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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 6 (2015), Issue - 11
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Rumination, cognitive distortion, and its relation to anxiety and depression symptoms
Page 1049-1061
Shimaa E. Basha, Department of Psychology, Helwan University, Egypt

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The aim of this study was to examine relationship between rumination, cognitive distortion (failuregeneralization, Exaggeration, and Self Blame), anxiety and depression among university students. The study also attempted to find out the role of rumination, cognitive distortion (failuregeneralization, Exaggeration, and Self Blame) as predictors of anxiety and depression. The sample consisted of 270 Egyptian university students (male=117 with mean of 18.90 and St. = 0.968 and female= 153 with mean of=20.08 and St. = 1.064). The measures used in this study were; rumination response scale, cognitive distortion, Anxiety scale;Beck depression Inventory BDI-II. The result showed significant differences between males and females in Rumination and Anxiety in favor of the female sample and no significant differences were found between the two gender samples in depression, Cognitive distortion (failuregeneralization, Exaggeration, and Self Blame). The results also revealed a positive correlation betweenrumination and cognitive distortion(failuregeneralization, Exaggeration, and Self Blame) and Anxiety and depression symptoms in both male and female samples; ButExaggerationhas positive correlation betweenAnxiety and depression in female only. The findings also suggested that rumination and failure generalization was a significant predictors of Anxiety and depression in both male and female sample.
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Investigating relationship between trust and online communication
Page 1062-1069
Nikita Agnihotri, Department of Psychology University of Delhi, Delhi and Sumit Chawla and Praval Jain BPIT, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi

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The aim of this study was to uncover the nature of relationship between trust and online communication. A sample of 119 was taken from under-graduate and post graduate students. Random Stratified Selection procedure was employed as to equally represent the population from which the sample was taken. The criterion groups that is, Gender, Level of Cynicism in relationships, Agreeableness in social interactions were compared on Introversion, Subjective-Wellbeing, Loneliness, Optimism, Self-esteem, Empathy, Anxiety and Stress. Level of Self-esteem, Loneliness and IRI were compared on basis of their trust level. t test was used for comparison of two criterion group; ANOVA was used for number of hours spent online and personality variables mentioned above. Also, Regression was administered. Significant differences were found on the said criterion groups. No significant difference was found on IRI on the basis of their trust level. Results are discussed based on the available reviews.
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Stress and psychological and social resources for coping in informal family caregivers of cancer patients in Pakistan
Page 1070-1075
Ziasma Khan and Ayesha Zia University of Karachi Pakistan, P. J. Watson University of Tennessee Chattanooga, United States, Michael Nielsen and Kara Johnson Georgia Southern University United States and Zhuo Chen University of Oregon United States

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This study clarified coping resources that might influence the stress experienced by family members responsible for the care of cancer patients. Informal family caregivers (N = 112) responded to the Kingston Caregiver Stress Scale, the Coping Strategies Inventory-Short Form, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and a new Karachi Family Support Scale that was developed in this project. Coping strategies predicted lower stress with Problem-Focused Engagement being most noteworthy. Patient Directed Family Support was the lone social coping variable to correlate negatively with stress. Perceived Friend Support and Communication Family Support apparently served as social markers of greater stress. Coping strategies combined to define an Internal Psychological Coping factor. All other coping measures loaded on an External Social Coping factor. The new Karachi Family Support Scale displayed incremental validity. These data most importantly suggested that practical efforts to address patient-related problems might be the best way to reduce caregiver stress.
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Role of critical thinking in ego identity statuses among adolescents
Page 1076-1079
B. S. Sandhu and Swati Sharma, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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The study aimed at examining the role of critical thinking in ego identity statuses (identity achievement, identity moratorium, identity foreclosure and identity diffusion) among adolescents. Three hypotheses were formulated for empirical verification. These are: Identity achieved adolescents would be high on critical thinking as compared to diffusions, foreclosures and moratoriums; Moratorium adolescents would be high on critical thinking as compared to diffusions and foreclosures; Foreclosure adolescents would be high on critical thinking as compared to diffusions. The study was conducted on 100 adolescents (their age ranges between 17-21). The research methods include Extended Objective Measure of Ego-Identity Status - R (Bennion & Adams, 1986) and Watson-Glaser Critical thinking Appraisal - R (Watson & Glaser, 1994). Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance. The result findings showed that foreclosures were found to be high on critical thinking as compared to diffusions.
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Relationship between alcohol use and purpose in life among senior high school students in Ghana
Page 1080-1083
Anthony K. Nkyi, Counselling Centre, College of Education Studies, University of Cape Coast. Ghana

