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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 6 (2015), Issue - 5
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Exploring the impact of gender, proportional numerical strength at workplace and gender typing of jobs on the experienced work alienation
Page 453-460
Shivani Datta, Department of Psychology KNC, University of Delhi, Delhi and Gopa Bhardwaj Department of Applied Psychology Galgotia University, Greater Noida

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The present research work intended to study the effect of Gender, Occupational gender type and proportional numerical strength on Work Alienation. According to Tokenism theory (Kanter, 1977), “Tokens” (those who comprise less than 15% of a group's total) are expected to experience a variety of hardships in the workplace, such as feelings of Heightened Visibility, Isolation, and limited opportunities for advancement as a result of which they are expected to experience workplace Alienation. Most previous studies have defined Tokenism and consequent workplace Alienation narrowly in terms of proportional numerical strength at workplace. The present study extends the framework of prior research work by examining Work Alienation as a function of Gender, Occupational Gender Type(Gender Atypical/Gender Neutral or Non Atypical) and Proportional(Male-Female) Numerical Strength at workplace(Tokens/Non Tokens), with an examination of different groups of Males and Females in Gender Atypical and Gender Neutral/Non Atypical occupations as numerical Tokens and Non Tokens respectively. Total sample size was 250. Results depict that the complex interaction of Gender, Gender type of Occupation and Male Female proportional numerical strength impact experienced work Alienation. Further, despite the absence of specific reference in the literature to Work Alienation as an outcome of Token status, an argument was presented with the discussion of marginality to link this dependent variable to Tokenism.
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Effect of psycho-education on quality of life and disability among persons with bipolar disorder: Randomized controlled trial
Page 461-466
Linu Sara George, Department of Fundamentals of Nursing Manipal College of Nursing Manipal Manipal University, Manipal,P.S.V.N. Sharma Department of Psychiatry, Kasturba Hospital Manipal and Sreekumaran Nair Department of Statistics Manipal University Manipal

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Patients with Bipolar Disorder experience psychosocial impairment which can extent to all areas of functioning. Psychosocial interventions can play a major role in improving the overall functioning of the individual. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of psych-education on quality of life and disability among persons with Bipolar Disorder. The study was conducted among 50 persons with Bipolar Disorder between 20-60 years of age without any chronic illness in the Psychiatry wards of two hospitals in Udupi District, Karnataka. A randomized controlled trial with two group parallel design was used with a sample size of 50; 24 in experimental and 26 in control group. Four sessions of psycho-education was conducted for the patient in experimental group after the baseline assessment and the outcome was measured immediately after the intervention and at 1 month and 3 months. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to find the effectiveness of psycho educative intervention on quality of life and disability. The difference obtained in the quality of life scores between the experimental and the control group was not significant (p=0.27). There was decrease in the disability scores of experimental group as compared to the control group but the change observed was very minimal (p=0.04).From the present study it was concluded that psycho-education is useful in the routine care of persons with Bipolar Disorder.
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Impact of perceived social support, social skills and coping strategies on general health of female college teachers
Page 467-470
Rubina Kausar, Department of the Psychology Himayat-e-Islam Postgraduate Khwateen College, Lahore, Pakistans and Yasmin N. Farooqi Department of the Applied Psychology University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

