1.Prevalence and Associates of Hypertension among Tirupati Urban Adults, Andhra Pradesh

By: Anwar Basha Dudekula, Jesoth Lalu Naik, Reddy KSN, Reddy KK and Papa Rao A Dept. of Anthropology, Sri Venkateswara University Tirupati  Show abstract Details

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Introduction: Reliable information on the prevalence of hypertension is crucial in the development of health policies for the prevention, early diagnosis, and control of this condition. This study describes the prevalence of hypertension among the Tirupati adult population of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India, and identifies correlates associated with it. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Tirupati Municipal Corporation. The study included 271 adults who reside in this area and who were 20 years old or older. The subjects were evaluated through one-hour interviews at their homes. After each subject was interviewed, three consecutive blood pressure measurements were conducted. The data were analyzed by proportions, F-ratios, chi-square tests, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Sixty-five of the 271 subjects (24%) were found to have hypertension. Among the 65 subjects with hypertension, 54 (83.1%) were aware of their hypertension and were undergoing treatment for the condition. However, among the 54 subjects being treated, only 31 subjects (57.4%) had satisfactory control of their hypertension. A higher prevalence of hypertension was found among subjects who had a BMI greater than 25, were 40 years old or older, had a family history of hypertension, had a history of previous cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events, had diabetes, smoked, drank alcoholic beverages, and consumed excess salt. A comparatively higher prevalence was found among males, subjects whose diets were non-vegetarian, people with high saturated fat intake, and subjects who did not engage in physical exercise. Conclusions: Despite treatment, most of the hypertensives had not achieved satisfactory control of blood pressure. Health education programs are needed to teach the public how to control the various risk factors associated with hypertension.  hide

2.Impact of Psychological Factors on Preterm Birth

By: Deepika Sharma PhD Scholar Deptt of HDFS I.C College of Home Science CCSHAU, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 weeks of pregnancy . There are numerous factors that place a woman at higher risk for preterm labor or birth and one of these factors are psychological factors. Psychological factors affect the psychology of pregnant women such as stress, anxiety and depression were reported to be main psychological causes for preterm birth and that has been studied by many researchers. Researches have found that women who had one or more highly stressful life events had a high risk of preterm birth.(Hedequard et al.1996, Rodrigue and Rondo 2007) Family support system was found to be positively associated with occurrence of preterm birth means where good family support existed, chances of preterm birth reduces. Studies showed that pregnant women with low social support reported increased depressive symptoms & reduced quality of life. (Bryce 1988, Federenko & Wadhwa 2004). According to multivariate factors, the preterm birth was caused by less education, low socio economic status, low income, single marital status & life style factors. It can be reduced by giving well education & good economic & social support. The researchers reported that multivariate factors increases the risk of pregnancy outcome.(Paalberg 1995, Peacock 1996, Rahman 1998, Kramer 2001, Carlini 2002).  hide

3.Assessment of Toxic Effects of Trace Metals on Human Health Present in Drinking Water

By: Dr Harendra Kumar, Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Moradabad Institute of Technology, U.P. (INDIA).  Show abstract Details

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Trace elements are inherent parts of soil, but they may also be introduced through irrigation water, fertilizers, soil amendments, waste disposal and atmospheric fallout. Soil is the starting point of the human food chain. Trace elements accumulated in or depleted from soils may cause nutrient deficiency or toxicity to growing plants, transfer of potentially toxic elements from soil to consumers and degradation of downstream water quality. The role of water is continuing to gain recognition for its importance in health and disease. Organic contaminants, such as chlorinated hydro carbons, insecticides or toxic heavy metals have adverse health consequences. In the present study, an effort has been made to see the toxic effects of trace metals on human health in certain areas of Moradabad. It was observed that diseases like diarrhoea, reproductive failure, infertility, disruption of nervous system, allergy in skin, nose, ulcer, respiratory problem, kidney & liver damage, cancer, rise in blood pressure, miscarriages, brain damage were found in the area due to rise in concentration of Cadmium, Chromium and Lead  hide

4.Psychology in Leadership

By: Krishnaveer Abhishek Challa Studying Electrical Engineering at BTH, Sweden  Show abstract Details

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By what personal characteristics does a leader find himself or herself guiding a group, and from what motivations? Is it because of ambition, a desire for social recognition, a sense of duty, the will to leave an inheritance of knowledge, or is it the instinctive challenge against disease and difficulties? Is it because of all, none, or just a few of these factors? In this paper I would like to describe the characteristics that define a leader and point out some major factors that make a leader  hide

5.Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents: Negative Effects

By: P Jayanthi Student, MSc (Previous), Department of Psychology University of Madras, Chennai  Show abstract Details

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According to Erik Erikson, adolescence is the age in which people must set up an identity to escape identity diffusion and confusion. At this age, adolescents give much importance to their friends who have a power over them. This phenomenon is called “peer pressure.” Oxford English Dictionary defines peer pressure as the influence from members of the same group. One may think of many kinds of peer pressure that may have a positive or negative aspect. Peer group is a term commonly used by psychologists to describe people of a similar age, often when talking about adolescents. There is peer pressure in different ages and different places. For instance, workers at the same factory have peer pressure which is positive because each one of them tries to do his or her best at work. There is peer pressure among small kids; they try to do the same gestures and have the same toys and there is also peer pressure in ethnic groups. Finally, there is peer pressure among adolescents which is the most important kind since it influences the adolescents’ personality and intervenes in the development of their morality  hide

6.Estimation of Pre-Diabetes in Urban Adults of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh

By: Jesoth Lalu Naik, Anwar Basha Dudekula, Reddy KSN, Reddy KK and Papa Rao A Dept. of Anthropology, Sri Venkateswara University Tirupati-517 502-Chittoor Dist-INDIA  Show abstract Details

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Background: The incidence of diabetes is continuously increasing worldwide. Pre-diabetes represents an intermediate state, which often to overt diabetes within a few years.Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the pre-diabetes in the adults of Tirupati urban, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 9 months. A total 245 subjects were taken for the study between the age group of 20-40 years. Fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test was done and samples were estimated for different risk factors. The data was collected and analyzed in percentage. Results: 38(15.4%) subjects were in pre-diabetes stage (Impaired fasting blood glucose 30 (12.2%), Impaired glucose tolerance 8(3.26%) and with both features 6(2.4%)). Apart from the familial history, elevated triglycerides levels, BMI and decreased levels of HDL was found to be leading risk factors prevailing in the subjects studied (N=245).Conclusion: 15.4% of the subjects were found to be prediabetic. All the pre-diabetics are identified as male subjects. It was found that in more than 50% of the subjects apart from family history hypertriglyceridemia, BMI and low levels of HDL cholesterol were elevated.  hide

7.Work life of Teachers of Jammu province (Jammu and Kashmir State): Is there any Gender Difference?

By: Piyali Arora, Deptt. of Psychology, Rubina Yasmeen, Ramjan Ali, and C.L. Shivgotra, Deptt. of Education, Govt. College of Education, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir  Show abstract Details

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Popularly believed that teaching is a stress-free vocation may not be true in real sense, teaching actually can be demanding, creating stressful conditions for the teachers. The impact may differ between the male and female teachers. The present study was designed to examine the experience of work life of male and female teachers of Jammu province. Methods: 100 in-service teachers (50 male and 50 female) of different Government (primary, middle and secondary) schools were studied, undergoing one year B.Ed course in Government College of Education, Jammu. Teachers were assessed on ‘occupational stress index’, ‘quality of life scale’, and ‘social adjustment inventory’. Results and Conclusion: Female teacher’s reflected greater occupational stress, poor quality of life and poor social adjustment compared to male teachers.  hide

8.Attitude of Teachers towards the Use of Technology

By: Poonam Sawhney, P.K.R. Jain (P.G.) College of Education, Ambala City, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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“Instruction ends in school room, but education ends only life.” The quality of the learning in derided by the quality of teachers and by the way the teachers engage the learners in their class room. So class room teaching demands more innovation and improvisation in the new millennium. In recent years there has been a groundswell of interest in how computers and the internet can best be harnessed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of education at all levels. Now ICT is playing a remarkable role in the education sector. Finding that access to digital communication technology has made learning more interesting and boythe, this study was undertaken to identify the attitude of secondary school teachers towards the use of technology in their classroom, and to study the influence of sex, locality, teaching experience and type of management of school towards use of technology.  hide

9.Creativity among B.Ed Students of Nandyal Town in Relation to their Achievement Motivation

By: M.Rajendra Nath Babu, Research Scholar and Prof V.Dayakara Reddy, Head, Dept of Education, S.V.University, Tirupati A.P  Show abstract Details

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Creativity is an asset to any nation, which needs creative scientists, engineers, economists, poets, painters, musicians etc. Development and progress in different areas of national life depends on creative children. Creativity is the main source of emergence and development of human culture. A creative person is the product of a number of abilities and favorable personality traits. The study was conducted on B.Ed students to study their creativity in relation to their achievement motivation with respect to their gender and locality in Nandyal Town. Sample comprised of 200B.Ed students in Nandyal Town .The Rao achievement motivation test developed by Dr.D.Gopal Rao, NCERT was used for the present study. Mean, SD, and t-test were used for the analysis of the data.  hide

10.Emotional stability, Self Concept and Insecurities among adolescents rape victims

By: Sanjeeda and Sushma Suri  Show abstract Details

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Rape is truly a violation of one’s mind and soul. Most common rape experience is one in which a betrayal of trust accompanies with physical violence, shattering of the victim’s emotional stability and self-esteem and feeling of hopelessness and self blame. An attack by a stranger might cause different adjustment problems, for instance than an attack by a person with whom the victim has had some close relationship. Therefore focus of peresent research paper is studying the emotional stability, self concept and insecurities among two different types of adeloscent rape victims i.e. victim with known perpetrator and victim with unknown perpetrator. For the purpose 50 rape victims from different sheltor homes, NGOs and residential areas of delhi were taken as a sample of the study. Emotional stability test by Gupta and Singh (1985), Self concept inventory by Mohsin (1979) and Security-insecurity inventory by Mohsin (1979) was used in order to get the data. An informal interwiew was used to obtain, an overall understanding of the trauma. Demographic information, miseries and critical concern of the victims were also noted down. Results of the study indicated that victim in both groups shows almost similar type of emotional instaility while victims with known perpetrator have found to be low self concept and more insecurities in comparison to other groups. The paper concludes rape victim are likely to experience a negative social responses like police harassment, parental rejection, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage implying that rape victims need support to recover. Further studies should include coping strategies and intervention.  hide

11.Workplace Effect on Job Satisfaction in College Teachers

By: Dr.(Mrs) Sarwat Jabeen Asst.Prof.,Dept. of Psychology,Nirmala College, Ranchi,Jharkhand  Show abstract Details

