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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 7 (2016), Issue - 6
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Study of gender differences in perceived employer's obligations, it's fulfillment and relationship with job satisfaction
Page 571-578
Shivani Datta and Tanya Dutta Department of Psychology, KNC, University of Delhi, Delhi

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The purpose of the current study is to explore gender differences in employee's perception of employer's obligation's, its fulfillment and relationship with job satisfaction. To study the same a sample of 60 participants was selected. For inclusion in the study, participants were required to be full-time employees of any company from the IT industry. The employer obligations scale was administered to measure employee's perception of their employer's obligation. A global measure of employer fulfillment was used to measure the employee's perception of their employer's obligation fulfillment by Rousseau and Tijoriwala (1999). To assess the relationship between fulfillment and overall satisfaction a global measure of Satisfaction was used where a five-item response set using smiley faces was employed (as a cultural and gender-neutral variation on the GM-Faces Scale, Kunin, 1955). Statistical analysis was done using independent t- test and correlation coefficient; also the responses of participants to semi structure interview schedule were content analyzed for major themes. The results obtained suggest that there exist no gender differences in the employee's perception of their employer obligation. However significant gender differences were obtained in the employer obligation fulfillment. While a strong correlation was found between employers obligation fulfillment and overall job satisfaction for both male and female employees.
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Subjective well-being of physically disabled and normal students
Page 579-584
Purnima Awasthi, Reeta Chauhan and Saroj Verma Department of Psychology, F.S.S., B.H.U., Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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The study examined the role of age and gender on life satisfaction of physical disabled and normal healthy students. Sample comprised orthopedically disabled (n=73) and normal healthy students (n=73). Multidimensional Student Life-Satisfaction Scale was administered to assess their perception regarding the various domains of life-satisfaction such as family, friends, school, living environment, and self. The results indicated that disabled students scored higher only on the measure of school life-satisfaction than normal healthy students. Female students scored significantly higher on the domains of friends, school, and global life-satisfaction as compared to their male counterparts. Findings of age and gender groups revealed that females belonging to late adolescence age group scored higher on the domain of school and global life satisfaction than the males representing the same group. The implications of the findings for disabled students are discussed.
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Impact of self-enhancement on spiritual orientation in young adults: An intervention study
Page 584-593
Sangeeta Trama and Shilpa Modi Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala

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[Spirituality is an awareness of life which enables us to think about life, who we are and where we come from (Mc Ewan, 2004). Spirituality is the feeling individuals have about the fundamental meaning of who they are, what they are doing, and the contributions they are making (Vaill, 1996). Spiritual beliefs, commitments, and practices appear to be related to such positive outcomes such as physical, emotional, and psychological well-being, positive interpersonal functioning, and enhanced quality of life (Emmons, 2000). No matter how life is right now, there is a part of the self who has all the knowledge and resources to change it. Self-enhancement is thought to be the foremost motive in the perpetual search for self-knowledge (Sedikides, 1993). To clear all the blockages which stop one from experiencing one's true self, to explore the inner being, to access one's highest potential, to learn more about oneself, and to know practical tools and techniques to change one's life, is self-enhancement. While higher education focuses with new intensity on test scores, grades, persistence, and degrees, it has increasingly come to neglect students' “inner” development the need of values and beliefs, moral development, spirituality, and self-understanding. The present study attempted to develop spiritual orientation in young adults with the help of self-enhancement training. In this study, 70 participants were identified out of a group of 200 participants who scored less on spiritual orientation. These young adults were female students studying in various colleges/universities in and around Patiala. Thereafter, self-enhancement training was rendered to the participants. An attempt was made to explore differences in young adults in areas of inner self-enhancement (viz., self-acceptance, positive emotions, emotion regulation, and mindfulness). t-test (for related samples) was applied to analyze the results. The paper highlights the role of adequate spiritual orientation right
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Effect of risk taking behaviour on academic achievement of adolescence
Page 594-599
Niti Shukla and Nanki Monga Department of Psychology, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar, Panjab