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The present research explored the impact of perceived social support, social skills and coping strategies on general health of Pakistani female college teachers. Non-probability purposive sampling strategy was used. The sample comprised of 212 female college teachers. Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis was performed to determine the impact of perceived social support, social skills and coping strategies on general health of Pakistani female college teachers. The Results suggest that perceived family support, social skills, emotion- focused coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies are significant positive predictors for general health of female college teachers in Pakistani society. The findings of this research have implications for promoting our understanding of the impact of perceived social support, social skills and coping strategies on general health of the female college teachers.
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Future orientation as the mediator of life satisfaction and recruitment saving attitudes and retirement savings perception
Page 471-474
Amogh Talan and Pragyendu, Sri Aurobindo College (Evening) University of Delhi, New Delhi and Amirul Hasan Ansari Center for Management Studies Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the relation between well-being and future orientation of individuals from middle class in India, and their retirement saving attitudes and retirement savings perception. With the life expectancies of individuals in India expected to rise steeply in next 20 years along with their standards of living, it becomes imperative to analyze whether their present well-being and orientation for the future are allowing them to save adequately to ensure a comfortable living after the retirement. Future orientation is the extent to which individuals involve themselves planning for their future after retirement. Well-being measures how much the individual is satisfied with the conditions of his life. Retirement saving attitudes shows the vigor with which an individual practices to save for his retirement. Retirement savings perception reflects how individuals perceive to finance their living after the retirement. Using multiple regression analysis we found a significantly positive relation between the individual's well being and their retirement saving attitudes. Results for retirement savings perception reinforced the belief that middle class people from India are highly conservative when it comes to saving (in contrast of being risk takers).
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Spirituality, personality and general health among college students
Page 475-479
Jwmwishree Boro and D. Dhanalakshmi Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Pondicherry

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Spirituality is recognised as an important predictor of health and wellbeing in adults. In current days it seems that there is growing interest in determining the specific nature of the relationship that exists among spirituality, personality and general health. The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship among spirituality, personality and general health among college students and to see if there is any difference between young adults in spirituality, personality factors and general health. The current study is a cross-sectional study on a randomly selected sample of 113 college students. Spirituality Questionnaire (Parsian & Dunning), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae) and General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg) were administered on them after obtaining permission from the college and University authorities. The participants were briefed about the study prior to the administration. Pearson's correlation, t-test and multiple regression were carried out to analyze the data. The results indicated that spirituality and dimensions of spirituality are significantly related with conscientiousness; self awareness- a dimension of spirituality is related with Neuroticism and Extraversion; Spirituality is related with Extraversion; and general health is positively correlated with neuroticism and negatively correlated with openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results indicated that women were higher on conscientiousness than men. Spirituality, neuroticism, and agreeableness seem to predict general health. The study suggests that spirituality and personality may be important factors that can influence health and therefore appropriate interventions that would promote more spiritual practices may be introduced.
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Efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy in management of delusion, hallucination in patients with schizophrenia
Page 480-483
Md. Raqueb Ansari and Masroor Jahan Department of Clinical Psychology, Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS), Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand

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Schizophrenia is still considered to be chronic and depilating illness. The aim of the present study is to manage the delusion and hallucination in patients with schizophrenia. 24 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 DCR were chosen from different inpatient department of RINPAS, kanke using the simple random sampling technique. After taking informed consent from the patients, socio-demographic and clinical data sheet and PSYRATS were administered and they were randomly assigned to CBT+TAU and TAU group. Cognitive behaviour therapy was given to CBT+TAU group, total 17-20 sessions of 45 minutes each with a frequency of thrice a week. After completion of the therapy sessions, post assessment was done and follow up assessment was done after six months of post assessment. Data was analyzed with the help of Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square Test was used for statistical analysis. The significant reduction was found in delusion and hallucination. Cognitive behaviour therapy was found to be effective in management of delusion and hallucination.
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Study of psychological well-being in working and non-working menopausal women
Page 484-487
Neha Parihar, Department of Psychology Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarhs and Ushakiran Agarwal Department of Psychology Govt. D.B.Girls P.G. College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her periods stop. The overall health and well- being of mid-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the year approaching menopause with various distress and distribution in their lives, leading to decrease in quality of life. The experience of menopause has an impact on women's psychological well-being. The present study was designed to study the psychological well-being in working and non-working menopausal women. The sample of the present study included 60 pri (30 working & 30 non-working) and 60 post-menopausal women (30 working & 30 non-working) within the age range of 35-55 years. For assessment of psychological well-being, Ryff's scale of psychological well-being (42-items version) was used. MANOVA technique was used for the data analysis. Results of this study demonstrated that post-menopausal women shows higher psychological well-being than peri-menopausal women. In other side working menopausal women having better psychological well-being than non-working women.
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Children's well-being in contexts of poverty
Page 488-491
Saloni Chandalia, Divya Saxena and Radha Rani Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan