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This research paper examines the main and interaction workplace effects on types of educational institutions under universities and gender on job satisfaction in college teachers. Using personal data questionnaire and job satisfaction scale, data were collected from a stratified random sample of 160 college teachers, the stratification was based on types of colleges (constituent/affiliated) and gender (male/female).The study was done in the graduate college of Ranchi district. Teachers of graduate college were selected for comparative study. To understand the workplace effect on job satisfaction in the field of education and to determine the gender differences. The sample size was 40 from each college. Then a significant test was conducted to check the two groups of institutions and gender. Null hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis was selected for the study. Analysis of data based on F test revealed that constituent college teachers as compared to affiliated college teachers were more satisfied with their job and it was found that female teachers as compared to male teachers were, by and large more satisfied with their jobs.  hide

12.Role of Psychosocial factor on pregnancy outcome

By: Seema PhD Scholar Dept of HDFS I.C College of Home Science CCSHAU, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transition from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. The causes of preterm birth are stress, depression & anxiety. A review exercise regarding stress, anxiety & depression reveal the risk factor for preterm birth (Gollan, Grobman, Border 2011, Searight , Handal 2007, Reagan, Salsberry 2004 , Hobel, Culhane 2003, Mamelle 2003). Other causes of preterm birth are psychosocial factor that show association with preterm birth which has been established by the researches carried out by Evans 2007, Kramer, Rodrigue 2009, Khashan 2008, Peacock 1995, Latendresse 2009, Lopez 2002, Wilhelm 2011, Ghosh 2009, Leht 2007). Life style issues have effect of preterm outcomes showed by many researchers (Lindstrom, lindblad, Hjern 2004, Cristofalo 2011, Karatzias 2007, Marlow, Wolke, Bracewell, Samara 2005, Rayman, Wijmen, Vader, Kooistra, Pop 2008).  hide

13.General Wellbeing of the elderly and Perceived Caregiving Burden of their family caregivers in Ranchi District

By: Dr. Shriti Choudhary, Head, Dept of Psychology, R L S Y College, Ranchi, and Anjani Jyoti Toppo, RGNF fellow, Dept of Psychology, Ranchi University, Ranchi  Show abstract Details

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The elderly in India accounted for 5.7% in 1990, estimated to reach 12.6% in 2020 and with 13% of the total population. India will have the second largest greying population in the world by 2025.(Chadha and Easwasamoorthy, 1993). Majority of them 70% will be fully dependent on productive population with a need of economic support and responsible caregiving. The relationship of elders with their caregivers and the caregiving burden has emerged as a vital field of investigation affecting the psychology of everyday life. In this backdrop, the present study attempts to measure the general wellbeing of the elderly and perceived caregiving burden of their family caregivers. The study aims to assess the wellbeing of male and female elderly and see the impact of place of residence on their wellbeing. As the wellbeing of the elderly is directly related with the caregiving burden, the present study also attempts to measure the caregiving burden of their family caregivers. Data have been collected using PGI General Well Being Measure by Verma, S. K. and Verma, A. (2005) and Perceived Caregiving Burden Scale by Gupta, R. (2007). A purposive sample of 120 elderly, stratified randomly on the basis of gender (male/female) and place of residence (rural/urban) was taken for the study. It was found that rural female elderly scored more on Well Being Measure than their male counterpart, whereas urban males scored higher than the females. On total Wellbeing Measure the male sample had a better wellbeing than the female. As far as the caregiving burden is concerned, it was found negatively correlated with the wellbeing of the elders. Higher the wellbeing lower was the perceived caregiving burden. Urban caregivers perceived more burden than the rural ones. In rural setting, financial burden was highest, whereas sense of entrapment was higher in urban caregivers. The study recommends improvement in the wellbeing of the elderly for minimising the caregiving burden.  hide

14.Status of Women, Decision-making and Fertility Behavior

By: Dr. Avineni Swarnalatha, Dept. of Population Studies, S.P.W.Degree & P.G.College, Tiupati  Show abstract Details

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The concept of status of women is a complex factor which has several dimensions. Women empowerment when encouraged will affect not only women’s autonomy but also will increase their worth participation in family decision making including reproductive decisions. Women’s decision making play an important role in determining her reproductive health and fertility bhaviour. Fertility control like most other family decisions is not always an individual affair but involved co-operation, discussions and joint decision making among couples. This article is an attempt to explore the relationship between women’s decision making and fertility behavior among working and non-making women of 15-49 years in Tirupati town of Chittoor District in Andhra Pradesh. Results from the data presented in this paper confirmed that the changing roles of the women in the society through education and employment will increase their status in the home as well as in society which in turn reduces their fertility.  hide

15.Adolescents with Mental Disorders: Current Trends in Caring

By: Dr. Uma Rani Asst.Prof in Psychology, SPW Degree & PG College, Tirupati, AP  Show abstract Details

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The lack of attention to the mental health of adolescents may lead to mental disorders with lifelong consequences, undermines compliance with health regimens, and reduces the capacity of societies to be safe and productive. Contemporary recognition of child and adolescent mental disorders and advances in the care of adolescents with mental disorders provide an incentive to synthesize current knowledge, identify issues for future exploration, and consider appropriate policies. The magnitude of the burden of disease related to adolescent mental disorders is understood by clinicians and parents, but has until recently been difficult to quantify. Now, with world-wide crises involving children impacted by war, exploited for labor and sex, orphaned by AIDS, and forced to migrate for economic and political reasons the dimensions of the burden of compromised mental health and mental disorders are increasingly evident and quantifiable. Adolescent mental disorders can be considered from a number of perspectives.  hide

16.Effect of Socio-Economic Status and Birth Order on Moral Values Mediated by Parent-Child Relationship

By: Devika Duggal, University of Delhi, Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Understanding the relevance of moral values in everyday life is critical. Values are an indispensible quality, being subjective, fraught with feelings and regulative. While some values are impersonal and collective, it is difficult to delineate exactly what contributes to their development and in what quantity in individuals. Therefore, the present study’s objective is to understand whether socio-economic status and birth order predicts the development and perception of moral values mediated by parent-child relationship. The above variables were chosen as understanding the effect of the family dynamic on moral values is of importance as it sets precedence for later socialization. An Indian student sample was taken comprising of an equal number of participants from middle and high socio-economic status. The groups were then studied on the basis of their birth order, i.e. youngest, eldest and only children while simultaneously analyzing effects of the mediating factor, parent-child relationship. The study was quantitative in nature, where the value scale aimed at measuring six basic motives in personality, the theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political and religious. The results indicated an impact of socio-economic status on religious value where the middle socio-economic group displayed a higher degree of religiosity. Additionally, analyzing the results according to birth order showed that the eldest children displayed a much higher political value (“power” value) than the only and youngest children. Finally, a good parent-child relationship mediated overall higher levels of morality. The current trend of globalization as well as the recent upward mobility of the two groups may lead to more similar perceptions of moral values. On the other hand, the significance of the family structure and function clearly cannot be overlooked. This may lead to a more holistic attitude towards development of morality and may direct further research on the factors leading to it.  hide

17.Relationship between marital adjustment and socio-cultural determinants

By: Navshad Ahmad Wani* Kaiser Ahmad Dar** Riyaz Yaqoob Wani*** *Assistant Professor at Govt. College for Women M. A. Road Srinagar, Kashmir, **Research Scholar at Department of Psychology Jamia Millia I  Show abstract Details

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The quest for happiness and joy in humans leads to marriage. Marriage is a lifelong interpersonal relationship between man and woman as husband and wife governed by legal, religious and customary principles. When spouses get along with each other to achieve harmonious working relationship in different areas of their marital life, adjustment is achieved. Hence, the present study was aimed at studying how socio-cultural determinants determine marital adjustment. Three dimensions of marital adjustment- sexual, social and emotional were studied in three groups, viz., husbands, wives, and couples. Sample comprised 150 participants, 50 each in three groups. Marital adjustment was measured by Marital Adjustment Questionnaire (MAQ) developed by Dr Pramod Kumar and Dr (Km) Kanchana Rohtagi. F-value revealed that the entire three groups scored significantly higher on social and emotional dimension of marital adjustment where as no significant difference was found on sexual dimension. Moreover, the three groups differed significantly when compared on all the three dimensions of marital adjustment together.  hide

18.Adult Age differences in exogenous orienting of Vigilance task performance

By: Richa Singh and Anurag Upadhayay, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology Vasanta College for Women, Rajghat Fort, Varanasi  Show abstract Details

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Attention plays crucial role in our daily life activities. Variety of behavioral inefficiencies during old age may result due to age related changes in attention. Among cognitive changes which accompany healthy ageing, changes in attentional ability is the fundamental one. Vigilance performance tends to decline as the age increases. Orienting attention towards a particular location leads to better processing of information at that location thereby improving performance. Previous studies have shown improvement in vigilance performance when the paradigm of orienting was combined with vigilance. Present study examined the age difference in vigilance performance when the attention was oriented exogenously, using spatial cueing paradigm. Cues were presented at peripheral location at stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 300ms. Target and non-target was the square of size 3.3 cm 3.0 cm respectively. The participant’s task was to pay attention to the cue and then to make a speeded decision about the presence or absence of the target by pressing the response key. A 2 (Age Group: Young and Old) x 3 (Cue validity: valid, invalid and neutral) x 3 (Time period: 3 Blocks of 10 min. each) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure on last two factor. Correct detection (hits), incorrect detection (F.A.) and reaction time were recorded as performance measures. Results revealed that performance was facilitated under valid cue condition for both young and old adults. Overall detection was more for young adults while vigilance decrement was more for older adults than young adults. It further indicated qualitative difference on vigilance performances in young and old adults.  hide

19.Influence of Family Climate, Relations with Peers and Adjustment on Adolescents’ Well- Being

By: Aditi Sharma, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan  Show abstract Details

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The present study aims to find out how the family climate, relations with peers and adjustment with others influence the overall personality and well- being of adolescents. The sample of 100 adolescents (25 boys and 25 girls from Government schools and 25 boys and 25 girls from public schools) was taken who were the students of 11th and 12th standard from various streams and administered on the Dimensions of Friendship Scale (DFS) by Sunanda Chandna (Delhi) and N.K. Chadha (Delhi), Adjustment Inventory for School Students by A.K.P. Sinha and R.P. Singh and Family Climate Scale by Dr. Beena Shah. Data interpretation of Government and public school students on the peer group relations shows that on the dimension of enjoyment, trust, mutual assistance, understanding and spontaneity the students of Government and public schools do not differ significantly but on the dimension of acceptance and confiding they show significant difference. No significant difference is seen on the adjustment dimension. On the family climate variable significant difference is seen. Family climate of public school students is better than government school students.  hide

20.Individual difference and SSAT performance

By: Anurag Upadhyay, Department of Psychology Banaras Hindu University, Richa Singh, Department of Psychology Vasanta College for Women, Rajghat Fort, Varanasi and Indramani Lal Singh, Professor and form  Show abstract Details

