d) emotional warmth (deleting rejection, over protection and favouring subject factors) predicted a total of 8.140% of variance of life satisfaction. In summary, the findings proved an association between recalled parental rearing styles and life satisfaction in Indian cultural context.
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Examining the relationship of irrational beliefs with social-emotional skills
Page 714-716
Nalini Malhotra and Ravneet Kaur Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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Irrational beliefs are attitudes and values which people hold without any objective evidence. Such thoughts typically clutter the minds of people with feelings of resentment and distaste which creates a lot of problems in a person's life. Irrational beliefs effect the functioning of an individual by lowering the skills of social and emotional competence. Although the concept of irrational beliefs has received extensive attention, yet the concept needs to be addressed covering varied aspects. The present research aimed to examine the relationship of irrational beliefs with social emotional skills. For this purpose, Shortened General Attitude and Belief Scale (SGABS) by Lindner, Kirkby, Wertheim, and Birch (1999) and Social Skills Inventory by Riggio and Carney (2003) were administered on 300 (150 females and 150 males) participants. The correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data. Findings of the present study revealed significant negative correlation of irrational beliefs with social-emotional skills. Implications of the findings have been discussed.
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Religious fundamentalism, right wing authoritarianism and homophobia among Hindus
Page 717-721
Sukhmani Pal, and Chetan Sinha Department of Psychology, Christ University, Bengaluru

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The present study aims to empirically explore the relationship between Religious fundamentalism (RF) , Right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and Homophobia among Hindus. It is an attempt to understand the association between religious beliefs, adherence to authority figures and attitudes towards homosexuals in India. Since, homosexuality is illegal in India and intolerance towards homosexual is on the rise, it seems imperative to study the associations of homophobia in India (DNA, 2013). For the purpose of the study a sample of 89 Individuals (Belonging to Hindu religion) between the ages of 18-30 years were taken. The obtained data was analyzed using correlation and regression to test the hypotheses. It was found that Religious fundamentalism, Right wing authoritarianism and Homophobia are positively and significantly correlated to each other, (r =.710**, r = .310**, r=. 400**). Both RWA and RF are good predictors of homophobia, however RWA is a better predictor that RF (beta. 307**) and RWA (beta. 400**). It has also been found that there is no significant difference in homophobia among males and females. The study suggests that RF, RWA and homophobia are positively associated with each other among Hindus. The results of this study can help better understand the current scenario of homophobia and its underpinnings in India.
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Aggression and parental psychological control among youth
Page 722-725
Adity Jamwal, Sniya Gupta and Chandra Shekhar Post Graduate, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu

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The present study was conducted to identify the difference in Aggression and Parental Psychological Control among Youth. The purposive sampling of hundred young adults out of which fifty male and fifty female Participants were taken. Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and Parental Psychological Control (Barber, 1996) was used in this study. The results found a significant difference in both the scales i.e. Aggression and Parental psychological control. On all the dimensions of aggression i.e. physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility, significant differences were obtained. In the scores obtained on the scale of parental psychological control the results were also significant between male and female students. Males were found to be more aggressive than female students and a positive correlation between aggression and parental psychological control was also found.
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Compare the characteristics and quality of life in patients with vitiligo and non-patients
Page 726-729
Zahra Karimi Pour and Hossein Baghooli Department of Psychology, Shiraz branch Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran and Alireza Feyli Department of Psychology, Payam Noor University (Pnu), Iran. And Department of Psychology, Shiraz branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

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The purpose of this study was compare personality traits and quality of life in patients with vitiligo and no patient individuals. The population sampling included all of the coetaneous (skinny) patients, affected by vitiligos that were (admitted) to Faghihi martyr hospital in Shiraz. The sample of study included of 108 people (54 patients affected by vitiligo and 54 non patients) that were selected through of no probability sampling (accecilable). Data from the questionnaire via the NEO character and features of the World Health Organization quality of life were collected. For the decomposition and analysis of data, applied from (was used from) multivariable variance analysis. The result showed that: there was not significance difference between the quality of life in people affected by vitiligo and no patients. But in component of mental health and social relationships, two groups were different [F (5,102) =5.30, p<0.001], and no patient individuals had a higher mean than affected by vitiligo individuals in two components. Also was the significant difference among two groups in extraversion and receptiveness traits, and according to the means, no patient individuals had a higher mean than affected individuals by vitiligo disease [F (5,102) =2.52, p<0.03].
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The prevalence and behavioural risk factors of life style diseases among middle aged persons in Kerala
Page 730-732
Athira P., Department of sociology, University of Kerala, Kariyavattom