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Wellbeing is generally understood as the quality of people's lives. It is a dynamic state that is enhanced when people can fulfil their personal and social goals. It is understood both in relation to objective measures, such as household income, educational resources and health status; and subjective indicators such as happiness, perceptions of quality of life and life satisfaction. There is some emerging consensus that childhood wellbeing is multi-dimensional, should include dimensions of physical, emotional and social wellbeing; should focus on the immediate lives of children but also consider their future lives; and should incorporate some subjective as well as objective measures. There has been a gradual shift in the last few years away from being over reliant on objective measures of child wellbeing towards engaging children and young people in defining the parameters around what constitutes wellbeing. This move has revealed some important differences in how adults and children define wellbeing and the aspects of wellbeing that children prioritise compared to adults. Studies have indicated that wellbeing is negatively associated with income inequality and positively associated with spending on family benefits and services. Others have revealed that there is no direct association between poor childhood wellbeing and the prevalence of 'broken families'. There is a close association between childhood wellbeing and positive family relationships. The aim of this research paper is to provide an overview of recent evidence in the field of childhood wellbeing. To fulfill the aim of the study, it will employ purposive sampling including 60 samples (30 unprivileged school going children, 30 privileged school going children)
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Effect of gender, locale and family environment on mental health of undergraduate students
Page 492-495
Ku. Anupama Bhonsle and K.Nagamani Kalyan Post Graduate College, Bhilai Nagar, Chhattisgarh

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Family is the primary institution where a person get a chance to learn how to interact and how to behave with members of family and when he become a part of society he deal with members of society according to his upbringing. The family environment primarily consists of the prevalent customs, codes and traditions of the community. It is at the same time made highly personal by the human interaction involved. The family furnishes the basic environment for building personality of the individual with its warm intimate contact contributing to their feeling of security and belongingness. As mental health is an important part of human life. It should be sound in every part of life then only a person can be useful for family, society and country. To study the main and interactional effect of gender, locale and family environment on mental health of undergraduate students. There will be no significant main and interactional effect of gender, locale and family environment on mental health of undergraduate students. A sample The students of graduation final year from different colleges of district Durg were selected . A sample of 836 students (353 urban and 483 rural) was randomly selected. Mental health battery developed by Singh and Gupta (2000) and family environment was measured by Family Environment Scale (FES) by Bhatia and Chadha (1993) were used for research. The result revealed that urban boys of unfavorable family environment have higher mental health than other boys whereas rural girls of favorable family environment found higher mental health than other girls.
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Perception of girls' and their mothers' on rape: A psychological perspective
Page 496-499
Nehashree Srivastava and Reetika Pal Department of Psychology National P.G College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of girls' and their mothers' on rape. Rape is considered as an act of sexual violence in which the mental and physical well-being of an individual and her family is seen to be shattered. According to National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) rape is the fourth most common crime in India and the number seems to rise with each passing day. The increasing rape cases calls for obtaining a view of peoples in the society especially that of mothers' and their daughters'. Also such events create a fear of the parents and negative influence which leads to overprotection of girls' by their parents. What mark does these incident make on the psychology of mothers and their daughters'? What support do they expect from other members of the society, government or from police? What views do they hold against rape are important issues that should be found out etc.. The sample consisting of 40 adolescent girls' (mean age =16.8) and their mothers' (mean age= 42.2) with middle socio-economic status, selected from Lucknow city. A semi-structured interview questionnaire was prepared with expert advice and content analysis method was applied. The result reveals that mental illness of men, parenting, internet, westernisation of Indian culture etc. are the major cause of rape and various interventions like self- defence training, awareness campaigns through schools, media etc. are suggested by the subjects.
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Quality of working life among dual career women
Page 500-503
Arvind K Birdie, Acting Principal IIMT School of Management (Vedatya), Gurgaon, Haryana, Madhu Jain and Zaineb Chishti Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan Jaipur, Rajasthan and Girijesh Yadav, Consultant NCERT New Delhi

