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ISSN 2229-5356
Impact Factor 2012 = 0.47
Indian Journal of Health & Wellbeing
copyright 2011 IAHRW . All Rights Reserved
Volume - 6 (2015), Issue - 3
Editor - Sunil Saini, PhD
About this Journal

Perceived academic stress of university students across gender, academic streams, semesters, and academic performance
Page 231-235
Parveen Banu and Sibnath Deb, Department of Applied Psychology Pondicherry University, Puducherry and Vishnu Vardhan and Tirupati Rao Department of Statistics Pondicherry University, Puducherry

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The broad objective of the study was to investigate the perceived academic stress of Pondicherry University students across gender, academic stream, semesters, and academic performance. A group 699 university students from three academic streams viz., Humanities & Social Science, Science and Management was covered in the study following multi-stage cluster sampling method and data was collected by using a specially designed Structured Questionnaire and a standardized psychological scale on academic stress following self-administration method. Findings disclosed that female students experienced more academic stress compared to male student (p<.01). Students from Humanities and Social Science were found to be suffering from more academic stress than that of Science and Management students (p<.01). Semester II students (p<.01) and students with better academic performance (p<.01) reported experiencing more academic stress. The findings speak in favor of institution-based mental health support services for the university students to help them to overcome the academic stress and perform better.
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A study on the construction of a scale for assessing the quality of friendship
Page 236-242
Prerona Ghosh, Deepshikha Ray and Sudeshna Das Department of Psychology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, India

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The development of successful friendship is one of the important developmental milestones and is crucial for healthy adaptation. In the context of increasing social alienation in today's globalized world there is an emergent need to construct a reliable tool for assessing Quality of Friendship. Same-sex friendship is highly prevalent in the Indian society and is a significant contributor to an enhanced quality of life. Since, there is a dearth of a reliable tool for exploring friendship, the present study purported to construct a scale for assessing the Quality of Friendship. 370 healthy adult participants, of either sex, aged between 18-25 years were included in the study. The total sample was split into 3 sections - sample A (N = 100), on which the Quality of Friendship Questionnaire (QFQ) was constructed; sample B (N = 200), the data of which was utilized for reliability assessment and factor analysis; sample C (N = 70) on which The Relationship Profile Test (Bornstein and Languirand, 2001) and The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, 1996) was administered for the computation of convergent validity. Preliminary norms were developed based on the scores of Sample B and Sample C. Five factors emerged from Factor Analysis, namely - 'Intimacy', 'Distress reaction', 'Negative behavior', 'Doubt' and 'Telling a lie' and the final scale comprised of 87 items with a high reliability (Cronbach α =0.96). Further, a significant negative correlation between 'Quality of Friendship' and loneliness was obtained, along with a significant positive correlation between 'Quality of Friendship' and healthy dependence. Continued evaluation is needed to assess the utility of the QFQ for exploring 'Friendship' in the paradigm of positive psychology.
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Forgiveness and state anger of students from three religious groups
Page 243-248
Deepti B. Duggi and Shanmukh V. Kamble, Department of Psychology, Karnatak Uthniversity, Dharwad, Karnataka

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This study investigated the difference between forgiveness and state anger among post graduate students from various departments of Karnatak University, Dharwad, and belonging to Hindu, Muslim and Christian religion. An equal number of students were selected (Hindu =50, Muslim= 50 and Christian=50) from each religion by using quota sampling technique. Forgiveness was measured by, the Decisional and Emotional Forgiveness Scale developed by Worthington Jr, et al. (2007) and State anger was measured by State anger scale developed by Spielberger et al. (1988). Results indicated a significant difference among three groups on their decisional and emotional forgiveness and state anger. Further stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed the factors significantly contributed to decisional and emotional forgiveness and state anger of the students. Findings of the study have social implications.
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Ways of coping strategies in HIV/AIDS patients
Page 249-253
Asha Rani STI Counselor, General Hospital Rohtak, Haryana and Promila Batra Department of Psychology M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana