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The topic of vigilance behavior in today’s work setting such as air traffics control (ATC), industrial quality control, sonar and radar operations etc. is gaining much importance among cognitive neuroscientists, academicians, researches as well as psychologists. Like other cognitive capacities, the capacity to sustain attention i.e. vigilance, has been considered to represent a limited resource. This is regarded as the most important determinant of the vigilance decrement. The majority of investigators report large individual differences in susceptibility to decrement. Thus, personality has been found to affect vigilance performance across time periods, besides other individual difference factors. Extraversion and introversion is the central dimension of human personality which differs from each other in terms of cortical arousal level. Researches demonstrated that introverts, who had high level of arousal, showed less decrement function than extraverts, having low activation. But in several experimental studies hypothesized of greater decrement for extraverts was not supported. Moreover, the pattern of vigilance decrement changed with the time of day. Thus, as the technical development is growing rapidly, it has become increasingly necessary to examine how vigil function changes with personality type and task demand and to understand the extent to which these changes can affect their functioning. The researches on the personality aspect, until recently, have been limited in scope while it plays important role in predicting decline reactions during vigil. The present study examined the relationship of personality and sustained task performance. The experiment was conducted on 30 students of Banaras Hindu University (M±SD=22.35year±2.55). Participants were classified as introverts (N = 15) and extraverts (N = 15) based on their EPQ-R score. Performances in terms of correct and incorrect detection were collected. The experimental task comprised of two squares one of 3.5 cm. (target) and another of 3.3 cm (non-target). The task continued for 40 min. Target and non-target ratio was 1:4. The target probability was 20 percent. Participants were required to detect infrequently occurring critical signals. The task was designed on SuperLab (Cedrus, 2007 Version 4.0) and displayed on a 15” SVGA colour monitor of a Pentium IV computer. The overall mean correct detection performance (hits) indicated that introvert participants detected more targets (signals) (M = 88.74%, SD = 14.25%) than extravert participants (M = 75.48%, SD = 19.92%) on vigilance task. Results of personality components revealed that introverts were significantly related to performance efficiency during the task compare to extraverts. Present finding explains the importance of the individual difference factor in reducing the variability in performance which protects declination in vigil. Further the results support an arousal theory perspective in regards to the vigilance decrement.  hide

21.Suicide: A burning issue in the present-day world

By: Aparna Vyas, Post graduate in Psychology, G.D.H.G.College Moradabad  Show abstract Details

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The present paper focuses on increasing suicidal behavior among people in the present- day world. In the face of cut throat competition and under the tremendous pressure to succeed in every walk of life, the fear to be treated as a failure drives many people to attempt suicide so the situation demands immediate attention. Especially, the issue of the rising trend of suicides among children and adolescents is absolutely essential to be dealt with as the future of the society depends on them. Age group differences, gender disparities, risk factors and warning signs of suicidal behavior have been discussed in the light of recent studies and findings. Most importantly, the paper draws attention to the urgent need of spreading awareness about the intervention strategies aimed at preventing suicide and promoting mental health and well-being.  hide

22.Behavioristic Explanation of the Quality of the Formation of Citizens’ General Trust in Assistance Organizations in Post-Disaster Situations

By: Bazyarizadeh  Show abstract Details

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Disasters are more frequently occurring throughout the world due to the global warming and the climate changes caused by that, along with population growth and depletion of resources, especially non-renewable energy resources. the complexity of the disasters and the occurrence of complex disasters are also increasing, among which are the recent tsunami in Japan and the nuclear consequences in fukushima. hence, managing the disasters in its traditional meaning does no longer meet the requirements of the new conditions and the necessity of a fundamental reconsideration in the crisis management structure is felt more than ever, in order to improve capability to take more effective measures against the disasters of the current century which are rapidly getting complex. the principal basis of the modern crisis management is the voluntary public participation of people which necessitates existence of mutual ties between the masses from different social classes and official assistance organizations. development of a mutual effective relationship between these two important components of disaster management depends on the mutual trust process between them. this process is formed in the course of time and based on psychological mechanisms. Formation of mutual trust is explicable through several approaches and perspectives. Behaviorism possesses appropriate capacities to clarify and explain the formation of mutual trust process which relies on the principles of learning and types of conditioning. the author of this paper aims for presenting a behavioristic explanation to clarify the quality of the formation of this mutual trust and to practically use the obtained paradigm, which this in turn aims for establishment, maintenance and reconstruction of mutual trust between the citizens of the disaster-stricken societies and official assistance organizations, and establishment and maintenance of trust-based mutual ties, and effective attraction of the citizens’ active organized participation in disaster management through new participatory approaches.  hide

23.Quality of Community Life and Stress

By: Sunny, M. and Bharathi Kumari  Show abstract Details

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The study was conducted on an incidental sample of 20 naga 20 kuki and 20 meitei [30 -50years]from Manipur. The main hypothesis of the study is to assess the difference in the quality of community life and stress in tribal (Naga and Kuki) and nontribal (Metei) groups. The level of education is graduation and above graduation. Quality of community life [Bela et al 2005] scale and psychological stress scale[2005] were administered to the sample, The results indicated significant difference between Kukis and Meiteis in community effort for stimulation, relatives and social discrimination. The Meiteis has obtained significantly higher mean than Kukis. The Meiteis has obtained significantly higher mean than Nagas in social discrimination. None of the t values are significant.  hide

24.Personality Profile for Drug Addicts and Non-Addicts in Mizo-Population

By: Naorem Binita Devi Assistant Professor Department of Psychology Mizoram University  Show abstract Details

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In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the personality profiles of drug-addicts and non-addicts. The main research objective is “to find out the personality traits of drug addicts and non-addicts of Mizo populations.” For this study, the investigator randomly selected 50 Drug-addicts(male) and 50 non-addicts(male ) ranging the age level of 25-45 yrs from the Mizo-population. All the selected samples were administered 16 PF (form E) individually. The results obtained were analyzed with the help of t-test which revealed significant differences between drug-addicts and normal on personality factors except A,F,I,L,M,N. The mean values indicated that drug abusers are capable of concrete thinking, whereas normal are better at abstract thinking. Drug users are found to be affected by feelings but normal in contrast are emotionally stable. Drug abusers are lacking rules, self indulgent. whereas normal are conforming, moralistic, staid and rule bound. Drug abusers usually have inferiority feelings, dislike occupations with personal contacts, and are not given to keeping in contact with all that is going on around them. Drug abusers are apprehensive whereas the normal are self-assured. Drug abusers are experimenting whereas normal are conservative. The mean value of drug abusers are self sufficient whereas the normal are group-oriented. The drug abusers are undisciplined self-conflict whereas normal are following self-image. In conclusion the investigator suggested to do further study on the intervention n prevention strategy level.  hide

25.Family Environment and Academic Anxiety of School Girls from Govt and Private Schools

By: Sheetal Rajput, Bharathi Kumar and Girija, Jamia Milia Islamia, Delhi  Show abstract Details

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The present study was conducted to assess the family environment and academic Anxiety of school going girls. The sample for the study consists of 30 government school girls and 30 private school girls. All the subjects were selected from 12th standard. The children were administered the family environment scale (Moos and Moos 1974) and academic anxiety scale Singh and Sengupta (1984). The most important findings are as follows. The private school girls have obtained significantly higher mean than the government school children in cohesion and control dimension of family environment. The government school girls have obtained significantly higher mean than the private school girls in achievement orientation, moral religious emphasis and organization. In academic anxiety the government school girls have significantly higher academic anxiety in comparison to private school girls. The correlations between family environment and academic anxiety are low and negative. There is positive correlation between active recreational orientation and academic anxiety in private school girls.  hide

26.Extent of Sexual Abuse and Eve Teasing Experienced by College Going Girls in Chandigarh

By: Manmeet Kaur Reen and Dr.Jagjiwan Kaur Department of Human Development and Family Relations, Govt.Home Science College, Panjab University, India  Show abstract Details

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The present study was conducted to gain an insight into the extent of sexual abuse and eve teasing experienced by college going girls in Chandigarh, India. The study was carried out on a sample of 150 college going girls aged 18-24 years from four different educational institutes of Chandigarh and a self formulated questionnaire was used for the study. The results, using percentages, highlighted that 43% of the college girls report that they have experienced sexual abuse and 65% have experienced eve teasing quite often, mainly in markets (51%) and other public places (28%).Girls report that boys often tease them by touching and passing comments (58%), chasing (33%) and starring at them (31%).Based on the findings of the present work, it was felt that there is a need to educate and orient parents and educators about the importance of sex education in enhancing the reproductive health of adolescents. Therefore, it is suggested that the college administration should establish counselling clinics, focusing also on sex education and reproductive health issues.  hide

27.Predictors of General Health in the Experience of Caregiving among the Caregivers of the Female Mentally Ill

By: Premanand, V, and Behanan, S. E., Department of PG Psychology, St. Agnes Centre For Post Graduate Studies and Research, Mangalore  Show abstract Details

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A woman holds high value in the society and her mental health is as important as her physical health. However, epidemiologic and anthropological data point to different patterns and clusters of psychiatric disorders and psychological distress among women than men. The role of caregivers is highly important to make the process of recovery for female patients better with lesser relapses. A review done by NIMHANS (2011) has revealed that the role of caregivers has been ignored by the District Mental Health Programme in different states of India. The assessment of the needs of the caregivers and the problems they face is of prime significance since it affects the recovery process of the female patients. General Health is one of the needs and problems faced by the caregivers studied over the years by different researchers. Among the variables that influence General Health, Experience of Caregiving has been explored relatively less. Therefore the present study aims to find the predictors of General Health in the Experience of Caregiving among the Caregivers of the female mentally ill patients. The sample consisted of 50 caregivers of female patients who have been diagnosed with Schizophrenia (22), Major Depression (10) and Bipolar Affective Disorder (18). General Health Questionnaire by Goldberg in the 1970’s and the Experience of Caregiving Inventory by Szmukler et. al in 1996 were used to assess the General Health and Experience of Caregiving respectively. Regression Analysis was used to predict General Health from the scores of Experience of Caregiving. The results revealed that Problems with Services predict Somatic Symptoms and Social Dysfunction significantly. The dimension of Loss predicts Anxiety and Insomnia significantly. Depression was found to be predicted by both Problems with Services and Dependency significantly. The findings of this study can prove to be very helpful for the XIIth District Mental Health Programme which aims at providing counselling for the caregivers. The results of this study can be used to make these counselling sessions more problem-focused and solution-focused. Thus, not just the particular symptom of distress in the caregiver can be treated faster, but the problems that are the cause for their symptoms can also be assessed and dealt with.  hide

28.Introversion and Wellbeing associated with Facebook Usage

By: Arti Bakhshi (Professor & Head) Remia Mahajan (Research Scholar), Post Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, J&K  Show abstract Details

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With the advent of new forms of communications comes both positive & negative feedbacks. Social Networking Sites such as Facebook too influence person’s psychological characteristics such as personality & well being. This study investigated the relationship among introversion, well-being & Facebook usage along with the effect of age & gender on that dynamic in a sample of adult student population (N=55) of ages between 16-24 & had been on Facebook for 6 months and more . The Facebook users were required to complete a questionnaire package comprising of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), and the Introversion Scale. Facebook users also completed a Facebook usage questionnaire. Results revealed that personality factors (introversion-extroversion) were not as influential as previous literature would suggest but the well-being was found to be positively related to Facebook usage. The results also indicated that “connecting with friends” is the most influential motive in terms of Facebook use. There were also significant differences in Facebook use in relation with age & gender.  hide