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The current study examined the degree of relationships between Alcohol and Purpose in Life among adolescents in Senior High Schools in Ghana. A sample of 244 students made up of 40.5% males (N= 98) and 59.5% females (N=144) completed demographic questionnaires, the Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Involvement Scale (AADIS) and Purpose in Life test (PIL). The mean age was 18.4 years. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were performed to determine the relationship between AADIS and PIL and tested at 0.05 alpha level. The results of the analysis of the sample indicate that a significant negative correlation was found between AADIS and PIL, r (242) = -.296, p < .001. This result depicts a negative linear relationship of scores, where the low scores on the AADIS relate to high scores on the PIL test. As one's Alcohol usage decreases, meaningfulness gradually became more salient, and purpose in life is high. The results of the study suggest that health education that provides adolescents opportunities for growth and exploration may be useful tool in the prevention of alcohol use among senior high students in Ghana. It is therefore recommended that drug and alcohol education should be included in the senior high school curriculum to help in Ghana's educational sustainable development.
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Gender differences in the ways of coping amongst HIV and AIDS patients
Page 1084-1088
Asha Rani, STI Counselor, General Hospital Rohtak, Haryana and Promila Batra Department of Psychology M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) due to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a viral disease that reduces the ability of a subject to defend the body against foreign substances. Many psychiatric and psychological syndromes accompanying HIV/AIDS may vary from one to another stage and every patient has to cope with both the disease and the accompanying stresses. This makes the patients doubly burdened, necessitating the positive coping and management among the HIV and AIDS patients. There are studies indicating that different coping strategies may influence the patients differently in managing the disease and mental health of the patients. It is important to study the differences in the ways of coping being adopted by these patients before designing interventions to train these patients about positive ways of coping. Gender is one of the important factors affecting how these coping strategies are mobilized. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess gender difference in adopting emotion and problem focused ways of coping by the HIV and AIDS patients. The investigation was carried out in Haryana on 500 patients suffering from this disease in age group of 25-50 years with mean age 37.5 years. An equal number of males and females, i.e., 250 male (HIV positive: 125 & AIDS: 125) and 250 female (HIV positive: 125 & AIDS: 125) patients were selected. The selected subjects were tested using the ways of coping questionnaire suggested by Folkman and Lazarus (1988). Frequency wise and amount/extent wise analysis was done. The Chi-square, means, SD's and 't' values were computed to interpret the data. The use of emotion-focused ways was more prevalent amongst both the male and female patients of HIV and AIDS. Simultaneously, the ways of coping were adopted by both males and females suffering from HIV or AIDS.
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General health, well-being and perceived social support among Tibetans migrants presently residing in Shimla (H.P.)
Page 1089-1094
Sugandha Gupta and Meenakshi Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu