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Each disease brings with it lot of additionally associated problems that the patient requires to cope with this additional burden and stress. Therefore, every patient has to cope with both the disease and the accompanying stresses in the form of biological, psychological and social problems. HIV/AIDS is also a disorder with high incidence and prevalence. It is a viral disease, which reduces the ability of immune system to defend the body against the introduction of foreign substances (antigens). Its negative impact on the individual and society itself is in alarming stage, as the disease is highly associated with a variety of loss, grief and stress. Each individual suffering from HIV/AIDS adopts a different style and strategy to cope with the disease. However, these patients can be enabled to cope with the disease related stress and worries by training them on appropriate ways of coping. The existing literature indicating about various methods categorized as better ways of coping with specific diseases but it is important to know what type of ways are being adopted by the patients and need to be changed for the success of interventions to teach appropriate ways of coping. Therefore, study aimed at assessing the patterns of emotion focused and problem focused ways of coping among HIV and AIDS patients. The present study was carried out in Haryana on 500 patients with HIV/AIDS having the age from 25 to 50 years (mean age 37.5 years). To assess and compare the coping styles adopted by HIV/AIDS patients, the selected subjects were tested with the ways of coping questionnaire by Folkman and Lazarus (1988). Frequencies of individual high on one type of coping (quartile based) and the mean of coping scores were calculated and analyzed. The Chi-square and 't' values reveal that most of the HIV/AIDS patients were going more with emotion focused coping than with problem focused coping.
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Personality traits: Their relationship with depression and the intention to seek psychological help among depressed Indian young adults
Page 254-259
Rhea Banerjee Department of Psychology, Women's Christian College, Chennai

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The prevalence of depression seems to have risen drastically over the years, especially among Indian young adults. However, young adults today are hesitant to seek professional help for their mental difficulties due to various factors. The purpose of the present study was to identify whether specific personality traits are related to depression and to the intention to seek help for depression. The Five-Factor Model of Personality (McCrae & Costa, 1996), which highlights five main personality dimensions (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), was used for this study. Four hundred and fifty Indian young adults, in the age range of 19 to 40 years, were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and the Big Five Inventory (John & Srivastava, 1999) using handouts as well as an online survey program. Of these participants, 194 young adults were identified as being either mildly depressed or moderately depressed, and the responses of this sample were utilised for statistical analyses. The data obtained from the study was analysed using Pearson's Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation. The results indicated that Openness and Agreeableness were significantly related to the intention to seek psychological help. Extraversion was found to have an inverse relationship with depression, while Neuroticism had a direct relationship with depression. It can be concluded that personality factors do indeed have a relationship with depression and the intention to seek psychological help among depressed young adults.
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Bully victimization and pupil well-being
Page 260-266
Damanjit Sandhu, Manjot Kaur and Kirandeep Kaur Department of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab

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The problem of school bullying is on the rise worldwide. Bullying has proven to be damaging and destructive for the pupils as well as for the society at large. In most situations, victims do survive but carry scars for a lifetime. Bullying tends to have negative affect on the physical, psychological, emotional, academic and social well being of a child. The present study was conducted to understand the relationship between school bullying and pupil well-being. This study highlighted the impact of bully-victimization on pupil well-being and it also explored the links between bully-victimization and problem behaviour in Indian adolescent pupils. 200 school going adolescent boys and girls (age range 15-17 years) served as subjects in this study. Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale (Mynard & Joseph, 2000), Youth Self Report (YSR) (Achenbach,1991) and Friedman Well-Being Scale ( Friedman, 1992) were used. Reliability coefficients and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients were computed. The results of the study showed that Bully-Victimization is linked with internalizing problem behaviour and it is negatively associated with happiness, joviality, sociability, self esteem/self confidence and emotional stability. Another very interesting finding which emerged from the present study is that pupils face physical victimization and attacks on property together.
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The effectiveness of mindfulness therapy on self-esteem of adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Page 267-272
Soamya and Sandeep Singh, Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been considered as a chronic disorder, which generally continues beyond childhood, into adolescence and adulthood Willoughby, (2003). Researches revealed that the regulation of emotions have been found to be difficult among children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD, Barkley (2006). In line with this, Goodman, (2007) reported that the low self esteem and self doubt are commonly associated with ADHD. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of mindfulness therapy on self esteem of ADHD adolescents. The adolescents with ADHD symptoms were diagnosed with Conner's 3 ADHD rating scale (2008) and thirty three participants were selected with age ranging between 13 to 16 years. The self esteem was assessed with Rosenberg self esteem questionnaire (1965). The mindfulness therapy was implemented for six months and five days a week. The outcome of the present study was analyzed by applying paired t- test on pair 1 (baseline and middle phase), pair 2 (middle and post) and pair 3 (baseline and post). It has been observed in the findings of the study that the ADHD adolescents learned to regulate & reflect the emotions in much better way. The mindfulness therapy found to be effective and produced significant effects by reducing ADHD symptoms as well as in enhancing self esteem of ADHD adolescents. It can be concluded with the evidences represented in the present study that mindfulness therapy can be considered as therapeutic tool in enhancing self esteem of ADHD adolescents.
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Efficacy of visual process training in the patients with schizophrenia: A pre and post intervention study
Page 273-276
Indu Sulanki and Jai Prakash Department of Clinical Psychology, Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Kanke, Ranchi