29.ICT and Quality Professional Education

By: Shivani Bindal, Mullana College of Education, Mullana, Ambala and Vaishali Sharma, Research Scholar, Department of Education, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra  Show abstract Details

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is the key for unlocking new possibilities to envision modern education. ICT and e-learning offers a great opportunity to raise educational standards in schools and colleges. Large range of ICT tools is available for teaching and learning. It closes the gap of “Digital Divide” but at the same time it demands involvement of teachers and parents. Schools and colleges will need funding, access and training. Future learning is now focusing on learning beyond the classroom and curriculum. Institutions of learning particularly higher learning need to upgrade their teachers by offering re-training programmes. These are both costly and time consuming. By designing these programmes and content via e-learning methods both time and money are saved. The innovative method is also self promoting as it increases the curiosity level of teachers and students both for self-promotion and career enhancement. With collaborative tools e-learning is moving into virtual classes and virtual communities where the old methods of practice and test have melted into new interactive teaching-learning methodologies. The present paper analyses various e-learning methods and presents how the judicious blend of both traditional and virtual learning environment with special attention to students’ needs and satisfaction can create constructive and creative learners, teaching community and learned society.  hide

30.Enhancing Educational Effectiveness through Teacher’s Professional Development

By: Vaishali Sharma, Research Scholar, Department of Education, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra and Dr Shivani Bindal, Mullana College of Education, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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There are changing times in education system around the world. With the start of the new millennium, many societies are engaging in serious and promising educational reforms. One of the key elements in most of the reforms is the professional development of teachers. Societies are finally acknowledging that teachers are not only one of the variables that need to be changed but they are also the most significant change agents in these reforms. This double role of teachers in educational system – being both subjects and objects of change marks the field of teacher’s professional development a growing and challenging area and the one that has received major attention during the past few years. A school system’s significant asset is its teaching force. The most important investment a school board, administration, and parents can make in a school system is to ensure that teachers continue to learn. The various professional development activities help to enhance confidence level and knowledge of the teachers which ultimately improves students’ learning. Professional development helps to facilitate learning and development among educators, specifically to learn to cope with new and changing roles and new approaches to teaching. It enhances teachers’ capabilities and competencies and enables them to keep abreast of current issues, and helps them implement innovations and refine practices. The present paper will focus on the need and importance of teachers’ professional development in order to enhance educational effectiveness. Professional development of teachers’ plays an important role in equipping schools to meet the challenges facing them. The paper will also highlight the ways to continuing professional development activities  hide

31.Relationship between Emotion regulation and Attachment with parent and peer among adolescents

By: Navreet Kaur and Ruby Charak, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir  Show abstract Details

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The early development of emotion regulation skills are influenced by the quality of the parent-child relationships. When children live in a responsive, consistent environment in which they feel accepted and nurtured, they feel emotionally secure and free to express emotions because they are certain that their emotional needs will be met. Also, another important source of emotional support during the complex transition of adolescence is a young person’s growing involvement with peers. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachments with mother, father and peer among school going adolescents. Cross sectional sample of 200 school going adolescents (120 male and 80 female) in the age range of 15-17 years was collected through purposive sampling from three private schools of Jammu city. The results of the study indicate significant negative correlation between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with mother, and significant negative correlation between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with father. No significant correlation was found between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with peer. Importance of relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and attachment with mother, father and peer were highlighted in the study.  hide

32.Stress of the Civil Servants: Its Impact on General Health and Hostility

By: Deepa Ghosh, Assistant Professor, Netaji Subhas Mahavidyalaya, Udaipur, Tripura  Show abstract Details

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Employees stress is an increasing problem in today’s organisation. Job Stress means destructive physical and emotional response that arises when the necessity of a job do not match with the competencies, resources or need of the employee. A certain amount of job stress is necessary to be motivated for doing something remarkable. But excessive stress can interfere with one’s productivity and affect one’s physical and emotional health. Civil Service is the executive branch of the government which is enshrined in Article 311 of the Indian Constitution. The civil servants are entrusted with the significant task of administering public offices which include implementation of different policies framed by the Legislature. They play a vital role in full proof execution of the policies and programmes of the government. The civil servants, upon whom the development of the country or state depends, should be stimulating and enthusiastic in discharging their duties. They must also possess a sound physical and emotional health. Otherwise, their adjustment process to the family and to the rigorous day-to-day affairs of the administration will be disturbed. The goal of the present study is to find out the level of stress among the civil servants of Tripura. This study also aims to examine the relationship between job stress and hostility of the civil servants. Further, this study also explores the impact of job stress on hostility and general health of the civil servants. The study involves 50 civil service officers (IAS-24; TCS-26). Only male respondents are included in this study. Job Stress Test (Paliwal, 1982), Hostility Test (Paliwal, 1982) and General Health Questionnaire (David Goldberg, 1979) are used to measure the job stress, hostility and health condition of the respondents. Simple random sampling technique has been used to collect data. The survey is conducted using structured face to face interviews. Results were analysed by using t-test and r-value. Results indicate that there exists high stress among 36% of the civil servants. 32% of the civil servants possess severe hostile attitude. The main stress factors reported by over half of the survey respondents are delayed promotional policy, work overload, low level of remuneration, communication gap among colleagues, low level of autonomy, time pressure and demanding job. Significant relationship is found between job stress and hostility (r=0.803; p<0.01) of the civil servants. Results further reveal that there is significant difference between high stress group and low stress group of civil servants on stress (t=24.36; p<0.01), hostility (t=6.438; p<0.01) and general health (t=4.723; p<0.01). Therefore psychological intervention is urgently required to make them free from distress.  hide

33.Impact of Job Related Stresses in Nursing

By: Deepa Pandey, Amity University, Gwalior and P.C.Misra, Department of Psychology, Lucknow University  Show abstract Details

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Job involvement which refers to the degree to which a individual internalizes himself with the organization. The concept of job involvement has gained significance because of it’s important role in providing link between productivity and employee’s need and the quality of his working life. Occupational stress, mental health and motivation play very important role in job involvement of duties of nurses. Researchers in India attempted to determine the relationship of job involvement with demographic perceived importance of job factors, different occupational groups, anxiety, role stress variables like role conflict and role ambiguity, company satisfaction of employee needs. The stress has become as inevitable part of nurse’s life in modern world representing serious costs for organization in human and monetary terms. The present study investigation is directed at determining the impacts of occupational stress, mental health and motivation on the job involvement in nurses. Keeping in view of the above facts the present investigation attempts to find out the impacts of occupational stress, mental health and motivation on job involvement of nurses. The job involvement has been treated as dependent variable, while motivation ,mental health and occupational stress has been treated as independent variables, Thus a 2X2X2 Factorial design has been used for the purpose of analysis. To find out the interaction effects of occupational stress, mental health and motivation on job involvement, the analysis of variance in applied. The integration effect of occupational stress x motivation, motivation x mental health and occupational stress x mental health x motivation are not found to be statistically significant.  hide

34.Life Skills and Mental Health

By: Kiran Sahu and Deepika Gupta, Department of Psychology, GDHG College, Moradabad  Show abstract Details

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In these days people are more talking about mental health. In this competitive world people have to face multiple challenges which may be occupational or family related or financial or personal matters. But the greatest challenge is protecting the mental health from these challenges. Mental health can be regarded as the capability of intellectual and spiritual growth and emotional development communication with others including peers and adults, participation in educational and social activities and flexibility in the face of hardship. Mental health is a state of well being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully and is able to make contribution to his or her community. The World Health Organization has defined life skills as “the abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individual to deal effectively with demand and challenges of everyday life”. Evidence from many researches suggests that mental illness has great impact on function in everyday life. So to maintain mental health is a need to maintain our existence in modern time as we can develop our self and our society as well. Mental health can also impact on an individual’s physical health and poor mental health can lead to many day to day life problem s like poor skills of problem solving, lack of good adjustment, managing emotions and relationships with others, contributing in society and some mental disorders like depression and anxiety disorders etc. The importance of maintaining good mental health is crucial to living a long and healthy life. Good mental health can enhance one’s life while poor mental health can prevent someone from living a normal life. One of the best ways to achieve a healthy life and to prevent poor mental health is to learn life skills. Life skills are essentially those abilities that help to promote mental well-being and competence in people as they face the realities of life. Most development professional agree that life skills are generally applied in the context of health and social events. Life skills improve communication; increase the power of decision making, management, self-awareness and team work. Life skills empower people to take positive action to protect them and promote mental health and positive relation ships. Life skills may include various types of skills which an individual can use in different situation of life; like social skills, stress management skills, people skills etc. Because these skills cultivate the following skills which make our life positive there for good mental health- • Understanding ourselves and moderating our responses • Talking effectively and empathizing accurately • Building relationships of trust, respect and productive interactions.  hide

35.Impact of Intervention on Mothers’ Knowledge regarding Management of Learning Difficulties among Children

By: Deepika Vig and Sumandeep Kaur, Department of Human Development, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana  Show abstract Details

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The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact of intervention on the knowledge level of mothers regarding various aspects of learning difficulties among young children. The research study was carried out in 15 urban private schools of Ludhiana District. Children facing difficulties with reading, writing and calculations were selected from 3rd and 4th class of each school. Gaps in the knowledge of the mothers of these selected students were assessed to plan an intervention programme to improve their knowledge levels. The total sample consisted of 199 mothers. The intervention focused on teaching strategies for early identification, informal assessment and development of need based intervention material for children with academic skill disorders. Pre and post intervention knowledge level of mothers were assessed. The results of the study indicated that 97.49 percent of the mothers were having poor knowledge about management of learning difficulties before intervention, however, only 38.69 were found with poor knowledge level during post intervention testing. Further, in depth study of knowledge gains of mothers across basic awareness level, comprehension level and application level depicted significant shift of mothers from poor level of performance to good performance level across all the three components. The overall result indicated that intervention had significant and positive impact on the knowledge level of mothers. The hands on experiences provided to the mothers to develop stimulating material for their children made them capable of implementing their knowledge to practically help such children who were facing problems in reading, writing and mathematics.  hide

36.Self-concept, Anxiety and Mental Health among Adolescent Boys and Girls

By: Dhanalakshmi.D, Asst. Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University  Show abstract Details

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Although most adolescents are doing well, about one in five report symptoms of mental health problems, depression being the most common. Parents, practitioners, and policymakers are recognizing the importance of young people’s mental health. The study examined the relationship between Self-concept, Anxiety and Mental Health of the adolescents. The study was conducted in Chennai in a private school catering to middle and high income groups. 200 adolescents studying in class XI were equally distributed among boys and girls. The sample was selected randomly. The selected variables namely Self- concept, Anxiety and Mental Health were assessed using standardized questionnaires. The results of the t test revealed that gender differences exist in Self- concept, Anxiety and Mental Health. It was interesting to note that the adolescent girls have better Self- Concept than the boys, providing space for positive thinking. In contrary, boys were very anxious compared to the girls which can be attributed to active participation in the daily activities, be it at home or in school. The Mental Health scores were high among the adolescent girls than boys. Pearson’s correlation explains that Self- concept and Mental Health were positively related while Anxiety and Mental Health were negatively related. Suitable intervention must be designed at school to improve the Self- concept of the students at the adolescent phase of their career in the line of education.  hide