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Adolescents have curiosity towards new behaviour and they want to experience without thinking much about consequences. During the phase of adolescence peer learning is on the peak and human behaviour is highly affected by his/her surroundings. All these aspects must have impact on adolescents' achievement of various goals in their lives. The current study attempted to investigate the risk taking behaviour of adolescents and their academic achievements during their schools. A sample of 40 adolescents including boys (20) and girls (20) in the age range of 15-17 years studying in schools at South Delhi was investigated for its academic achievement motivation by classifying them on the nature of risk taking behaviour, i.e. moderate and high risk taking behaviour. Majority of the participants (90%) were noticed with moderate risk taking tendencies. All the girl adolescents (100%) were there with moderate risk taking behaviour whereas boys (20%) were also found with high risk taking tendencies other than moderate (80%) category of risk taking behaviour. The risk taking behaviour of adolescents was significantly correlated with their academic achievements (r= -0.41). The findings suggest investigating the risk taking behaviour at school level and counselling the adolescent students in context of their immediate and long-term goals.
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Role of occupational stress in the somatic health complaints among executives in public sector organizations
Page 600-603
A. P. Singh, Vinod Kumar Gupta and Anand Prakash Dubey Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh and Avantika Singh Department of Education, R. R. P. G. College, Amethi Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University, Faizabad, U.P.

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The purpose of this paper was to explore the role of occupational stress in somatic health complaints among executives in public sector organizations. Somatic health complaints lead to disability, absenteeism, job loss and subsequent unemployment in the organizations. The present study was conducted on 210 executives and results revealed that occupational stress (total), role overload, role ambiguity, and role conflict (dimensions of occupational stress) were significantly positively correlated with somatic health complaints. The results of simple regression analysis showedthat occupational stress predicted significantly somatic health complaints while results of stepwise regression analysis showed that role conflict (dimension of occupational stress) emerged as significant predictors to influence the somatic complaints. The findings of this study will help in reducing the somatic health complaints through considering the role of the present predictor so that organizations will achieve their goals.
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A comparative study between suicide ideation and suicide attempt and Cloninger's personality dimensions of temperament and character in patients with depression
Page 604-606
Jeeshma R . and Nandha Kumara Pujam Department of Clinical Psychology, SRM Medical College & Hospital & Research Centre, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu

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Suicidal ideation and attempt are common in major depressive disorder and other psychiatric diagnosis. It is indubitable that psychiatric disorders are linked to suicide, but in what manner remains to be explained. A patient with major depression has increase risk for suicide compared with an individual without depression. Since most patients with depression do not show suicidal behavior, it has been argued that other factors than those eliciting depressive mood must operate when a person becomes suicidal. In this study, we included 30 suicide attempters with depression and 30 suicidal ideators with depression but without prior history of suicidal attempt and they were assessed using Temperament and Character Inventory. This was a hospital based cross sectional study. The analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann Whitney U test. Results show that higher Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence and Self-Transcendence in Suicide Attempters than the Suicide Ideators. However, Suicidal Ideators were found to have higher Harm Avoidance and Self-Directedness.
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Life satisfaction across gender and socio-economic status among middle adults
Page 607-610
Reshma N. S. and Manjula M. Y. Department of Post Graduate Studies and Research in Psychology, S.D.M.College (Autonomous), Ujire, Karnataka

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The current study aims at exploring life satisfaction across gender and socio-economic status among middle adults. The study consists of 150 middle adults (male=75, females=75) selected from 3 different socio-economic status groups (high=50, middle=50, low=50). The sample was drawn from Mangalore city. The age of the sample ranged between 40-55 yrs. Kuppuswamy's socio-economic status scale (R-2012) and Life satisfaction scale (Kumar, et.al 1988) was administered to the participants. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc test of Turkey's HSD. The results revealed that females have significantly higher job satisfaction than males. Findings revealed that adults belonging to high socio-economic status have significantly higher mental satisfaction, job satisfaction, family satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and overall life satisfaction compared to adults from lower socio-economic status groups. Adults belonging to middle socio-economic status groups have significantly higher mental satisfaction and job satisfaction when compared to adults from lower socio-economic status groups.
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Meaning in life and explanatory styles among arthritis patients
Page 611-614
Mohd Owais Khan and Mohd Ilyas Khan Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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The present study purports to find out the relationship between explanatory styles and meaning in life among arthritis patients. The sample for the present study comprised of 125 arthritis patients. The data for the present study has been collected from the OPD of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and other Hospitals of Aligarh. Meaning in life questionnaire developed by Steger, Frazier, Oishi & Kaler (2006) and Revised Life Orientation Scale developed by Scheier, Carver& Bridges (1994) were used to measure meaning in life and explanatory styles respectively. The data collected was analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques like Pearson's product moment correlation and regression. The results showed significant positive correlation between meaning in life and life explanatory styles. Explanatory style was emerged as significant predictors of meaning in life among arthritis patients. Furthermore, out of four demographic variables educational status and age were emerged as significant predictor of meaning in life among arthritis patients whereas gender and residential area were not found significant predictors of meaning in life.
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Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in Kerala
Page 615-618
Sandeep G. Department of Demography, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