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Middle age is a process in which health is the most affected factor. As age increases, the health status of an individual will automatically come down and health problems will knowingly or unknowingly emerged. Middle aged (35-56) is called as second teenagers because they can arise not only psychological changes but also a large number of health problems are occurred. In present society mortality and morbidity among middle aged population is high in Kerala. This is due to the occurrence of life style and non-communicable diseases. The major non-communicable disease seen at high altitude among middle aged persons like cancer, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, obesity, stress, mental disorders, diabetics, bronchial asthma ,dementia, epilepsy . The reason behind this is due to many social determinant factors like changing fast food habit, nuclear family situation, work environment, hygiene behaviour, changing residential pattern, consumption pattern of dietary, external and internal forces of environment. In this attempt this paper ties to find out the prevalence and behavioural factors of life style diseases among middle aged persons in Kerala.
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Group counseling and yogic practices: Effcetive tools in reducing the impulsivity of adolescents
Page 733-736
Priyanka Saraf, Department of Clinical Psychology, Vision Institute of Advance Study, Rohini, New Delhi

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The aim & objective of the study is, “To study the effect of Yogic & Group Counseling practices on impulsivity level of adolescents”. In research methodology researcher has selected adolescents, age group between 14 to 18 years old 30 boys & 30 girls, total 60 subjects had been selected through Quota sampling, for collecting the data Impulsivity scale by S N Rai (Meerut university) was used. This research has showed that analysis of data are determine the position of research how much research significant & applicable. There are two groups of boys and girls for measurement of impulsivity. Through t-test statistical analysis of the data was calculated at 29 degree of freedom at 0.01 levels in both groups, which was highly significant. Means there will be the significant effect of Om chanting, Nadi Shodhan Pranyam, Atma Bodha & Tatva Bodha ki Sadhana and Group Counseling in the level of Impulsivity of adolescent girls and boys.
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To measure how Indian and Foreign students attribute each other
Page 737-741
Niti Shukla and Yakasai Tijjani Yahaya Department of Psychology, Lovely Professional University, Punjab

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It has been observed that every culture has its own attribution behavior with which individuals in the community perceived it to be based on their understanding. The purpose of the present study was to find out how the Indian students attribute the foreign students and also how the foreign students attribute the Indian students. In this study the sample of 40 students was used which included 20 students from foreign country and 20 students from India, comprising of 10 male and 10 female students in each group. In this study content analysis method was used to analyze the data collected on 30 variables. Based on the findings theses variables are found to be attributed to the foreign students which includes Diligent, Aggression, Social, Familial, Resilience, and Creativity. while the Indian students are found to be attributed with the following variables which includes Corruption, Gossiping, Offering help, Racism, Values, Expressing Emotions, Hypocrite, Arrogant. In addition the remaining variables were found to be attributed to both group of students which includes Intelligent, Needing Help, Empathy, Equality, Security, Communication, Dressing, Health, Life style, Career, Hospitable, Memorable Moment, First Impression, Occasion, Cheating.
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Self-esteem and coping resources among fertile and infertile adults
Page 742-745
Vinayak M. Honmore, Department of Psychology, Smt. Mathubai Garware Kanya Mahavidyalaya, Sangli, Maharashtra and M. G. Jadhav Department of Psychology K. B. P. College, Urun-Islampur, Sangli, Maharashtra