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Schizophrenia patients are unable to filter sensory stimuli and may have disturbed perceptions of sounds, colors and other features of the environment. The aim of the present study was to see the efficacy of visual process training in the patients with schizophrenia. Based on purposive sampling technique 10 male patients with schizophrenia (diagnosed aczcording to ICD-10, DCR criteria) were selected. They were divided into two groups, five patients as experimental group and five patients as control group. Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test and Comprehensive Trail Making Test have been used. The experimental group was given Brainwave-R (visual processing module). Control group was given no remediation training. Findings of the present study revealed positive impact of visual process training in the experimental group of schizophrenia. It was concluded that visual process deficit persists in the patients with schizophrenia and visual process training is quite helpful in remediating this deficit.
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Work-family conflict and mental health of women in banking and teaching profession
Page 277-281
Suneeta Yadav Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP

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The present study investigated the work-family conflict and mental health of women in teaching & bank employment belonging to two age groups, viz., early (ErA) and mid adulthood (MdA) were explored. Work-Family Conflict Scale and Mental Health Inventory were administered to 50 (ErA-28 & MdA-22) and 62 bank employees (ErA-30 & MdA-32). Main effect of age was significant for work-to-family conflict, positive self evaluation, perception of reality, integration of personality, autonomy, group oriented attitude and overall mental health scores. Main effect of profession was significant only for positive self evaluation, perception of reality and group oriented attitude. Interaction effect of age and profession was significant only for autonomy. Within the teachers, ErA as compared to MdA scored higher on work-family conflict areas and lower on all the dimensions of mental health but none of the differences were significant except work-to-family conflict. Similar trends were observed within the bank employed women also but differences were significant on all the dimensions of mental health, except environmental mastery. On mental health areas, at ErA phase, teachers as compared to bank employees scored significantly higher on positive self evaluation, perception of reality and overall mental health. On the other hand, women belonging to the two professions were similar to each other on all areas of mental health at MdA. Results have been analyzed in the light of the changes that take place in the lives of the working women as they pass from early to mid adulthood in the two different professions.
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A study of personality traits of drug addicted adolescents
Page 282-286
Ritika Sharma Kullu College of Education, Kullu, Himachal Pradesh

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Personality, in its dynamics towards reaching maturity, follows a complicated and difficult path during some particular periods in life. Adolescence is a time characterized by multiple physiological and psychological transformations. At a certain point during this time the adolescents may become vulnerable, under multiple aspects. Adolescents are a risk population concerning drug consumption. This Study was undertaken to know the personality traits of drug addicted adolescents. The data collected from 200 drug addicted adolescents of six educational blocks of Distt. Kullu of Himachal Pradesh through survey method. Data were analysed with reference to six personality dimensions. Results revealed that drug addicted adolescents were passive, assertive and suspicious in nature. Majority of drug addicted adolescents depicted characteristics of enthusiasm, depressiveness and emotional instability.
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Perceived stress, cognitive distortion, sense of coherence and health among college students
Page 287-291
D. Dhanalakshmi Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry

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College students are at an augmented risk of not only perceived stress but also cognitive distortion and this can have an unbelievable impact on their health. Sense of coherence seems to be one of the most important ways in which health is perceived in recent years. The present study explored the relationship between perceived stress, cognitive distortion, sense of coherence and general health among college students. The sample consisted of 125 undergraduate college students (62 boys and 63 girls) aged between 18 to 20 years. The sample was selected from different colleges in Chennai. All the participants responded to the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen), Sense of Coherence Scale (Antonovsky), Cognitive Distortion Scale (Briere) and General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg). Bivariate statistics showed that general health was positively related to dimensions of cognitive distortion and perceived stress, while it was negatively associated with sense of coherence (SOC). A gender difference was found wherein girls scored significantly higher on the self- blame and helplessness dimensions of cognitive distortion and also in terms of perceived stress and general health. This clearly indicated that girls perceive more stress and experience more health issues when compared to the boys. Regression analysis revealed that perceived stress is an important predictor of general health. The self-criticism and hopelessness subscales of cognitive distortion emerged to be good predictors of general health in conjunction with certain demographic like age, gender and number of siblings. The results of the study highlight the need to provide college students with appropriate support and guidance through the challenging years of college. This need is more pronounced for girls because they seem to be internalizing their responses to stress. Interventions that channelize their strengths to promote more adaptive ways of coping with stress are imperative.
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Effect of gender and age on depression among adolescents
Page 292-295
Rakesh Kumar Behmani and Mayank Upmanyu Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana

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Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and, also a highly recurrent disorder with an increasingly younger age of onset for the initial episode. Depression in adolescence is under-recognized although its associated burden of illness is very high. Some frequent associations with depression in this age group are under-achievement, poor lifestyle choices including substance abuse, and a high risk of the persistence of the illness into adulthood. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of age and gender in the experience of symptoms of depression among adolescents. The sample comprised of 50 males (25 early adolescents, 25 middle adolescents) and 50 females (25 early adolescents, 25 middle adolescents) adolescents in the age range of 12-18 years. Sample was selected by making use of purposive incidental sampling procedure. The results of 2X2 ANOVA revealed that female adolescents were significantly higher on depression as measured by Beck depression inventory, than male adolescents. Further, depression was found to be significantly higher in early adolescence as compared to middle adolescence.
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Quality of work life and job satisfaction among govt. secondary school teachers of Haryana
Page 296-299
Pankaj Mehta and Bindia Mehta Department of Education, Govt. of Haryana, Haryana

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The high quality teachers and education in any country of the world have been very essential part of the different civilization of the world in historical perspectives, so the level of satisfaction of teachers towards their job is very important to study. The present study was aimed to find out the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction among the govt. secondary school teachers of Haryana. The participant were100 govt. secondary (high) school teachers selected from different govt. schools of Sirsa and Hisar, Haryana. Quality of work life has been examined with help of quality of work life scale by Dhar, Dhar and Roy (2008) and job satisfaction has been measured with the help of job satisfaction scale by Singh and Sharma (1999). The findings from regression analysis show that quality of work life (QWL) is positively correlated with job satisfaction and QWL also is a good predictor of job satisfaction among teachers.
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School counsellors' insights on well-being
Page 300-304
Laly Augustine, Department of Psychology, Central University of Karnataka, Gulbarga, Karnataka and Anuradha, S. Department of Psychology Christ University, Bangalore

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School counselling is an innovative recent educational endeavour in India. The aim and objective of this research was to explore the insights of psychological well-being of school counsellors. Researcher adopted the qualitative research method as it is appropriate to the counselling profession. Eight school counsellors participated in this research. Data collected through in-depth interviews was analyzed through thematic analysis within the parameters of Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. The concept of psychological well-being was explored in detail and it was found that it was a state of mind including sound and balanced behaviour, sharp thinking and positive behaviour. The totality of an individual supported the emotional balance, economical fitness capacity of adjustment. Wellbeing is an integrated life such as physical, mental, spiritual, social and psychological development. This could be a helpful guide for school counsellors in their career, and work as a practical check list for counsellors to ensure their own well-being.
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Stress and spirituality among school teachers
Page 305-308
Sudarsan Behera Department of Applied Psychology Pondicherry University, Pondicherry and Manaswini Dash Department of Psychology Utkal University, Bhubaneswar

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Nowadays teaching profession is perceived by the teachers as a very stressful occupation as they have to do a variety of works. The present study has been designed to study stress and spirituality among school teachers in relation to several demographic variables such as gender, age, locality of work and residence, length of work experience, and type of school in which they are working. For this purpose a purposive sample of 240 school teachers with equal number of teachers from three different types of schools, i.e., elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools of Odisha were administered the Indore Teacher Job Stressor Scale (Rathod&Varma, 2005) and the Spirituality transcendence Scale (Reker & Prabhu, 1989). One-way Analyses of Variances revealed significant differences in total amount of stress experienced as well as spirituality as a function of locality and type of school. It is suggested that in the face of stress teachers are using spirituality as a coping mechanism which in turn, reduces their stress-level. The results are discussed in socio-educational context of Odisha.
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Nutritional status and art adherence of HIV/AIDS orphans: A systematic review
Page 309-315
Shikha Verma and Swaran Lata Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, U.P