37.Psychological Well Being and Emotional Intelligence among Adolescent Boys and Girls

By: Dheerja Singh, Assistant Professor, School of Social Sciences, IFTM University Moradabad and Kiran Sahu, Associate Professor & Head, Department of Psychology G.D.H.G.College, Moradabad. U.P  Show abstract Details

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Psychological well being is a subjective term that means different thing to different people. A positive state of mind engendering a sense of well being that enables a person to function effectively within society and Emotional Intelligence is a type of Social Intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others emotions, to discriminating among them, and to use the information to guide one’s thinking and action. The aim of the present study is to find out level of Psychological Well Being and Emotional Intelligence among adolescent boys and girls and further to find out gender differences regarding these variables. For this purpose 150 adolescents (75 boys and 75 girls) of Moradabad district were taken, ranging from 13-17 years. To measure Emotional Intelligence Jyotsna Codaty’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (2004) and to measure Psychological Well Being Warr’s Psychological Well Being scale were used in the present study; result indicated that these adolescents have higher level of psychological Well Being while low level of Emotional Intelligence. Significant gender differences are found in Psychological Well Being as well as in Emotional Intelligence.  hide

38.The Growth of Sexuality: Men and Women

By: Divya Raina, Pacific University, Udaipur and Geeta Balodi,2. M.K.P(P.G) College, Dehradun  Show abstract Details

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Sexuality in each condition and society has remained as the much investigated topic yet people hardly ever able to find a suitable defining answer for them. Every society fashions the development and expressions of sexuality, tailored to fit the social, political and economic conditions of its own existence. Although sexuality itself has both components, it is usually thought of primarily as a physical matter. For this reason, a society that regards sexual desires as dangerous or wrong is one that reveals its basic mistrust of the physical side of human nature. Sexuality for them, although is a desired thing for procreation but not for the individual desire of union with the partner. Sexuality especially in Indian context has been a subject of curiosity yet talked off in hushed tones, believing that marriage is the ultimate point to understand sexuality which leaves two souls to unite emotionally, physically and sexually. There is a tremendous need for sex education during the period, when the pre-adolescents are finally able to understand the material and integrate it at both an emotional and rational level which will lead them to becoming sexually responsible adults.  hide

39.Impact of Age, Gender and Family Structure on Perceived Loneliness of University Students

By: Saina Muthreja and Dr. Anuradha Sharma, Amity Institute of Psychology & Allied Sciences, Amity University, Noida  Show abstract Details

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Loneliness is a universal human emotion, yet it is both complex and unique to each individual. Instead, it is the perception of being alone and isolated that matters most. Loneliness is the inability to find meaning in one’s life. As Becker (1962) pointed out, “Let it be stressed emphatically that the most difficult realization for man is the possibility that life has no meaning”. Without meaning life is wasted, futile and empty. Therefore, freedom from loneliness is important for one’s physical and psychological well being. Loneliness refers to an individual’s subjective perception that he/she lacks close interpersonal relationships. An individual is lonely if he or she desires close interpersonal relationships but is unable to establish them. According to Peplau and Perlman (1982), “loneliness is the unpleasant exp -erience that occurs when a person’s network of social relations is deficient in some way”.The present research aims to study the impact of age, gender and family structure on perceived loneliness of university students. For this purpose a sample of size 100 university students – 50 males and 50 females was selected. It was hypothesized that boys experience more loneliness than girls. It was also hypothesized that persons of age group 18-21 years experience more loneliness than those in the age group 22-25 year and that persons staying in nuclear families experience more loneliness as compared to those staying in joint families.The study reported impact of age, gender and family structure on perceived loneliness of university students. The impact of age was not seen significant as people in the age group 18-21 years and those in 22-25 years experience more or less same level of loneliness. But the impact of gender and family structure on perceived loneliness was seen significant as there was a difference in how males perceive loneliness higher than females and also those staying in nuclear families experience more loneliness than those staying in joint families. The study provides an opportunity for further research across age and other variables that could be related with it and to uncover the possible reasons that may be present.  hide

40.A: Depressive Self

By: Archana Shukla, Asst. Prof., Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow  Show abstract Details

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The present study endeavors to cast a glance at the personality profile of A (a 40 yrs old male leprosy patient) using Rorschach Test. The sample has been taken from Jyoti Nagar, Leprosy Rehabilitation Center, Mohanlalganj, Lucknow. The protocol of A has been analyzed in the perspective of Paul Lerner (1991) Object Relations Theory. On the basis of responses subject reflects an empty depression which is evident in cut and dry manner with sub features of obsessive-compulsive and schizoid characteristics. Boundaries between self and object is partially blurred.  hide

41.A Multidimensional Assessment of Quality of Life of Elderly Across Varying Support Systems

By: Sarita Saini Associate Professor, Deptt. of Human Development, College of Home Science, PAU, Ludhiana , Punjab  Show abstract Details

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The present study was undertaken to perform a multidimensional assessment of Quality of Life of elderly (65 years & above) living in various types of support systems. The study comprised a sample of 400 subjects from Ludhiana city, equally drawn from four support systems viz. elderly living with sons, living with daughters, living alone, and living in institutions. The sample was further divided over the two sexes. Quality of life is a complex, multifaceted construct that requires multiple approaches to develop insights about Quality of Life. Thus, a Quality of Life Profile, senior’s version prepared and published by Quality of Life Research Unit, University of Toronto, Canada (2000) was administered to measure the Quality of Life (QOL) of the subjects across various dimensions of QOL and different support systems. This Quality of Life approach recognizes that there are three different ‘Components’ of living that contribute to Quality of Life (QOL) of an individual. These are Being, Belonging and Becoming Components. Each of these components has three dimensions. Thus, there are nine specific dimensions / areas that are an integral part of the lives of all individuals. All these need to be considered to assess an individual’s Quality of Life (QOL). The spectrum of strong and weak dimensions of the Quality of Life across four support systems was developed which clearly pointed towards Leisure Becoming, Growth Becoming and Community Belonging as the most vulnerable dimensions of Quality of Life of elderly living across four support systems. It was further observed that the ‘Physical Belonging’ emerged as the reasonably strong dimension of QOL across majority of support systems. Therefore, culture and region specific inputs were suggested to strengthen the weaker dimensions to ameliorate the QOL of the elderly.  hide

42.Self-efficacy, Gender and Facebook Addiction

By: Shonali Sud, Astha Badalia & Akshita Sharma St. Bede’s College, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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Today ‘Facebook’ has become one of the most commonly used social networking site (SNS). It helps connect and allows one to chat with those whom one has never met or will ever meet. Facebook addiction has shown a rapid growth around the globe with about 835,525,280 users (until March 31, 2012). USA tops the list of Facebook users, followed by Brazil and India. There are 53,397,060 facebook users in India which showed an increment of 11, 62, 920 users adding to a 2.24% change within the past few weeks. The Indian facebook statistic reveals that it is most prevalent among the 18-24 year group constituting about 25,096,618 users followed by those who are slightly older but not more than 34 years of age (25-34), who make up for the 28% of the facebook population. Hence, males (27,395,100) are more inclined to facebook addiction than females (10,513,520) in India. Even though research from Europe (Norway) indicates that women are at a higher risk of developing unhealthy dependency to social networking. This study has been undertaken on 100 males and females (between 18-50 years) residing in Himachal Pradesh. After their self-efficacy was ascertained (Sud et al.1998), facebook addcition was measured using the (scale). Major findings indicate that efficacy was not associated with facebook addiction. Males showed more addiction than females in India, in terms of spending many hours indulging in facebook chatting and communicating with unknown strangers mainly females. Such findings instigate one for further research on larger samples regarding the demerits of facebook in terms of loss of performance and improper time utilization.  hide

43.The importance of dreams in our daily living

By: Shonali Sud and Neelanshi Bhatnagar, St. Bede’s College, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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Dreams are part of our daily existence and normally occur while the person sleeps. They could be classified as significant stress busters, since in a way they release anxiety. Any individual’s expectations and wishful fantasy takes the recourse of dreams. While dreaming, blood pressure, heart rate and adrenaline flow fluctuate and there are physiological changes within the body. Hence an individual may experience a surge of energy or even an expanded awareness of one’s own self. Often dreams are therapeutic and can also give rise to depression or negative feelings. Repetitive dreams leave one puzzled and tense. Sometimes can be a source of great fear and thus torment a person that he/she must seek some psychological help. Subjects (both males and females, n=10) between the age group 17-21 were interviewed who narrated their dreams. In this study it was observed that they were eager to learn about the cause of their dreaming habit, how it affected their day to day existence and interfered with their work, health and well being. A majority of the subjects reported that dreaming was like mental and physical catharsis and a form of self-healing. Persistent dreaming however aroused stress and anxiety. More research among different age groups for both men and women is required to understand the cause of dreaming and its effect in our life.  hide

44.Gender Differences: Perception of Teasing and Body Image among Young Adults

By: Supriya Maria Bernadette Christopher & C Surekha  Show abstract Details

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The main focus of the current research is to determine whether perception of teasing has an influence on an individual’s body image. Teasing related to weight may occur more often than many other types of teasing during childhood and adolescence. The participants of the study were in the age group of 18 to 21 years. Data was collected using Teasing Questionnaire-Revised by Storch et al. (2004) and Body Image Questionnaire by Cash (1994). Ten participants who scored high on teasing questionnaire were interviewed to further explore their teasing experiences and its relation to their body image. The results showed that there were no gender differences between teasing and body image among young adults. Teasing seemed to be related to some of the domains of body image. Data from interviews show that peers and family were the major group of people involved in teasing. Teasing seemed to be having many consequences. The individual’s results also indicate that teasing on one’s appearance influences their body image.  hide

45.Body Dissatisfaction drive for thinness- Risk of poor Self Esteem and Psychological Stress among Working Women in Chennai

By: R. Subashree, Asst. Prof., School of Counselling, RGNIYD, Sriperumbudur  Show abstract Details

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Body image is a term that is used to describe how we feel about our physical appearance and our bodies. It can often relate to feelings of self-esteem and self-confidence. When women compare themselves with the models and actresses they don’t feel content with their bodies and feel that they lack an ideal body image as portrayed by the media that leads them to body dissatisfaction. Urban workingwomen have experienced a veritable revolution in beauty culture since liberalization in 1991. A number of studies document that media images of females are stereotypical in the sense that they tend to represent females with idealized, overly thin bodies. Bughio, MahiraNazir (2010). In many studies the components of psychological wellbeing and positive body image has revealed a connections. These studies point out to the conclusion that they have negative effects on both males and females. Hence the researchers felt the importance to carry out a research among urban working women. This investigation attempts to study if women who are in their early adulthood falling in to the age group of 20-35 involved in various professions are dissatisfied with their body image and if they have a negative body image how it affect one’s self esteem?. In this genesis the main objectives are framed for the present study, Viz., to explore the negative influence of body dissatisfaction on self- esteem and distress among working women in Chennai city. The total sample size will be 100 working women in Chennai city. The snow ball sampling method will be adopted to test the research objectives. The study will be analysed using mixed method both quantitative and qualitative.  hide