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With favourable conditions for population ageing, the problem of morbidity burden due to chronic diseases may also be increasing in Kerala. Kerala has a dubious distinction as the 'diabetes capital' in the country. This paper examined the distribution of women and men aged 20-49 years according the diabetes status and also identified the major risk factors of diabetes in Kerala. The data were obtained from National Family Health Survey 2005-06 (NFHS 3). Bivariate and multivariate techniques are used in the analyses. Prevalence of Diabetes was 4688/ 100 000 among men and 2953/100 000 among women in Kerala. Weekly and daily fish intake contributed to a significantly higher risk of diabetes among both women and men. Risks of diabetes increased with increased BMI, age and wealth status of both women and men. Daily consumption of pulse/beans or fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes among women, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in the case of men. Health promotion campaigns that emphasize healthy eating and exercise are needed to encourage healthier lives.
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Study of emotional responses of couples undergoing infertility treatment
Page 619-622
Shilpi Singh, Department of Psychology, H.R.P.G. Collage, Khalilabad, Sant Kabir Nagar, Uttar Pradesh

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The present study attempted to explore the expression of emotional responses of Indian couples during infertility treatment period. 150 couples (75 IVF & 75 ICSI) were requested to enlighten by using quantitative approach, Couples had rated their expression of different emotions and their frequency and intensity of emotions. The findings of analysis of variance revealed that treatment condition was significantly affect the positive and negative affectivity and frequency of participants but the intensity was not affected by the treatment procedure. Furthermore, the findings of the study identified no gender differences in expression of emotions with infertility in males and females.
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Old age mortality in India exploration from modal age at death
Page 623-626
Yamuna Devi A and S. Sulaja Department of Demography, University of Kerala, Kariavattom Campus, Trivandrum, Kerala

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This study examined the changes old age mortality in India through modal ages at death from 1977-2011. Death data from the Sample Registration System of India were used for the study. Changes in modal ages at death showed significant improvement for both males and females. However, the improvement was much greater for females. This study also observed shifts in the shape of distribution of age at death and the survival curve over time. Longevity extension alone cannot be measure the health of the population in any society, considerable reduction in morbidity also required. Rising prevalence morbidity among elderly and poor health care are the existing situation in India. Thus more efforts need to be exerted to maintain the improvement in the geriatric care in India.
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Emotional intelligence of high school students
Page 627-631
Seema Garg, Desh Bhagat University Mandi Gobindgarh, Panjab and Agya Jit Singh Former Head (Retd.) Psychology Punjabi University, Patiala

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The main purpose of the study was to find out the Gender, Location and type of school differences on emotional intelligence. For it EKTA tests of emotional intelligence was administrated to 400 High School Students. The results of the study show that Sex differences are not found on many aspects of emotional intelligence. But differences exist between rural and urban school students and rural students have higher level of emotional intelligence. The students of Govt. and private schools also do not differ with each on almost all aspects of emotional intelligence.
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Attributional style and academic achievement among senior secondary school students
Page 632-635
Farah Habib and Saba Khan Department of Home Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