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This article systematically reviews the literature pertaining to nutritional status and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) adherence of HIV/AIDS orphans. Studies related to HIV/AIDS orphans belonging to the age group of 0 to 15 yrs, who had lost either or both parents to HIV/AIDS and are cared by non-parents were selected for the purpose of the review. The review indicates that there is low nutritional status of HIV/AIDS orphans and they suffer from various co-morbid infections. They have good ART adherence rate and ART effectively increased their CD4 count and weight. Proper attention medical and health care, nutrition, school-based care, life skills training, sexual and reproductive health awareness, psychological counseling and support interventions are required for improving ART adherence and nutritional status of HIV/AIDS orphans.
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Developmental status of life skills among adolescent girls living in low socio-economic status
Page 316-319
Garima Choudhary and Jatinder K. Gulati Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab

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Adolescence has been labeled as a stage of storm and stress. Life skills are the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. As today's adolescent girls are tomorrow's women, development of appropriate life skills and capabilities among them has prime importance to ensure them to lead quality life. The present study was undertaken to assess the developmental status in terms of selected life skills such as self confidence, interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence and stress management of urban adolescent girls living in low socio-economic conditions. The sample was comprised of 150 adolescent girls aged between 15 to 17 years studying in the government senior secondary schools of Ludhiana City and belonging to low socio economic status. The results revealed that girls having graduate parents and non working mothers, more number of siblings and joint families, possessed greater self confidence, better interpersonal skills, while daughters of matriculate mothers perceived greater stress as well as used more stress coping strategies as compared to their counterparts from other categories.
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Psychological distress in cancer patients and their spouse: A stage-wise and gender-wise analysis
Page 320-324
Bijender Singh Department of Psychology, M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana, India

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The following study is focused analyzing the psychological distress in Cancer patients and their spouse. It also found out a stage wise and gender wise analysis of psychological stress. For this study a sample of 80 participants was taken, out of them 40 were patients and 40 were their spouse. Major findings were that there is a significant difference in psychological distress among male and female in 1st stage cancer and also that psychological distress was found more in males in 1st stage and more in females in 2nd stage. The results can further help in enhancing coping mechanism of both patents and their spouse.
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The relation between early attachment experience and adult interpersonal relationships
Page 325-327
Sunita Tiwari and Pooja Garg, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttrakhand

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According to Bowlby, early attachment experiences with parents provide prototypes for later interpersonal relationships outside the family. The basic premise of the study is based on early childhood experiences that people develop general expectations about relationships. Then once formalized into mental structures, these beliefs are resistant to changes and have implications for the nature of one's relationships across the life span. In the present study, the relation between the early attachment experiences with parents and adult interpersonal relationships (love and friendship relationships) were examined. The sample comprises of 100 married college students (50 females and 50 males). Parental Attachment Questionnaire (PAQ) was used to assess the subject's perception about their parents' attitude towards them and their relationship with their father and mother. QRI (Quality of relationship inventory) was used for the assessment of love and for friendship relationships. The results supported the hypothesis that early parent-child attachment experience is significantly related to adult interpersonal relationship.
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Personality, readjustment and stress of migrant students
Page 328-330
Anjali Kedari, Department of Psychology Abeda Inamdar Senior College, Pune and Shobhana Abhyankar, Department of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune, Maharashtra

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The awareness that migrating for gaining education may bring about wellness and enhanced quality is reflected in the exponentially increasing number of young adults migrating for higher education. Migration, being a process of change, has an impact on physical, psychological and academic life. Often these changes are so drastic that the students face many challenges in completing their education. Several factors are involved in the process of readjustment as well as that of health and well being of migrant students. Out of these factors personality, stress and readjustment of migrant students were selected. A sample of 210 migrant students, age ranging from 18-22 years (mean age = 20.4 years), pursuing non professional courses from various colleges in Pune city was selected. Tools used to test hypothesis were NEO-FFI, Stress Symptoms scale and Readjustment Scale. Neuroticism has significant positive correlation with readjustment (r = .313, p < .01) as well as that with stress symptoms (r = .313, p < .01). Extraversion has a significant negative relationship with readjustment that (r = -.280, p < .05). The rest of the Personality factors, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness do not have significant correlations with readjustment. Readjustment and Stress symptoms have a significant positive relationship (r = .600, p < .01).
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Adjustment of the college students among urban and rural area in Jammu dstrict
Page 331-334
Saima Hafiz Department of Psychology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab