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It is common that the stress is developed among those who receive treatment for their infertility. Some give response to this stress by avoiding the activities on the contrary others maintains their participation. The present study investigates two factors that may help to explain these variations across individuals in their responses. It was undertaken to examine the relationship between self-esteem and coping resources in different areas (cognitive, social, emotional, spiritual or philosophical and physical resources) as well as on the whole among fertile and infertile adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 160 (80 fertile adults i.e. 40 male and 40 females and 80 infertile adults i.e. 40 male and 40 female) non-institutionalized adults aged between 30 to 40 years. Coppersmith's (1981, 2002) Self-Esteem Inventory (adult) and Martin and Hammer's (1988, 2004) Coping Resources Inventory were used. The Data were analysed applying 't' test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Method. The results reveal that fertile adults (Male and Female together) differ significantly from the infertile adults (Male and Female together) on self-esteem and cognitive, social, spiritual and physical coping resources. Fertile adults obtain higher means scores in comparison to infertile adults. The 'r' values between the scores on self-esteem and those on coping resources (overall and area-wise) are positively correlated.
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Effect of depression on life satisfaction among elderly
Page 746-749
Arisha Salman, Independent Scholar, Psychology Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh andP. K. Khattri Department of Psychology National P.G. College, Lucknow, UP

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The present study is been done to see the effect of depression on life satisfaction among elderly living in an old age home and those living with their families, The sample of present study consists of 30 male respondents aged between 60 years to 80 years approximately, out of which 15 were residing in an Old age home and 15 were residing with their families. All the respondents were administered on T.S Depression scale and Life satisfaction scale (LSS), with the objective to see the significant difference and relation between depression and life satisfaction. The results showed that the obtained t-value on the scores of depression is 9.8 and on life satisfaction is 5.57 which is greater than the table value at 0.01(2.76) and 0.05(2.05) level with df of 28 and thus indicated the significant difference in the depression and life satisfaction level of elderly living in an old age home and those living with their families. The correlation between depression and life satisfaction among elderly in an old age home is -0.18 i.e. negative correlation and that among elderly living with their families is +0.15 i.e. positive and low correlation. Thus, residents of old age home showed high depression and low life satisfaction, whereas, elderly residing with their families showed low depression and high satisfaction from life.
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Psychological well-being of diabetic female
Page 750-752
Manju, Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana

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The present study examined the Psychological Well-being of Diabetic Female. It is a comparative study. A sample of 100 subjects was taken, out of these 50 are already diagnosed type 2 diabetic female and 50 are healthy female. The Age range was 35 to 55 years. To assess psychological well-being, Carol Ryff Psychological Well-being Scale (PWBS) was used. It was found that the female suffering from diabetes were lower psychological well-being than healthy female.
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Strategies used to modify the behaviors of children with intellectual disability
Page 753-756
Dhananjay V. Deshmukh Department of Education, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, Delhi

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We Categorize disabilities in different way, like Sensory Disabilities (VI, HI, Deaf-Blind), Neuro Developmental Disabilities (LD, MR (ID), ASD), and Loco motor & Multiple Disabilities (CP, MD). Children with Intellectual disability have more behavior problems due to limited cognitive abilities. These behaviors are not an age appropriate, socially not accepted, and which has adverse affect on learning experiences of children, e.g. rebellious behavior, odd behaviors, self injurious and other injurious, hyper active behavior, anti- social behavior, and some others. Because of maladaptive behaviors children with disabilities are not able to cope with their social life, emotional life, personal life and educational environment. To help out them from these problems we do Behavior Modification Programme which includes some strategies like Cognitive Behavior Modification, Meta Cognition, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy, Aversive Techniques, Assertive behavior, ABC and Applied Behavior Analysis. Some other techniques also used for Behavior Modification like Positive and negative Reinforcement, time out, token economy, differential reinforcements, physical restraints, and other. If maladaptive behaviors are reduced, the children with disabilities able to perform activities at their potential level which is needed to live independently in their environment.
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Preventive measures of substance abuse problem in India
Page 757-762
D. S. Saini District Social Welfare Officer Hisar, Haryana and Sadhvi Shakti Puri Ichhapuri Ashram, Matloda Barwala, Hisar, Haryana

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Drug abuse and addiction is one of the great evils of our time. It has become a serious problem in India. Young and old alike everywhere are addicted to drugs. It has resulted in increased crime, tension, disease, horror and lack of peace and security. The cities have attracted large number of youth who come in search of employment. Such people live a lonely and isolated life and become anti-social. They fall into evil company and get addicted. The children who are deprived of the loving care and affection, and do not get right type of education are prone to be addicted to drugs.
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Aspirants to civil servants: Case studies
Page 763-764
Anupama Sihag PGDCBM, DDE, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana