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In the recent years women has entered into new role of working outside as professionals with taking care of home. The present study was aimed to explore the extent of functional relationship between quality of Working Life in dual career women working in different professions under public and private sector. The participants of the study were 120 dual career working women from various professions i.e. media house (N=40), doctors (N=40), call centers (N=40) in Jaipur. The mean age was 34.21 years (SD = 4.83) range = 25 to 45 years. The measures was used Quality of Working Life (QWL) Scale in the present study. Two-way analysis of variance was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that: (1) Quality of Working Life was better in media workers then followed by call centers and doctors irrespective of the organizational sector. (2) Quality of Working Life was found better in public sector than the private sector. (3) The interactional effect of type of professions and sectors was found significant on Quality of Working Life.
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The effect of gender on achievement motivation
Page 504-507
Nikhat Kaura and Roopali Sharma AIPS, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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Achievement motivation is relatively a new concept in the world of motivation. So it can be said that achievement is the result of what an individual has learned from some educational and family experiences. As for every individual there is a driving force. In fact, it is not just a single factor, but a combination of factors that lead people to achieve their goals. This drive is motivation and also the underlying reason for human behavior. Thus motivation refers to the driving and pulling forces which result in persistent behavior directed toward particular goal. Globally, there has been an increasing concern that how to ensure that students learn optimally at school and achieve academic excellence in their academic pursuit. Gender plays a significant role in shaping achievement motivation and is being studied in psychological andeducational research.The present research aims to study the effect of gender on achievement motivation. The sample of the study was 60 adolescents i.e. 30 girls and 30 boys. The age group was 15 to 17 years old school going adolescent. It was hypothesized that there would be a no significant difference between gender and the level of achievement motivation and girls will have high achievement motivation in comparison to boys. The tools used for the research was Achievement Motivation Scale (n-Ach). The study reported no significant difference between gender and achievement motivation and it showed that girls have high levels of achievement motivation as compared to boys.
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Comparison of social values between children from joint and nuclear family types
Page 508-510
Shivangi Saxena, Department of Psychology University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and Smriti Tripathi, Department of Textiles & Apparel Designing MPUAT, Udaipur

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Family is the first school of the child. Family plays an important role in the development of the child. Family is the social agency, which develops the skill of socialization in the child. Traditionally, families in India have been classified as joint in nature. Joint families consist of one or more married couples residing with their children and other close relatives, such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles, all in one home. A nuclear family structure, which is becoming increasingly common, constitutes a single married couple and their children. The structural differences between the joint family and the nuclear family lead to different interaction patterns among members of the two family types. The present study focuses on individual level changes affected by the modifications that are taking place in the family under rapid on-going socio-cultural changes in contemporary Indian society. The sample of 100 adolescent students age ranging from 12 to 16 yrs was taken from the schools of Jaipur city. The data was collected by using Portrait Value Questionnaire. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the social values of the student from joint families and the students of nuclear families.
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Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction among servicemen and businessmen
Page 511-513
Nehashree Srivastava and Bareen Askari Department of Psychology, National P.G College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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The purpose of the study is to compare servicemen and businessmen on emotional intelligence and life satisfaction. Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction have become a very much talked about topics of psychological research in recent years, especially how they affect the today's workforce. The servicemen and businessmen are the most important part of the economy as they contribute to the sustainment and upliftment of the society. However, they are essentially human beings, anything that impacts the effectiveness of their mind also has an impact on the services they perform and run. With the upcoming changes in the economic conditions and emerging new trends of employee attitudes and their ways of working, researchers focus their attention on investigating the level of emotional intelligence and pattern of life satisfaction of these servicemen and businessmen. The sample consisting of 20 servicemen and 20 businessmen (mean age=49.5) belonging to a middle class family were selected from Lucknow city. Emotional intelligence scale (eis-hpd) developed by Hyde et al. (1971) and Life Satisfaction scale (LSS-AS) developed by Alam et al. (1971) were used. Results showed no significant difference between servicemen and businessmen on emotional intelligence and life satisfaction.
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The relationship between ABO blood groups and hypnotic susceptibility
Page 514-516
Sepideh Iranfar, Department of Speech Therapy, Student's Research Committee Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran and Eric Letard, Department of Psychology, University of Nantes, Nantes, France