46.The effect of Parenting on Teenagers

By: Shonali Sud and Pooja Sharma, St. Bede’s College, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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Parenting is an art, a whole time job, and a hobby, in fact a cult; it is everything that a parent decides to make of it. The nuclear family set-up has affected the parent –child relationship in many ways. Parenting with the ‘no-time’ syndrome affects the teenager drastically. Young people are curious to try new things and often feel disillusioned when the parent shows less interest in them. Young people therefore get addicted to the internet, often indulging in cybercrime, showing suicidal tendencies and become alienated from their immediate environment. Teenagers thus suffer from extreme stress of loneliness and parental neglect. This is a major reason for the degradation of the society and a total insensitivity to values. The need of the hour is to come to the rescue of such hapless teenagers who require social support and a loving parent to lean on who can ease off all their troubles with empathic care.  hide

47.Central Nervous System (CNS) and Sports Performance

By: Th. Nandalal Singh Department of Physical Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The central nervous system (CNS) is involved in every aspect of sports performance. The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord and acts as a control system for the body. The brain is a highly complex organ with many functions, but in terms of sports performance, the cerebellum and diencephalon regions are very important. Research indicates that prolonged sports involvement influences the way the CNS ‘controls’ muscular recruitment and patterning. A focus on weight training, speed and power development, will exemplify the importance of very careful training planning and monitoring in terms of the CNS and how it affects sports performance. Bompa’s focus on CNS training is about creating the best conditions for improved maximal muscular contraction. However, the insightful reader may have identified another dimension to CNS training beyond that of fatigue and that is the mental dimension. When planning a training program it is very important to consider the placement of high intensity (CNS taxing workouts) and their proximity to one another. The researchers attributed these differences to the specifics of the individuals’ sports and crucially years of relevant training and the effects these had on the CNS. Prolonged training in a specific sport will cause the central nervous system to program muscle coordination according to the demands of that sport and the learned skill-reflex of the CNS seems to interfere hierarchically in the performance program of another task. The role of the CNS in enhancing sports performance needs special attention as it may hold the key to improve speed and power production, for example. Coach and athlete need to realize the importance of the CNS and implement strategies in training and competition to maximize its contribution to sports performance.  hide

48.The Dyslexia Screening Test–Junior, India (DST-JINDIA): Empowering Professionals

By: Nitin Anand, Senior Product Development Leader, Pearson Clinical and Talent Assessment, Bangalore  Show abstract Details

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Dyslexia is the most debated disability condition that affects 80% children identified with learning disability. The prevalence rate of dyslexia appears to be around 9.87% among Indian school children. Early identification & support helps to prepare the child towards attaining better academic outcomes and is cost-effective. However, there is a paucity of screening tools for early identification of dyslexia; standardized for the Indian children. The DST-J India addresses the need for an effective screening tool for dyslexia which is standardized for India. A sample of 338 children attending English medium schools was selected from across 5 geographical regions of India. The schools selected were from an urban background, had English as a medium of instruction and were affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) or State Board. The children were assessed within the school setting by trained examiners after obtaining written informed consent from parents. Statistical analysis was conducted to derive percentile scores and at-risk index for the all the subtests of the DST-J. The DST-J norms standardized to India have been published as part of the DST-J India Edition. The presentation will highlight the process of the India standardization of DST-J which has concluded with norms for the Indian children. Further, focus would be on the significance of early screening of dyslexia and need to empower school professionals to identify children at-risk for dyslexia. Conclusion: DST-J India addresses the need for a tool which is child friendly and which can be used by a wide number of professionals (school teachers, special educators, psychologists); to effectively screen and identify children “at risk” for dyslexia. Early identification by school professionals will empower them to create in-school support; ensure better educational and professional outcomes and contribute meaningfully towards needs of special children.  hide

49.Drugs and youth in India

By: Shonali Sud and Jagriti Chauhan, St. Bede’s College, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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Youth today is disillusioned and curious to try new things and is totally unconcerned about the consequences. Indulging in drug usage is one of them. Misuse and indulgence is mainly due to peer pressure, stress, environmental factors as well as poor family relationships. In the present study 150 males as well as female residents of Shimla between 18 and 30 years were investigated. A survey was conducted and the results indicate that prolonged drug usage resulted in affecting the central nervous system. Small intake made the drug user feel more relaxed and less stressful. When consumed in greater quantities it resulted in health disorders and difficulty in making adjustment in their work as well as their family. Drugs are a source of major concern in Shimla and young people are becoming highly dependent on them.  hide

50.The effectiveness of software intervention in improving the cognitive variables viz., attention, memory, reasoning and language

By: M. A. Syed Fathima, Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu  Show abstract Details

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The digital children live today with an ever-changing influx of new computer-based technologies. Advances in computer technology can help students over-come their reading abilities. This study was conducted to a, develop a software; b, find out the effectiveness of software intervention in improving the cognitive variables viz., attention, memory, reasoning and language skills. The design of this study was two-group randomized design using Talland Letter Cancellation Test and Binet-Kamat Test. Study participants were two hundred learning disability children from four special schools in Chennai, India. The researcher had developed software based on information processing approach and Human-Environment/Technology Interaction Application. The reliability of the software was found to be 1. Attention – 0.816; 2. Memory – 0.816; 3. Reasoning – 0.883 and 4. Language – 0.851. Once the reliability was found, the students were enrolled in computer-assisted cognitive skills training group and a study hall control group for three months intervention. Before and after software intervention, students had their cognitive skills, as well as language skills, evaluated with a battery of tests: Talland Letter Cancellation Test and Binet-Kamat Test. A significant increase in cognitive skills (p<.01) was found only in experimental group. This is an indication of the possible benefits of a computerized cognitive skills training program focused on training attention, memory, reasoning and language skills. Replication of this study could hold far-reaching implications for future educational curricula.  hide

51.Birth Order, Level of Intelligence and Duration of Stay as a Predictor of Psychological Vulnerabilities among the Jail Inmates of Shimla Town

By: Dharmender Kumar and Roshan Lal Zinta, Department of Psychology, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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The objective of the present study is to analyze psychological vulnerabilities among the jail inmates of Shimla town in relation to their birth order, level of intelligence and duration of stay. For accomplishing the objective, the study has been conducted on a final sample of N = 120 jail inmates (60 High Birth Order + N = 60 Low Birth Order) those were divided into two comparable halves based on level of intelligence (30 High intelligent + 30 low intelligent) and finally put into two comparable halves based on their stay in the jail that comprises of (15 short duration stay + 15 long duration stay). These groups were assessed qualitatively (observation, interview, fuzzy cognitive mapping) and quantitatively (Life Satisfaction Scale, PGI General Well-Being Measure and Beck’s Depression Inventory). The result revealed that the main effect of birth order on the measure of life satisfaction was found F (1,112) =6.61, p<.01 as statistically significant. The younger jail inmates were found less satisfied from their life as compared to their elder counterpart. Similarly, the main effect of intelligence was also found F (1,112) = 71.98, 0<.001 as highly significant. High level intelligence inmates were found less satisfied from their life as compared to their counterpart. Further the main effect of duration of imprisonment was also found F (1,112) = 5.77, p < .01 as statistically significant. The inmates stayed for long period of time in the jail were less satisfied from their life as compared to their counterpart. None of the interaction emerged as significant. The main effect of birth order on the measure of wellbeing was found F (1,112) = 20.30, p<.001 as highly significant. Low level of birth order jail inmates experienced more psychological vulnerabilities compared to their counterpart. Similarly the main effect of intelligence on the measure of wellbeing was also found F (1,112) = 4.16, p<.05 as statistically significant. Higher level of intelligent jail inmates reported poor wellbeing as compared to their counterpart. The main effect of duration appeared as non-significant. Further two way interaction between B x I was found as F (1,112) = 8.34, p<.01 as statistically significant. The lower birth order and lower level of intelligence showed more general wellbeing as compared to their counterpart. Only the main effect of Birth Order in the measure of depression was found F (1,112) =13.03, p<.001 as statistically significant. It shows that lower birth order people reported few depressions as compared to higher birth order. Further the two way interaction between Birth order and duration was found F (1,112) =9.07, p <.01 as statistically significant. It sows that birth order and duration of the stay in the jail might have affect inmates of Shimla town. In nutshell, the birth order, level of intelligence and duration appeared as significant factor behind psychological vulnerabilities of the jail inmates of Shimla town. The qualitative analysis also revealed that the lower birth order i.e. the second and third children of the parents were more prone toward psychological vulnerabilities thereby seems to be of less intelligent and more inclined toward crime. Further duration of stay in the jail also proves one the factor in psychological vulnerabilities. It needs further microanalysis and future research.  hide

52.Problems of Adolescents in Family Context

By: Jyoti Meena, and Kanika Agarwal, Human Development, Banasthali University, Tonk, Rajasthan. and Karan Singh Meena, Public Administration, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan  Show abstract Details

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Adolescence is today defined as a distinct period of adjustment or as a journey to adulthood where a teenager has to face rapid physical, cognitive and social changes. During adolescence, the focus is on preparation for occupation, education, work and increasing independence. The present study was planned for adolescents’ boys and girls of senior secondary schools of district Meerut. The study was based on the problems of adolescents within family context. As the sample was 200 randomly selected adolescents between the age group of 16 -18 years studying in 11th and 12th class in randomly (chit system) selected from 3 randomly selected schools. The data were collected through the personal contact with the respondents. The total scores of respondents were computed to find out the results in terms of problems of the adolescent boys and girls. The result revealed that majority of the adolescent’s boys and girls coming in the range of Z score -2.01 and below (50% Boys and 48% girls) which shows that both respondents have very low level of problems in Home and Family area. Rest of the respondents lie in low/ average and above average level of problems that create in family conflict and unhealthy interpersonal relationship between family members and adolescents. Results also shows that boys and girls have no significant difference present but boys from non co-education system have significant difference in problems in family dynamics.  hide

53.Global Psychology

By: Kalpana Adinath Belokar, Govt. College of Education, Ambajogai, Beed, Maharashtra  Show abstract Details

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These are the days of globalization. Developing information, communication and technology are minimizing distance between the corners and sub corners of globe. The corners, sub corners of globe are coming nearer and together. Entire globe has become small village. Due to information, communication and technology the persons at far geographic distance are developing intimacy, affection and friendship among them. This behavior of human being is responsible for developing globalization. According to me, it is more correct to call this behavior as global behavior. It is but natural to expect progressive change in this behavior. However, to bring about progressive change in behavior, first of all it is necessary to study behavior with this view, I am stating new trend in psychology i.e. global psychology. By global psychology, I mean, branch of psychology, which deals of natural, descriptive, experimental, objective study of needs, motives and characteristics of global behavior. This study also includes all factors responsible for global behavior. I am confident that this branch of psychology will be of global interest.  hide