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Mother of all services, i.e. IAS is a hard nut to crack and success belongs to those who are physically, emotionally, and psychologically competent enough to handle the stress and failures. It is a journey of determination, hard work, and perseverance. In the middle of insurmountable pressure, aspirants of civil services deal the cut-throat competition. Long study hours, handling expenses, living alone, health concerns, and peer pressure has a devastating effect on the minds of civil services aspirants. They feel physically, emotionally, and psychologically drained. The present study included 90 aspirants randomly selected from old Rajendra Nagar and Mukherji Nagar areas of Delhi, which is a hub for civil services aspirants. Results indicate that moderate amount of stress was prevalent in second or third attempt aspirants, as compared to high examination stress in first attempt of aspirants and maximum in last attempt of IAS aspirants. The case studies depict the areas of concern, hardships, and the sufferings of these aspirants in their journey of an aspirant to a civil servant.
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Domestic violence against women: The socioeconomic scenario
Page 765-768
Anjana Bhattacharjee and Sukriti Banda Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Tripura

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Any evaluation of the status of women has to start from the social arrangement, social structures, enlightening norms and value systems that influence social prospect regarding the behaviour of both men and women and decide women's roles and their position in society. A society is composed of many institutions and most important of them are the system of decent, family and kinship, marriage and religious traditions. All of them provide the principles and moral basis for men and women about their rights and duties and their well defined status and role. But unfortunately recently society has become a place where women are tortured and battered and their position in society is being challenged in each and every sphere. Thus in this backdrop the present paper is attempted to investigate the socioeconomic status of women and its significant relation to violence against women. The findings of the present study concluded that socio-economic status of women influences domestic violence. In addition violence takes place mostly among those women who are poor in education, are unemployed, belong to urban area, are culturally backward and finally belonged to poor economic status.
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Study of mental health and burnout in relation to teacher effectiveness among secondary school teachers
Page 769-773
Alka Seth Department of Psychology, C.R.S. University, Jind, Haryana

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The incidence of mental illness and burn out is a challenge thrown by complex life. The havoc of this problem has spread in learning institutions and remedial measures need to be taken. What service can a country expect from her future citizens, when they are guided by teachers who are in grip of frustration, stress and strain? From the time immemorial, teachers in India have occupied the most exalted position in serial hierarchy and in fact, they are the top most academics and professional persons in the educational pyramid. They are the real architects and as such determine to a large extent the destiny of the nation. Present study throws light on the Mental Health and Burnout among Secondary School Teachers and its relation to teacher effectiveness. A sample of 60 secondary school teachers was taken from five Schools of Kaithal district of Haryana. It was found that there exists a significant positive relationship between different dimensions of Mental Health Viz. Positive Self-Evaluation, Perception of Reality, Integration of Personality, Autonomy, Group oriented attitude, Environmental Mastery and teacher effectiveness of secondary School teachers. Study also shows low degree of positive relationship between Teacher Effectiveness and Burn-out. It shows significant negative relationship between different dimensions of Burn-Out viz. Depersonalization and Personal accomplishment and teacher effectiveness and a negative relationship between Emotional Exhaustion but which is not significant. Present study points out the importance of school psychologists and counselors, who can identify and assess mental health issues in the institution and also calls clearly for different measures in enhancing the mental health of teachers.
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Effect of age on hand grip strength in professional cricket players
Page 774-776
Pavan K.Talupuru Chief Clinical Therapist, UP Cricket Team, UPCA, Kanpur, UP, Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan Department of Physiotherapy GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana, Naif Ziad Alrashdi and Mahamed Ateef Department of Physicaltherapy Majmaah University, Majmaah, KSA and Haripriya U. Department of Pharmacology, SV Medical College, Tirupathi, A.P.