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Correlational research has been undertaken to explain the purpose of the association between ABO blood groups and hypnotic susceptibility. The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Form (Form C), modified by John F Kilhstrom, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.95, was used to determine the associations between blood groups and susceptibility. In this study, a clustered random-sampling method was used to investigate the relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and blood-group type, using the Spearman Correlation Coefficient. The results indicate a statistically significant correlation, with a sample size of 40 (n=40), resulted in HS (Hypnotic Susceptibility) to be medium (x= 2.53), and a mean blood group of 2.40 (SDHS: 0.50; SDABO:1.33). The results and hypothesis are described, and support the suggestion of a strong association between blood groups and hypnosis.
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Relationship between gratitude and psychological well-being among youths
Page 517-519
Mohammad Anas, Asiya Aijaz and Fauzia Nazam, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P.

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The main objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between gratitude and psychological well-being among youths. The gratitude scale and psychological well-being scale were administered on 152 students from post-graduate classes. The positive correlation coefficient was found between gratitude and psychological well-being (r= 0.438, p .01) among youths. Significant positive correlation coefficients were also found between gratitude and psychological well-being in male youths (r = .614, p <.01) and in female youths (r = .433, p <.01).
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Mass media use and cognitive development
Page 520-522
Kiran Maheshwari, Department of Psychology Mahatma Jyoti Rao Phoole Univeristy, Jaipur, Rajasthan and Bhanwar Singh Pacific University, Udaipur Rajasthan

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The present study was conducted with the aim to assess the cognitive development between TV and internet of primary school children. Jaipur city was purposively selected as locale of the study from the randomly selected Jaipur district. A sample of 320 children was using TV (16) and internet (160) from primary school. Cognitive development of student was measured of cognitive capabilities test by Dr. Vasundhara Padmaangbhan and were used of data collection mean SD ant t test were competed to estimate the cognitive development of the children through the standardize test of cognitive development. The findings portrayed that the number of children accessing the interest as will as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities playing video games, assessing web sites and communicating via chat rooms, email and instant messaging. Thus the cognitive development of internet use are more complex than those associated with television use.
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Attitudes towards comprehensive evaluation system of school teachers as function of gender and level of teaching
Page 523-525
Gurpreet Kour Chhabra and Meeta Jha, School of Studies in Psychology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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The aim of the present piece of research work is to examine empirically that whether or not gender and level of teaching work independently or in interaction with each other are capable of generating variance in attitudes towards comprehensive evaluation system in case of school teachers. Employing a (2)2 ex-post facto, non-experimental factorial design (fixed model) there are two levels of teaching, i.e. primary and higher secondary, and two levels of gender, i.e. male and female were manipulated in the study. Employing the stratified random sampling technique, finally 280 school teachers within the age range of 20 to 48 years were drawn randomly from different CBSE schools of Durg district of Chhattisgarh State to serve as subjects in the present study. All the two independent variables were found to be potential enough in generating variance on attitudes towards comprehensive evaluation system. Barring few exceptions, the interactions were not found significant. Theoretical interpretations have been given.
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Psychological abuse: Impact on children
Page 526-528
Shagufta Afroz and P.S.N. Tiwari Department of Psychology, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh