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Migration has become an integral feature of the national economy and family life in many parts of the developing world. A core element in assessing the consequences of migration is to understand its impact on social well-being with respect to health, which is critical in facilitating migrants' socioeconomic attainments and integration into host communities. Previous studies on immigrants to developed societies suggest that migration and settlement is a stressful process compounded by a loss of social support, with potentially negative impacts on mental health and health behaviours. The present study aimed to examine general health, perceived social support and well being in Tibetan population (male and female) residing in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. A Cross sectional data of 80 Tibetan (40 males and 40 females) between 30-60 years were collected through purposive sampling. Results have shown no significant difference between males and females on general health, perceived social support and well- being. Results indicate that Tibetans living in Shimla have better general health, social support and well-being. Because of the availability of old age benefits, pensions, and health insurance, financial independence, and fewer problems with healthcare access and affordability. Better living conditions, sense of security and supportive attitude of the host country makes adaptation easier.
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Parenting stress in relation to children's problem behaviors among fathers of children with intellectual disability
Page 1095-1099
Rajesh Kumar and Hardeep Lal Joshi Department of Psychology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

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The present study was designed to find out the relationship between parenting stress and problem behavior in children with intellectual disability among fathers of children with intellectual disability. Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1995) and Behavioral Assessment Scale for Indian Children With Mental Retardation (Peshawaria & Venkatesan, 1992) Part-B were completed by 225 fathers of children with intellectual disability. The mean age of father was 38.4 years and the mean age of children was 10.5 years. All the children selected are having IQ below 70. Problem behaviors show significant positive correlation with child domain of stress and parent domain of stress. This is clear indication that problem behaviors in children produce stress among fathers who are actively involved in care giving role.
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Influence of media on body image satisfaction an exploratory study on urban Bengali females
Page 1100-1104
Sonia Agnes Mitra, Department of Psychology Calcutta University Kolkata,Deepshikha Ray Department of Psychology University of Calcutta Kolkata and Sudeshna Das Department of Psychology Practising Clinical Psychologist AMRI Hospital, Kolkata

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The aim of the present research was to examine the self perception with regard to body image of urban young adult females with a mean age of 21.99 years belonging to the upper-middle and middle-middle socio-economic status as measured by Kuppuswamy's socio economic status scale (2013). The participants did not have any history of any eating disorder or medical condition that poses any dietary restriction. The participants were assessed o socio Cultural Attitude towards Appperance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3; Thompson et al., 1995), The Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS) prepared by Slade et al. (1990), The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; Cooper et al., 1987) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (1965). The findings of the present study revealed that the participants did not endorse western stereotypes of body image and there was no significant association between their body image concerns and self perceptions.
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The influence of traditional beliefs of maternal care on obesity in young mothers: A qualitative analysis
Page 1105-1108
Prajeesh P., Department of Applied Psychology Pondicherry University, Pondicherry and Vijayalakshmi Consultant Psychologist Kindle Psychology Centre, Manjery, Kerala

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Human pregnancy and delivery are normal physiological phenomena as in the case of all other mammals. However, in all cultures it is treated as a complex process. Most of the rituals and traditions of maternity care are for the wellbeing of the mother and child. Nevertheless, some traditional rituals are unscientific. They may cause psychological and physiological problems leading to obesity or may even cause obesity in children. Unfortunately, the educated people also tend to follow these rituals. The present study explores the traditional beliefs of maternal care, which causes psychological and physiological problems and how they lead to obesity. A purposive sample of 12 young obese mothers was interviewed. Using Smith's phenomenological method the theme was established through coding, categorizing and labeling. From 55 significant statements, 3 themes emerged. Traditional beliefs that develop obesity are (a) Lowering physical exercise by restricting household activities and hobbies (b) Depressive symptoms due to detachment from spouse (c) Unhealthy food habits such as consuming more confectionaries, ghee and fast food.
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Effect of mental health on creativity
Page 1109-1113
K. Viswanath, K. Janardhan Reddy and S. Viswanatha Reddy Department of Psychology, SVU College of Sciences, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

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The aim of the present research is to examine the effect of mental health on creativity among high school going students. For the present study 600 high school boys and girls were selected. To assess the mental health and creativity of the students; Mental Health Analysis Questionnaire by Reddy and Nagarathnamma and Creativity Scale by Venkatarami Reddy was admitted to students. To test the hypotheses the data was interpreted using 't' test. Results revealed that there is significant impact of mental health on creativity. High creative group boys and girls possessed better mental health than low creative boys and girls.
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Pattern of personality among convicts of central prison of Tripura
Page 1114-1117
Anjana Bhattacharjee and Rebeka Debbarma Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh