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The objective of this study was to examine how attributional style is related to level of academic achievement, which is evidenced by students' performance in exam in an educational institution. The data were collected from 136 students randomly selected from senior secondary school of AMU (both boys and girls section). The high and low achieving students were identified on the basis of percentage of marks in senior secondary certificate part-I examination. The attributional style was measured by attributional style questionnaire (ASQ) developed by Peterson, Semmel, Von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky and Seligman (1982) and revised by Peterson and Seligman (1984). The data were analyzed by using t-test for finding out the significance of difference between various subgroups. Significant differences in attributional style were obtained between high and low achieving student.
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Personality traits as predictors of students' well-being and life satisfaction
Page 636-638
Shruti Dutt and Preet Kumari Department of Psychology, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, Uttar Pradesh

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Life satisfaction is the way a person evaluates his or her life and the person feels about where it is going in the future. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of personality traits in determination of psychological well- being and life satisfaction of students. A sample of 100 students from Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra city was selected. The NEO- FFI Personality Inventory by Costa and McCrae (1992) was used to measure five personality traits while the PGI Well- Being Scale Hindi version by Moudgall, Verma , Kaur and Pal (1986) was employed to measure well-being of the students and Life satisfaction Scale developed by Alam and Srivastava was employed to measure the life satisfaction of the students. Data was analyzed by using Multiple Regression Analysis. Results indicated that Agreeableness (ß= .298, t= 2.620, p<.05) was found to be best predictor to well-being and Extroversion (ß= .186, t= 1.570) was found to be the best predictor of life satisfaction. The impact of these findings signifies that personality plays an important role in determining healthy and positive well-being of students. With high psychological well-being through these traits, better academic performance may be achieved by the students.
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Impact of eudaimonic well being on depression, anxiety, stress and meaning at work in male and female doctors
Page 639-641
Manpreet Ola, Amity Institute of Behavioural and Allied, Sciences, Amity University Gurgaon, Haryana

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From over a decade, positive psychology has been interested in concepts associated with positive human functioning. In this study we will focus on another emerging concept of positive psychology. Eudaimonia which is identified as the greatest human good, it is the best or greatest activity of the soul or joy which permeates and fulfils a good life. It is often translated as happiness, joy or well-being, and it also has some connotations like success, so it is possible to understand that living well also includes doing well. It is essential and independent, achieved by nothing but itself, so that it may include everything else, and even comfort, however it extends beyond it (Broadie, 1991). This was introduced by Aristotle. It is a topic for scientific enquiry. The aim of the study was to see whether eudaimonic well-being will have any impact on depression, anxiety, stress and meaning at work in male and female doctors. Participants were 60 doctors (30 males and 30 females) from Rajasthan, India, in the age range of 30-60 years, with no history of any psychiatric illness. They gave their consent to participate in the study. Eudaimonic well being was assessed using the purpose in life scale of the Ryff measures of psychological well-being (Keyes et al., 2002; Ryff and Keyes, 1995; Smith et al., 2013), depression, anxiety, and stress levels through Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS by Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995), and meaningful work through work and meaning inventory (Steger, 2012). Sample was purposive and the data were collected in individual situations. There was difference between male and female doctors with regard to eudaimonic well-being, depression, anxiety, stress and meaning at work, however only on the dimension of depression the results were significant, where male doctors had significantly more depression than that of female doctors (t = 2.64, p = .01). With regard to correlation between eudaimonic well-being, depression, anxiety and stress there was
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An evaluation of psychometric properties of pre-menstrual syndrome screening tool
Page 642-644
Gaukaran Janghel, Aakanksha College of Special Education Raipur, Chhattisgarh, Priyamvada Shrivastava SoS in Psychology Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University Raipur, Chhattisgarh and Reeta Venugopal SoS in Physical Education, Director, Centre for Women Harassment Cell, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh

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The pre-menstrual syndrome screening tool (PMS) was designed to measure the pre-menstrual problems of sports and non sports women in the Indian context, with in age range of 25 to 45 years. The main objective of the present study is determining the psychometric properties of PMS screening tool. The analysis of the tool included the basic items descriptions concurrent validity, content validity obtained statistical computation of internal consistency, construct validity factor extraction, discriminant validity and reliability. The result of exploratory factor analysis revealed the important factors extracted namely- physical, psychological and behavioral. The PMS screening tool is reliable and valid for assessing the Pre-Menstrual Syndrome women of age group 25-45 years.
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Role of mental image and positive emotions in work motivation of security professionals
Page 645-647
Bhupender Singh and B. R. Shejwal Department of Psychology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra