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Cricket is most popular team sport in India. Hand-grip strength (HGS) plays a vital part in all roles of cricket which may be affected by age. To find-out the effect of age on HGS in Indian professional cricket players. Study-design: Experimental study; different subject design. Sampling technique: Convenient sampling Sample size: 322 male cricket players aged between 13 and 38 years. Independent variable: Age group (13-16, 17-19, 20-25, and 26-38) Dependent variable: HGS in 3 different positions for both right and left side. Instrument used: Jamar hand-held electronic hand-grip dynamometer. Statistics: Mean standard deviation (SD) as descriptive and one-way ANNOVA with LSD post-hoc analysis as inferential statistics. 13-16 group showed significantly lower HGS than other three age groups. HGS increased up to 25 years without any significance. Peak HGS value was shared between 20-25 and 26-38 groups. Hand-grip strength (HGS) is significantly lower in young players (13-16 years) than adults possibly due to differences in attaining puberty by this age category which affects HGS through testosterone in blood. The possible lack of difference after 18 years may be sports training help those three groups to achieve peak testosterone level in blood which helps muscle building hence HGS.
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Study to evaluate the effectiveness of video assisted teaching on road safety measures among students in selected schools of Rohtak, Haryana
Page 777-779
Heaven Dahiya and Sudesh Rani College of Nursing, Pt. B D Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana and Lokanathan V. Department of Biochemistry, Pt. B D Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana

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A Pre-Experimental One Group Pre-test Post-test study was conducted to evaluate the Effectiveness of Video Assisted Teaching on Road Safety Measures among 120 school students from 9th and 10th standard from selected schools of Rohtak, Haryana by using purposive sampling technique. Structured knowledge questionnaire and rating attitude scale were used to assess the knowledge and attitude of school students. The findings of the study revealed that the mean post test scores were significantly higher than mean pre scores. There was no association found between the selected demographic variables with the knowledge and attitude scores of 9th and 10th standard students regarding road safety measures.
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Effect of duration of sleep on personality and stress in professional students
Page 780-782
Seema Rani Sarraf, Department of Psychology M. G. Kashi Vidyapith, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh and S. N. Dubey Department of Psychology K. S. Saket P.G. College, Ayodhya, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh

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Sleep plays a vital role in good health and well being throughout life. Getting enough quality sleep at the right time is beneficial for mental health, physical health and quality of life. The focus of present research is to find out effect of duration of sleep on personality and stress in professional students. A total of six hundred and eighty students, aged 20 to 25 years participated in this research. Purposive sampling technique was applied to select the subject. The groups were formed on the basis of duration of sleep e.g. long sleepers (more than nine hours out of twenty four hours) and short sleepers (less than six or fewer hours out of twenty four hours) and type of course e.g. professional courses (B.Tech., MBA, B. Pharma). These are independent variables manipulated through selection. The non- professional group was taken to compare with professional group. A self biographical sheet, Multi- dimensional assessment of personality (MAP-A) and Hassles Scale (Lazarus and Folkman, 1981) were used for the purpose of data collection. In order to find out the significant difference among the groups, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Duration of sleep and course offered by students both produce the significant effect on several dimensions of personality and stress level of students. The results are discussed in the light of previous researches. Students should get sufficient sleep for restoration of physical and mental function. Getting sufficient sleep help them to improve their cognitive processes and mental health.
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Alcohol abuse counseling using motivation enhancement approach: A case report
Page 783-786
Preeti Sharma Counselor, Academy of Well-being, Udaipur and Research Scholar, Pacific University, Udaipur and Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Drinking practices and substance use disorders have increased significantly both globally and in India. Alcohol and substance use is a major concern on college campuses. College drinking is often considered socially acceptable behavior on the college social and cultural scene. College culture often views drinking as a rite of passage, encouraging behavior that is destructive to the college sub culture and general population. Alcohol use and abuse are cause of concern because the educational process and quality of campus student life are disrupted. There is growing concern about alcohol/substance abuse in India also. Precursors of drug and alcohol problems have been described as risk factors for alcohol abuse and are associated statistically with an increased probability of drug and alcohol abuse. There are host of risk factors including cultural norms and values, attitude toward drinking and substance use, legal factors, increased stress in the society, family factors, interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts, cognitive factors like expectancies and beliefs related to alcohol use. In the management of alcohol and substance use disorders, psychological interventions play a pivotal role. Interventions like social skills training, effective coping skills, drink refusal skills, cognitive behaviour interventions, family based and marital interventions are often employed in alcohol use. In recent years, motivation enhance therapy and mindfulness based urge surfing therapy have become common in clinical practice. The current paper will briefly discuss the components, process and efficacy of motivation enhancement therapy in the management of alcohol use.
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