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The present paper examined the pattern of personality of the male and female convicts of the Central Prison of Tripura. Further the paper was intended to explore the pattern of personality among the convict and the non-convict population. The sample was consisted of 63 convicts (male and female) and all of them selected purposively from the central prison of Tripura. The non convicts (N= 50) were also selected purposively from Agartala and its suburban areas. Neo Five Factor Personality Inventory was used for data collection. Data analyses revealed significant difference between male and female convicts in the two dimensions of personality like neuroticism and agreeableness. However, they did not differ significantly in the dimension of extraversion, openness to experience and conscientiousness. Further, the result revealed significant difference between the convicts and non convicts in all the dimensions of personality.
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Gender difference in emotional intelligence among college students
Page 1118-1121
Ramesh D. Waghmare, Department of Psychology, Dr. B. A. M. U. Aurangabad, Maharashtra

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The present study aimed of the research was to find out the “Gender difference between emotional Intelligence.” To study by research seated variables is gender. The sample has 80 college students in each 40 male college students and 40 female college students; scale was use for data collection was personal data sheet and emotional Intelligence scale by Hyde, Pethe, Dhor and Dhar. Sample design was used and data were Analysis by Mean, SD and 'F' values. Results show, there was no significant difference of Empathy, Self-Motivation, Managing Relations, Integrity, Self-development, Value orientation and Commitment between Male and Female college students. There is significant difference of Self-awareness, Emotional Stability and Altruistic Behavior between male and female college
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Organizational care and support of sheltered street children
Page 1122-1125
G. Sarvani, Department of Psychology, Dr. L.B College of Education, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Prades

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The present study is to find out the organizational care and support of sheltered street children. The sample consist 444 respondents. 176 are from government shelters, and 268 are from non government shelters. For this purpose Organizational care and support developed by researcher were used. The data obtained were analyzed through t- test to know the mean difference between the government and non government groups. Government sheltered street children have more health problems, more organizational facilities and less social support than non government sheltered street children.
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Job satisfaction among working women as a function of educational background and average income level
Page 1126-1128
Putul Kumari SoS in Psychology Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhatisgarh and Usha Kiran Agrawal Department of Psychology Govt. D.B. Girls P.G.College, Raipur, Chhatisgarh

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The objective of present study was to see the difference in the job satisfaction among working women of average income group of background of professional and non professional background. The sample was selected on random basis. It consisted of 120 working women of both professionals (60) and of non professionals (60) educational background, average income group (4 lakhs to less than 8 lakhs). To study this research problem 2x1 factorial design was used. In this design working women of 2 categories professional and non professional Educational background, salary groups (4 lakhs to less than 8 lakhs) were independent variables, Life satisfaction was dependent variable, so the proposed research design was 2x1 factorial designs. Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS) by Kumar and Dhyani was used to assess the level of job satisfaction.
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Well-being in relation to gender differences among adolescents
Page 1129-1131
Rashida Masrat and Shah Alam Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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Adolescence is the period of transition between childhood to adulthood that involved biological, cognitive, and socio emotional changes. It is referred as a period of transition and challenge for children and their families both. Adolescence is the most vulnerable age for development, when the child once entering in this stage requires intensive readjustment to school, social and family life. While many adolescents experience anxiety, unpleasant or strange feeling. Gender is the biggest problem in present scenario where female adolescents are discriminated in front of male adolescents. It is duty of the parents to encourage their children to take part in all activities such as physical, social, spiritual etc., so that their wellbeing will be increased. Well-being is a state of being with others, where human needs are met, where one can act meaningfully to pursue one's goals, and where one enjoys a satisfactory quality of life. Well-being can be defined as an expression of life satisfaction, as a way to influence the quality of society and its citizens. The aim of the present study is to examine the gender difference among male and female adolescents. The sample of 50 male and 50 female adolescents (N=100) were randomly selected from A.M.U schools. The age ranges from 18-21 years. For the present study the scale of wellbeing developed by Jagsharanbir Singh and Dr. Asha Gupta, (2001) was administered on the participants. The findings revealed that there is a significant difference between male and female adolescents on wellbeing. Significant difference was also found between male and female adolescents on different dimensions of wellbeing such as physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual.
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Obesity-depression link and Indian adolescents: An empirical study
Page 1132-1134
Sangeeta Rath Department of Psychology Ravenshaw University, Cuttack, Odisha and Sayantani Behura Department of Psychology Utkal University, Bhuvaneswar, Odisha