54.Work life Balance and Personal Values- An Exploratory Analysis

By: Karunya.A.Donthi and Surabhi Ramachandran, Christ University, Karnataka  Show abstract Details

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In recent times, Work Life Balance has been the focus of research in the fields of Psychology and Management. It has been examined in relation to various organizational and individual constructs. However, maintaining Work Life Balance is a matter of decision, while values guide our decisions and set our priorities. Consequently, when priorities are set and decisions are made a balance is created. Therefore, this study is an exploratory analysis of Work Life Balance, Personal values of an individual and the relationship between them across the professional groups. The participants for this study were 30 individuals each from 4 different professional backgrounds namely Corporate Professionals, Self Employed people, Public Sector employees and Teachers. The data was collected using Work Life Balance Questionnaire developed by Bugler, Fisher and Smith and Personal Values Questionnaire developed by Sherry and Verma. The data was analyzed using Descriptive statistics, One-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation method.  hide

55.Emotional Maturity among Insomniac Males and Females

By: Kalpana Jain and Sheetal Kumawat  Show abstract Details

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Insomnia is a common problem all over the world. It is not a specific disorder but rather a symptom or complains that can have many different causes. It is characterized by inadequate amount or impaired quality of sleep. Emotional maturity is a personality trait, it signify the capacity to read emotionally in term of requirement of responses that a situation imposes. An emotionally mature person has the capacity to make effective adjustment with himself, members of his family, his peers in the society, and the culture. The objective of this research was to find out the relationship of insomnia with emotional maturity among males and females. The sample consisted of 120 respondents belonging to four categories: insomniac males, insomniac females, males without insomnia and females without insomnia. Their age varies from 35 to 55 years. The expost facto factorial design was used for the study. Emotional maturity scale prepared by Singh and Bhargava (1998) was used to collect data. Insomnia males and females were identified by medical doctors. Factorial analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis of data. Results indicated that emotional maturity of insomniacs was less than their counterparts who were not suffering with insomnia. Insomniacs were less able to express their emotions according to the situation in comparison to non insomniac respondents. Males were found to be less emotional mature than females. Males were observed to express emotions more aggressively than females.  hide

56.Emotional Intelligence and Self-esteem among Young Adults from Single Parent Family and Both Parent Family

By: Kiran Sahu, Head, Department of Psychology, GDHG College, Moradabad  Show abstract Details

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Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge and to promote emotional and intellectual growth. It is presumed that family structure plays very important role in developing high emotional intelligence and positive self esteem among young adults. Thus the aim of the present study is to find out the difference between young adults from single parent family and both parent family regarding their emotional intelligence and self esteem. In addition to find out how emotional intelligence helps in developing positive self esteem among these young adults. A sample of 100 young adults (50 from single parent family and 50 from both parent family) was taken from Moradabad district of U.P. Mangal emotional intelligence inventory (2009) and self esteem inventory by M.S Prasaad and G.P. Thakur (1977) were used for measuring emotional intelligence and self esteem, respectively. The result elucidated that there is a significant difference between single parent and both parent young adult’s emotional intelligence and self esteem. Further, adults from both parent families have high level of emotional intelligence and better self esteem in comparison to adults belonging to single parent family.  hide

57.The major correlates of academic achievement among Girl Students in Mysore City

By: Nahid Zeini Hasanvand, Assistant Professor, Ayatollah Borujerdi University, Iran and C.G.Venkatesha Murthy, Professor of Education, Regional Institute of Education, Mysore  Show abstract Details

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The present study has attempted to investigate the major correlates such as: Self-esteem, Narcissism and Feelings of security-insecurity of Academic achievement among girl students in Mysore city of Karnataka. The subjects were 1035 girls representing four geographical areas the North, South, West, and East of Mysore city. They were either 14 or 16 years old. The response on the measure of Self-esteem was assessed using Self- Esteem Inventory, (CSI) of Coopersmith, (1975/1981). The Narcissistic personality Inventory (NPI) of Raskin & Terry, (1988) has been used to measure of Narcissistic tendencies. When three variables security-insecurity, narcissism and self esteem scores were regressed on school achievement scores using stepwise multiple regression revealed that out of 3 variables only 2 variables" security and narcissism best predicted the academic achievement of the students. Further, regressional ANOVA revealed significant values indicating a strong impact of those variables predicted. Lastly, the excluded variables in the first step are narcissism and Feelings of security-insecurity and in the second step, the excluded variable was Self-esteem.  hide

58.A study of Narcissism and Medium of Instruction among Girl Students in Mysore City

By: Nahid Zeini Hassanvand, Assistant Professor, Ayatollah Broojerdi University, Iran and C.G.Venkatesha Murthy, Professor of Education, Department of Education, Regional Institute of Education, Mysore  Show abstract Details

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The present study has attempted to investigate the relationship between Narcissism and medium of instruction” Kannada & English medium” among girl students in Mysore city of Karnataka. The subjects were 1035) girls representing four geographical areas the North, South, West, and East of Mysore city. They were either 14 or 16 years old. The responses on the measure of narcissism was assessed using Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) of Raskin & Terry, (1988). Narcissism tendencies and medium of instruction among two groups revealed that The Kannada medium students and the English medium students differ significantly on their narcissistic tendencies, in favor of Kannada medium students. It is means that the Kannada medium students are significantly higher than the English medium students on their narcissistic tendencies.  hide

59.Reaction to Frustration among Working and Non-working Women

By: Shefali Mathur, Nalini Totuka, Assistant Professor, The IIS University, Jaipur  Show abstract Details

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Frustration is a common emotional response to opposition and is antithesis of satisfaction. It arises from the perceived resistance to the fulfillment of individual will. The greater the obstruction and the greater the will, the more the frustration is likely to be. The present research is focussed on the comparative study on the reaction to frustration among working and non working women of age 25-45 years. The research tool used in the study is “Reaction to frustration scale” by Dixit and Srivastava. The sample consisted of 100, 50 working and 50 non working and sample is collected randomly. The data was analysed SD , Mean and t test. The result revealed that working mothers were more frustrated than non-working mothers.  hide

60.The Psychological effects of Multiple Myeloma

By: Nayantara Sud  Show abstract Details

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Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm that is characterised by involvement of the skeletal at multiple sites. There is proliferation of a single clone of immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells and a resultant increase in serum levels of a single homogenous immunoglobulin or its fragments. The monoclonal immunoglobulin in blood is referred to as M component. Plasma cells produce immunoglobulin of a single light and heavy chain (monoclonal protein) called para protein or only light chain (Bence Jones Proteins). Although the actual etiology is unknown, but the predisposing factors are the multipotent haematopoietic stem cell, the tumorous plasma cell and stromal cell which cause the proliferation and survival of myeloma cells. Hence the cancellous bone gets eroded and there is a progressive destruction of the cortical bone. Moreover multiple destructive bone lesions are present throughout the skeletal system. It is more common among males as compared to females. More frequent in the age group between 60-65 years and more in blacks than whites. It affects the vertebral column (66%), the ribs (44%), skull (41%), pelvis (28%), femur (24%), clavicle (16%), and the scapula (10%). Extramedullary plasmacytoma can develop in the muscles, fat, tendon and oesophagus. Its major symptoms are- Bone pain and Pathological fractures. Oral manifestations include swelling, expansion of jaw, numbness and mobility of teeth. Its main treatment is Chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation. Therefore the psychological effects on the patient are tremendous and need urgent attention for both psychologists as well as health care professionals.  hide

61.Life Satisfaction of Professional College Teachers in Relation to their Stress Level

By: Neena Sawhney, Principal, Chandigarh College of Education, Landran, Mohali and Sneh Bansal, Assistant Professor, Chandigarh College of Education, Landran, Mohali  Show abstract Details

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Life satisfaction has been referred to as a person's cognitive judgment of life as a whole. It is defined as “a cognitive, judgmental process which depends upon a comparison of one’s circumstances with what is thought to be an appropriate standard”. In adults, research has demonstrated that positive and negative major life events (e.g, getting married or becoming unemployed) have an effect on life satisfaction (Headey & Wearing, 1989). In addition to major life events, daily events such as daily hassles, or chronic everyday stressors, contribute to how an individual rates his or her satisfaction with life. Akinboye et. al. (2002) defined stress as a person’s psychological or physiological response to environmental factors, in which stress is seen as both the stimulus (stressor) and the response (strain). Based on this perspective, stress often happens when the demands of a particular experience is about to exceed the resources available, thus, leading to a change in the person's psychological and physiological condition in order to deal with the experience (Cooper, Dewe, and O' Driscoll, 2001). So, a stressful situation occurs when a person exert an impact on and responds to his/her environment (Siu, 2002). Stress has a negative impact on well-being and seems to be highly related with life satisfaction. Studies have supported that lower levels of life satisfaction have been related to high stress. The present study aims to examine the relationship of life satisfaction with stress in college teachers. For this purpose, data of 50 college teachers serving in different professional courses has been taken. The scale used for investigation is: Life Satisfaction Scale by Alam and Srivastava (2001) to measure life satisfaction areas and “Anxiety, Depression and Stress Scale” by Singh et al. (2011) to measure stress level. The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis and main findings and implications have been discussed.  hide

62.Utilization of Sesbania Aculeata (dhaincha) Fibre

By: Neeta Singh and Anita Rani, Department of Clothing and Textiles, College of Home Science G. B Pant, University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar  Show abstract Details

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Clothing is one among basic needs of human beings irrespective of development in various fields having impact on their life. At the start, man used to fulfill their clothing needs only from natural resources i.e., fibres derived from plant and animal resources, for example, cotton and wool. Since the yield of fibres from plant and animal sources could be increased only to a specific limit, dependency of the man on fibres from chemical resources has increased manifold to fulfill the ever-growing demand. The natural fibres are safe not only for the consumers but also to the environment. These fibres are biodegradable and are helpful in preserving the environment. The conventional natural fibres can be procured from plant (cotton, linen, jute) as well as animal resources (wool and silk). Technologies have been developed to a great extent for such fibres for regulating their processing and product development. One such potential sources of fibre is Sesbania aculeata, locally known as dhaincha. The dhaincha plant belongs to leguminacea family, so it has nodules in its roots and these provide nitrogen content to the soil. The stem and leaves serve as a source of organic matter for the soil by crushing entire plant in young stage in the fields. So the stem of this plant could be exploited to extract fibres and prepare eco friendly and biodegradable products to be used in agriculture sector in different practices. The fibres obtained from dhaincha are harsh, coarse and shiny in appearance but lack elasticity. In some states, the fibre is extracted and utilized for making fish net and rope, sackcloth, sailcloth and cordages. Thus this fibre, owing to its characteristics, is not utilized for regular apparel fabrics but is used only for coarse structures. To diversify the end uses of this fibre, it can be used as a potential fibre for preparing non woven structure. the present study was planned to explore the Sesbania aculeata (dhaincha) fibres.  hide

63.Coping Resources and Perceived Stigma among the Parents of Intellectually Challenged Children