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Psychological or emotional abuse of a child is commonly defined as a pattern of behavior by parents or caregivers that can seriously interfere with a child's cognitive, emotional, psychological or social development. Emotional abuse of a child also referred to as psychological maltreatment which can include the acts of ignoring, rejecting, corrupting or exploiting, isolating, neglecting the child, terrorizing, verbally assaulting etc. Some parents may emotionally and psychologically harm their children because of stress, poor parenting skills, social isolation, and lack of available resources or inappropriate expectations of their children while every parent wants best for their child. Although the visible signs of emotional abuse in children can be difficult to detect, the hidden scars of this type of abuse manifest in numerous behavioral ways, including insecurity, poor self-esteem, destructive behavior, angry acts, withdrawal, poor development of basic skills, alcohol or drug abuse, suicide, difficulty forming relationships and unstable job histories. To protect the children from Psychological or emotional maltreatment may be the most challenging and difficult task for everyone because the abused child and the abuser parent are in a strong relationship.The paper concludes with some suggestion to deal with and to prevent this silent but dangerous problem because all children need acceptance, love, encouragement, discipline, consistency, stability and positive attention in their life.
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Subjective well-being for employees in an organization
Page 529-533
Gunjan Sharma and Babita Tolani, Sadhana Centre for Management & Leadership Development, Pune, Maharashtra

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Subjective well being in corporate parlance is becoming very much important for the well being of the employees in an organization which has been prove to be something more than employee satisfaction. Subjective well being in an organization not only includes the cognitive aspect but also take physical fitness into the consideration. Being a secondary research we had taken two research papers which highlights different perspectives regarding the subjective well being of employees in an organization. It captures the dynamics of subjective well being in work settings on a daily basis, it suggest that optimal job performance is most likely when subjective well being is a combination of high activation and high pleasure. It has long being recognised that workplace practices like work attitude, wages and quality of work affect employees motivation and firm performance.
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Surrogacy in India: Current scenario
Page 534-535
Tarun Dagar, Varun Garg, Ashish Singla, Kunal Khanna and S.K. Dhattarwal Department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana

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A surrogate mother is a woman who by contract agrees to bear a child for someone else. Now a day there is a lot of commotion in the health, media and political circles of India and world over regarding the morality of laws surrounding this sensitive albeit legally perplexing issue. Surrogacy in India is relatively low cost and the current legal environment is favorable, however, proposed law amendments and lack of clarity over legal rights of the parties involved raises a few important questions that need to be understood clearly. Increasing infertility rates due to high career aspirations and late age of marriage between couples is leading to a booming capital sector revolving around the market. High surrogacy rate worldwide and cheap womb for hiring, surrogate mothers are quite common in India and the country has emerged as a surrogacy capital of world. In this paper we will discuss the latest aspects of surrogacy in India.
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Headache impact on migraine and non-migraine headaches
Page 536-538
Shivani, Department of Clinical Psychology Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, Vinod K Sinha Director Professor Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, Jharkhand, and Bharati Roy Department of Psychology Ranchi University, Ranchi

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A headache is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck; either both sides of head or be isolated to a particular area. Almost every mankind suffer from headaches at some point of their life and the impacts of headache can cause severe disturbance both for the sufferer and its care giver in the daily functioning. The aim of current study was to assess the impact of headache. Individuals with primary headache were divided into migraine (53) and non-migraine (53) and all the subjects were assessed on the headache impact test (HIT-6). No significant difference was found in the mean age and mean duration of illness between migraine and non-migraine. The scores on HIT were higher in migraine group (64.96 ± 4.544) than non-migraine (63.00 ± 4.739). Analyses reveals that headache does have severe impact on the physical functioning, work productivity and psychological well being. Individuals with migraine reported higher impact in comparison with non-migraine.
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Fiduciary relationship: Forensic view
Page 539-540
Varun Garg, Tarun Dagar, Kamal Singla, Kunal Khanna and S. K. Dhattarwal, Department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana

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Since fiduciary relationship is meant for trust and confidentiality which should be maintained; at the same time RTI Act is also very important for implementation of transparency and accountability in all system. So there must be a balance between both so that the confidentiality should be maintained as far as possible along with transparency and accountability. In such a relation good conscience requires the fiduciary to act at all times for the sole benefit and interest of the one who trusts. The present paper reviews forensic view of fiduciary relationship.
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Sunil Saini, PhD
President, Indian Association of Health, Research & Welfare
suneil.psy@gmail.com

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