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The present study aims to find out the difference in level of adjustment of college students in relation to their gender and area of living. The sample consisted of 60 college students out of which 30 participants were from urban area and 30 from rural area. The data were analyzed by using t-test to obtain mean differences between college students. The result shows that there is significant difference in adjustment of males and females and also in terms of area of living i.e. urban and rural. The surroundings in which adolescents live have an important impact on the personality of an individual. These environments interact with the characteristics of adolescents to procreate contrasting levels of adjustment. Adjustment is an important tool for the survival of each and every organism.
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Taste alteration in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: Iraqi study
Page 334-337
Fakhria J. Muhabes and Shatha Saadi Mohammed College of Nursing, University of Babylon, Hillah, Iraq

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A comparative study was carried out between two groups (50) patients with cancer who were not taking chemotherapy and others (50) patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy ( C T ) .They were compared regarding the effect of chemotherapy on taste sensation and its impact on the nutritional status of the patients. The study carried out in Morgan teaching hospital, oncology department. Questionnaires weredeveloped afterliteratures review andresearch related to this subject. Data were collected through the use of questionnaires which were completed by the researchers during patient's interview, and patients were asked if they felt taste alteration after tasted the four samples of food, sweet, salt, sour and bitter. A non- probability (purposive) sample which was consisted of (50) cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with other (50) patients withcancer. The study showed a general reduction in the appreciation of various food items and primary taste following chemotherapy. The study recommended that a specific food intake should be encouraged for patients,patients also should be advised to avoid food which may cause irritation to mucusmembraneof themouth to achieve a reasonable nutritional status.
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A comparative study of aggression in state and district level sports persons of Haryana (body builders)
Page 338-340
Deepika, Harish and Neha Jain Department of Psychology, M. D. University, Rohtak, Haryana

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The present study was aimed at studying a comparative study of aggression in State and District level sports persons of Haryana. (Body Builders) was measured with the help of aggression questionnaire by G.C. Pati (1977). Total sample of the study comprised of 100 sports persons (Body Builders) were consisted in which Group I consisted of 50 sports person of District Level. The Group II consisted of 50 sports person of State Level. Obtained data analyzed with the help of t-test. Result showed no significant difference between state and district level sports person (Body Builders) on aggression has been supported. Results have been discussed in the light of previous studies.
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Knowledge, attitude and practice of parents regarding immunization at a tertiary care hospital of Rohtak city
Page 341-343
Ravi Yadav, Vaswani, N.D., Alok Khanna, Pooja Tripathi and Aditi Singh Department of Pediatrics, Pt. B.D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences Rohtak, Haryana and Brain Kumar Department of Pediatrics Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi

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One of the best indicators for public health outcome and service is the immunization rates of the country. Knowledge of parents regarding immunization is one of the key factor affecting immunization rates in the society. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge attitude and practice of parents regarding immunization and its correlation with the immunization status of the child. A cross-sectional study was done in the immunization room of a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak city to evaluate immunization KP of parents from 12 Jan 2015 to 20 Jan 2015 who came for immunization of their child. A total of 104 parents were interviewed by using a predesigned questionnaire. Out of 104 parents interviewed 73 have got their child fully immunized .63%children were from urban areas. Children with highly educated mothers were more likely to miss their immunization schedule. Local health care workers were the prime source of information regarding immunization services. Child's health status was most important factor in missing immunization doses at specified time. Negative attitude of parents was the most important factor affecting the immunization status of the child. Mother's age, education, working status, socioeconomic status do not significantly affected the immunization pattern. Aggressive information dissemination and involvement of family are crucial for achieving higher immunization rates in the society.
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A study of sexual harassment and coping behavior
Page 344-349
Aparna Pathak, Department of Psychology, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, U.P.