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This study examined the impact of obesity on severity of depression of obese and non-obese adolescent boys and girls. The study involved 2 (obese versus non-obese) x 2 (adolescent boys versus adolescent girls) factorial design. The participants of these four groups were compared with respect to their scores on the Beck's Depression Inventory. Sixty obese and sixty non-obese adolescents (aged 14-19 yrs) were purposively sampled from various educational institutions and gymnasia. For this study both overweight and obese adolescents on the basis of their BMI, WHO classification of obese was followed. Analysis of data indicated that obese individuals possessed higher level of depression as compared to non-obese individuals. Adolescent girls' severity of depression was higher than that of adolescent boys. Though the findings are not new and has been revealed in several western studies, the current study focuses on the Indian context of it.
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Personality and psychiatric co-morbidities associated with tension type headache (TTH) and migraine: A review
Page 1135-1137
Pooja Mahour and Meha Jain Department of Psychiatry, King Georg's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

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Tension type headache (TTH) and Migraine is the most common type of primary headache. Psychological difficulties and stress are widely demonstrated as a contributing factor in such headaches. It was also evident in studies that having different personality traits individuals respond differently to stressful situations. In this view the present study was aimed to review the personality and psychiatric co morbidity in patients of TTH and Migraine. The related literature was searched on Pubmed, Proquest, PsychINFO and Google for all the available studies associated with TTH, Migraine, Personality type and Psychiatric co morbidities. The search was restricted to 10 year old studies i.e. in between 2003-2013. Certain personality traits and psychiatric co morbidities affect the persons with TTH and Migraine.
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Emotional abuse: Wiping out mental health of adolescents
Page 1138-1141
Falak Nesheen and Shah Alam Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh,Uttar Pradesh and Tehseen Nazir Department of Guidance & Counselling Ankara University, Turkey

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The most challenging situation nowadays adolescents go through that is deteriorating their daily living, is Emotional abuse, i.e; a pattern of behavior that impairs a child's development or sense of self-worth. Experiencing abuse or an attack can lead to serious mental health problems, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental disorder. And violating the mental health of an adolescent may disrupt his normal way of life. Thus the basic aim of this paper is to explore how the emotional abuse is related with the mental health of an adolescent. The paper reports the excruciations that adolescents go through right from their childhood and explain the aftereffects of these nuisances in their adolescent period. The paper tries to highlight the different forms of abuses and their direct effect on the mental health of adolescents. The different forms of mental health disorders that have their connection with emotional abuse and the physiological changes within an adolescent caused due to emotional abuse are also the matter of concern in this paper. The paper concludes with the measures that are helpful in curing the mental health problems caused due to emotional abuse disrupting the day to day life of adolescents. If emotional abuse couldn't be controlled it may have serious effects on adolescent's life and the most important the normal mental health of adolescents will be broken up.
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Creativity and lateralization of the brain
Page 1142-1144
Jaspal Singh, Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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The present study is a review of the key concepts regarding the nature of handedness and the phenomenon of brain lateralization in relation to creativity. A number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its theoretical bases; the nature and functions of lateralization; and the relationship between these two concepts with creativity have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left handed and right handed creativity have been drawn into consideration.
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