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The present study has been carried out with the objective to explore the role of mental image and positive emotions on work motivation among security professionals. Tools like Mental Image among Security Professionals (MISP), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule extended (PANAS-X), Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) and personal data sheet were administered on 120 male security professionals. After the initial screening of the data and stepwise multiple regression was applied on the obtained data. The results demonstrated that mental image especially, visual image and auditory image were significantly predicting the work motivation among the security professionals. This gives path for the application of various mental image enhancing methods in this field.
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Social support in psychotherapy of panic disorder with agoraphobia in school setting
Page 648-650
Tamanna Chhabra, Consulting Clinical Psychologist New Delhi and Sonia Puar Amity Institute of Behavioral (Health) and Allied Sciences, Amity University, U.P.

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This case study explores the treatment related issues of a 9 year old boy, who presented with symptoms of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia, School Refusal and depressive symptoms, in a school counseling setting. To cope with anxiety and reintegrate the child within school. Initial three sessions focused on rapport building and exploring the problem using narrative therapy. Next three sessions included narrative therapy techniques and cognitive behaviour therapy including behaviour experiments and graded exposure was carried out to gain confidence over his anxieties and reintegrate him to school environment. Simultaneously family, teachers and peers were counselled to maintain the gains in therapy. At termination the child presented marked decrease in anxiety symptoms, willingness to attend school and engage with classmates, and improvements in self-confidence. The Narrative and Cognitive Behavioural Techniques were found to be effective in treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Family and school support is essential and the treatment gains its effectiveness when all stakeholders come to support especially in a child case.
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Child sexual abuse: A progressive social disorder
Page 651-661
K. Bhuvaneswari and Sibnath Deb Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry

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Children need to be cared for and protected for the formation of a robust nation. The rampant increase in incidence of child sexual abuse becomes a major apprehension for all stakeholders in society. Child sexual abuse is viewed as Progressive Social Disorder as there are many hurdles which the child, family and community find difficulty to come out from, which is augmented by recurrence of abuse on the same victim and on different victim by same offender or by different offender. The consequences of sexual abuse on the child include short-term and long-term impact on the developmental aspects of the child throughout their lifespan. A model for combating the disorder has been developed. Prevention, Justice and Rehabilitation entailing equal significance by stakeholders, is required towards creation of healthy and safe haven for the future of the nation.
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Factors of psychological well-being among school counsellors
Page 662-667
Laly Augustine Department of Psychology, Central University of Karnataka, Kalaburagi, Karnataka

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School counselling is getting a vital role in the educational system and this innovative endeavour positively influences all round development in the students as well as school counselors. The objective of this research was to explore the factors contributing to the psychological well-being of school counsellors. Towards this end, the researcher adopted the qualitative research method and eight school counsellors participated in this research. Data collected through in-depth interviews was analyzed through thematic analysis. The quest to discover the contributing factors of psychological well-being led to the following findings: the quality of life, intra-personal competence, interpersonal competence, social support, emotional stability, satisfaction in life, spirituality and physical health are the factors that contribute to the psychological well-being of school counsellors. All these factors are found to be causative to psychological well-being through the extensive and in-depth research. These findings, the researcher hopes, would be useful for trainers, teachers and counsellors to render awareness classes to parents and mental health professionals and to ensure their own well-being. Limitations and implications of the study are also discussed.
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Sociometric status and peer group behavior
Page 668-670
Harmeen K. Basra Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Panjab

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Children's peer relations are perhaps the most ubiquitous of all human relationships. Sociometric status is distinct from friendship or peer group membership and concerns overall peer acceptance. Sociometric status is unilateral in terms of measurement, in group evaluations of individual members , but it is not a unitary social construct. The present study studies the sociometric status and peer group behavior. Numerous studies have examined the types of behaviors that children ascribe to peers who vary in preference and popularity. The social context plays a major role in the line between social behavior and social status.
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Sunil Saini, PhD
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