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This article attempts to explore whether sexual harassment and unwanted sexual attention from strangers in public is a frequent experience for women. The Supreme Court's definition of sexual harassment includes “such unwelcome sexually determined behaviour (whether directly or by implication) as physical contact and advances; a demand or request for sexual favours; sexually coloured remarks; showing pornography; any other unwelcome physical, verbal or non verbal conduct of sexual nature”. These include comments, jokes, whistling, filmi songs, continuously phoning a person. Gender harassment involves degradation of women at the group level such as making jokes about women as a group or posting pictures of women as sex objects. Unwanted sexual attention involves degradation of women at the individual level, such as treating a woman as a sex object by sending her dirty emails, grabbing her inappropriately, or leering at her. Harassment coping responses fall into four categories: (a) advocacy seeking recruiting formal support from organizational authorities; (b) social copingmobilizing emotional support and advice from trusted others; (c) avoidance/denialavoiding the harassing situation physically (e.g., avoiding the harasser's workstation) or cognitively (e.g., denying the seriousness of the situation); and (d) confrontation/ negotiationdirectly requesting or insisting that the offensive behavior cease.
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Integrated value-based intervention for opioid de-addiction: Introduction and rationale
Page 350-353
Gagandeep Kaur and Senthil Kumaran J. Department of Applied Psychology, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab

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Changing shades of life in the contemporary world gave way to idyllic as well as harmful life style in individuals. One of the modern world's evils is drug abuse and intensified addiction. Governments all over the world dispatch constant efforts to reduce the drug trafficking by enacting strict laws and enforcing the same. But the corruption of human resource is still high due to drug addictions and the positive potentials of individuals are stunted. Opioid addiction is one such that is characterized by the inability to discontinue opiate abuse and it is a constellation of physiological, behavioral and cognitive phenomena with severe intensity. Medical treatments are preferred in first place to detoxify an addicted individual. However, researchers indicated the effectiveness of psychotherapy after detoxification with various psychotherapeutic approaches in preventing the relapse. It has been proved that positive psychotherapy with a strength-based perspective is not only helping to reduce the drug dependence level but also to enhance the individual potentials. Deriving facts from the studies conducted so far, this conceptual paper aims at proposing a new “Value based psychotherapeutic intervention” with its rationale. This intervention utilizes positive psychotherapy by integrating three techniques viz., a) Religious chanting, b) Yoga exercises and c) Systematic counseling. The intervention is designed so that it enhances the cognitive, affective, behavioural and bodily strengths to recover from opioid addiction with minimal relapse conditions. Also, it is proposed that aim of this intervention is to help the Opioid-Detoxified Clients (ODCs) progress into Optimal Functioning Individuals (OFIs) by making them Intervention-Responding Clients (IRCs) and if applicable, by addressing the needs of Intervention Non-Responding Clients (INRCs).
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Swine Flu: An overview of recent outbreak in India
Page 354-356
Vinod Chayal and Pardeep Khanna, Department of Community Medicine, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, Pooja, Medical Officer, Health Department, Haryana, Anuradha, Medical Officer, Indian Army, Mukesh Nagar, Medical Officer, VMMC & Safadarjang Hospital, New Delhi and Shweta Goswami, Department of Community Medicine, KPC Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata

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Influenza Subtype A has caused various pandemics; in 1918-19 Spanish flu [A (H1N1)], Asian Flu [A (H2N2)] 1957-59, Hongkong Flu [A (H3N2)] 1968-69 and “Swine Flu” [A (H1N1)] 2009-10. H1N1 flu virus causes respiratory illness in people, affecting the nose, throat and lungs. Influenza can be transmitted through airborne route by droplets from infected human beings or direct contact or contact with fomites. Agent H1N1 influenza derives Segments from four influenza viruses; North American Swine, North American Avian, Human Influenza and Eurasian Swine. Pigs Infected with Influenza virus from different host of human or bird origin may act as “mixing vessel” which may lead to reassortment of influenza genes and can create a new strain of influenza virus. Subtype A of Influenza virus can Undergo mutation that can take place within the genome (Antigenic drift) / or re-assortment among the genetic materials of subtypes (Antigenic Shift) resulting in a new virus. Antigenic analyses of the recent circulating A (H3N2) viruses have shown differences from the A (H3N2) virus used in the influenza vaccines for 20142015. Recently, countries in Northern Africa, Middle East, and India reported an increase in influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 activity. The predominant strain in western countries has been seasonal influenza A (H3N2) where as in India the California strain of 2009 is prevailing. It has been reported that the recent 2014-2015 H1N1A outbreak in India has resulted in >30,000 cases with over 2000 deaths. These recent spurt of cases and deaths which was even higher than the original H1N1 2009 outbreak in India resulted in a widespread debate that this strain H1N1A 2009 has mutated or not. Improved surveillance and monitoring of the influenza outbreak is need of the hour to both treat as well as prevent spread of the virus. Due to better connectivity world over and high infectious nature of influenza, there is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive and a standardized response to in
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