By: Shukla Archana and Singh Neha Department of Psychology, Lucknow University, Lucknow, and  Show abstract Details

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The present study endeavors to find out the Coping resources and Perceived stigma among the parents of intellectually challenged children. The ‘Coping Resources Inventory’ (Form-D; developed by Hammer & Marting, 1988) and ‘Stigma Scale’ (developed by Ali, et.al, 2008) were administered. Sample comprised of 60 parents (30 mothers and 30 fathers) purposively selected from Chetna Institute for the Mentally Handicapped in Lucknow city. They ranged in age from 30-40 years with the mean age of 35 years. The results revealed that mothers have less coping resources as compared to fathers. At the same time there was a strong tendency in mothers to feel more stigmatized than fathers.  hide

64.Emotional and Behavioural Problems among B.Ed Students

By: Nirmala Chava, Assistant professor in psychology, St.Ann’s college of education S.D Road, Secunderabad, Andhrapradesh  Show abstract Details

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The present topic is Emotional and Behavioural problems among B.Ed students. The sample for the present study was 130 students and age ranging from below 25 to 36 and above. The tool used was standardized ASEABA scale there are eight dimensions such as Anxiety, Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic complaints, Thought problem, Aggressive behaviour, Rule breaking and Intrusive. The method used was survey method . The Technique used was simple random sampling technique. The present study was to understand the Emotional and Behavioural problems among B.Ed students. The demographical variables are Age, Gender, Marital status and Education. The Mean, Median, Standard deviation, t-value, F-value, are calculated for various dimensions of Emotional and Behavioural problems among B.Ed students. Findings are 1)There is a significant relationship between Age, Gender and emotional and behavioural problems among B.Ed students.2).There is significant relationship between marital status and Education and emotional and behavioural problems among B.Ed students. Conclusion: Teacher trainees are having behavioural problems so they need guidance and counseling .  hide

65.The Etiology of Pulpitis and physical well being

By: C. M. Grover and Nayantara Sud  Show abstract Details

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Pulpitis is the inflammation of the pulp. It occurs mainly due to caries, tooth fractures, thermal or chemical injuries. The pulp which is the living part of the tooth is mainly composed of fibrous tissue, blood vessels, nerves, Odentoblasts and cementoblasts. As the pulp is enclosed within hard tissue inflammatory exudates fail to escape and cause severe odontolgia. It may be acute or chronic. It may also be focal, partial or generalised. Hence a dull pain may persist. It may progress to severe intermittent or continuous pain and discomfort. This results in an inability to eat, an increase in thermal sensitivity especially cold sensitivity. The patient may be moderately to severely ill. Certain psychological symptoms like an inability to concentrate and perform daily tasks may be a source of stress and ill health.  hide

66.The influence of decision making patterns on socialization

By: Parul Singh, Shefali Singh and Bhanu. N. Prakash Department of Psychology University of Delhi Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Developmental psychologists traditionally consider decision making about children’s lives and the transfer of decision power from parents to children to be an important aspect of parenting. This transition from parental control to child control is referred to as “autonomy granting” or “independence giving” which plays an important role in the child’s socialization and personality development. Most of the researches done to understand this mechanism of autonomy granting have however taken the standpoint of the parent’s views while largely ignoring the child’s perspective. As the child’s interpretation of this transition of decision power is also an important factor influencing the overall socialization and personality, special focus has been given in the present study to incorporate the child’s viewpoint and perspective as well. The aim of the present study was to understand (i) the factors contributing to the autonomy granted in decision making in children, (ii) the different patterns of decision making followed in various families and (iii) its effect on the child’s socialisation. For this purpose, six children between the age group of 10-14 years as well as their parents were interviewed and their views were analysed. On analysis, twelve factors were extracted that parents perceived as important while deciding the extent of freedom which will be given to the child. These factors were age, family culture, past rearing experiences, parental education, child education, sibling influence and birth order, child influence, gender, decision domains, child characteristics, parental resources and other factors like intelligence, cognitive ability, awareness, and social environment. Children’s views on the different patterns of family decision making were also highlighted. In the analysis of the six cases of the children it was found that children belonging to joint family decision making pattern were independent, capable of taking decisions and well adjusted whereas children belonging to parental unilateral family decision making pattern were more dependent, incapable of taking their decisions and showed various negative affect like stubbornness and rebellious streaks. This shows that socialization in terms of pattern of family decision making have diverse effects on the child’s developing personality, ranging from positive, satisfied and confident personality on one hand to negative, incompetent, rebellious personality on the other hand.  hide

67.Socio-Economically Depriving Environments and Its Emotional-Behavioral Outcomes in Young Children

By: Rachna Devi, Nidhi Verma and Chandra Shekhar, P. G. Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu Tawi, J&K  Show abstract Details

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A summary of research reveals that child born into and growing up in poverty are more likely to be in poor health and have learning and behavioral difficulties. Poverty can be intrinsically alienating and distressing, and of particular concern are the direct and indirect effects of poverty on the development and maintenance of emotional, behavioral and psychiatric problems. However studies focusing on strengths and experiences of loneliness were found to be limited in this population. So the present study was planned with the aim to study strengths-difficulties and experiences of loneliness in below poverty line (BPL) children. The total sample consisted of 120 participants in the age range of 10-13 years, out of which 60 were BPL and 60 were APL children. Each group further consisted of 30 females and 30 males. Purposive sampling method and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman et al. 1998) and Loneliness and Social dissatisfaction scale (Asher et al., 1984) were used. Independent samples t-test and Pearson correlation was used as statistical methods for analysis. The findings of the study indicated children living in BPL families have more difficulties and low strengths compared to those living in above poverty line (APL) families. No significant gender differences were found on all these variables. Significant positive correlation was found between conduct, peer problems and experiences of loneliness and significant negative correlation between prosocial behavior and experiences of loneliness.  hide

68.Students and Maladjustments: An Empirical Study on Bullying With A Special Reference to Teenagers and Youngsters

By: Sripada Ramakrishna, S& H department, BVC Engineering College, Odalarevu, Allavaram Mandal, East Godavari District, AP  Show abstract Details

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Conflict at the studying place is a common syndrome among the students in every educational institution. Severity of it is more in teenage. The co student relationship is one of the most influential factors in the well being and success in academics of a student. School bullying is a long-lasting conflict, where one person is systematically harassed by one or more co-students or seniors, resulting in severe damage to the victim's psychological and physical health. It takes place when someone tries to intimidate another worker, often in front of co-students.Bullying is an act that is done on purpose. Bullies use their power (physical, age, social status, computer skills, and so on) to threaten, harass, or hurt others. Bullying happens over and over to one person or a group of people. Bullying happens in four basic ways: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber bullying. This paper aims at determining the prevalence of bullying in educational institutions, to examine the association between bullying and student well being and to suggest the preventive measures for these malicious and health endangering practices.The proposed study is through a Questionnaire survey. The questionnaire will be canvassed to the students in teenage or just crossed their teens. Their responses will be collected for a systematic analysis. The final results after a careful interpretation are used to give suggestions to the respective educational institutions for the improvement in the environment. Also they will be used to create awareness to the students about the negative impact of their bullying acts on their peers.  hide

69.Introversion and Well-Being Associated with Facebook Usage

By: Arti Bakhshi and Remia Mahajan, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, J&K  Show abstract Details

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With the advent of new forms of communications comes both positive & negative feedbacks. Social Networking Sites such as Facebook too influence person’s psychological characteristics such as personality & well being. This study investigated the relationship among introversion, well-being & Facebook usage along with the effect of age and gender. The sample comprised of adult student population (N=55) of ages between 16-24 years & had been on Facebook for six months and above. The Facebook users were required to complete a questionnaire package comprising of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), and the Introversion Scale. Facebook users also completed a Facebook usage questionnaire. Results revealed that personality factors (introversion-extroversion) were not as influential as previous literature would suggest but the well-being was found to be positively related to Facebook usage. The results also indicated that “connecting with friends” is the most influential motive in terms of Facebook use. There were also significant differences in Facebook use in relation with age & gender. It can be concluded from the study that person’s well-being is related to Facebook usage and age and gender also influence Facebook usage.  hide

70.The Role of Religion/Spirituality in Mental and Physical Health

By: Sodhi, R. and Manju, Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar-Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between religion/spirituality and health outcomes of persons and to measure the domains of religion and spirituality believed to be significant for mental and physical health, and also to examine the factorial overlap between all the variables. Sample size of the study is 120 individuals (70 Males, 50 Females). Spirituality Assessment Inventory (SAI), Religiosity Scale, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and P.G.I. Health Questionnaire (N-1) is used for the purpose of data collection. In statistical tools Pearson Product Moment Correlation and factor analysis has been applied. The major findings of the study shows that various factors of spirituality and religiosity is significantly associated with positive mental and physical health and further principal component method of factor analysis extracted three factors and interpreted after varimax rotation.  hide

71.Spiritual Intelligence among Teachers: In stress Modulation

By: Roshy Lakhmani, Alambagh, Lucknow  Show abstract Details

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Spiritual intelligence access our deepest meanings, purposes and highest motivation which helps in making human-being as a whole being by providing integrity of life..It includes mental intelligence and emotional intelligence enabling a person to go towards inner fulfillment, self-realization and self-actualization, helping him to know and integrate the inner life of mind and spirit with the outer life of the work in the world.It connects the personal to the transpersonal and the self to the spirit, widening the mind, and inspiring the soul, connecting the individual human psyche to the underlying ground of being. While dealing with stress often all the three elements of one’s self i.e. physical, emotional and mental. Spiritual intelligence also enables the person to manage stress. There is need to explore the role of spiritual intelligence in management of stress. The present study aims to ascertain the relationship between spiritual intelligence and its implication for stress management among teachers. Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory (SISRI) was used and for ascertaining stress level stress Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) were administered on 40 teachers within age group 30-45 years. Data was analysed as per Pearson’s correlation showing relation between spiritual intelligence and stress, which came out to be positive, showing the effect of each on another, and there was no significant difference found at the mean level.  hide

72.Abuse and Neglect in adolescents of Jammu

By: Ruby Charak, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir and J.M. Koot, Department of Developmental Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands  Show abstract Details

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Background: Research on abuse and neglect in India is scanty and further scarce in community settings. The present study aimed to measure prevalence, explore gender differences on the five types of child abuse and neglect (CAN) namely emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), Sexual abuse (SA), emotional neglect (EN) and physical neglect (PN) using a standardized questionnaire, and also assess their relationship with type of family structure, level of each parent’s education, and perpetrators. Methods: Respondents were 702 school going adolescents from Jammu, India between 13 and 17 years, of which 41.45 % were females and 58.55% were males. CAN was measured using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and details about demography and perpetrators were collected through constructed questionnaires. Results: Nearly 46% adolescents reported to have faced EA, 40.5% reported PA, 48% faced SA, 60.1% reported EN and 57.8% showed PN. Gender differences were found on the five types of abuse and neglect with preponderance of males than females. Significant relation was found between type of family structure and PN in males with more neglected being from joint families. Mother’s level of education was related with EA, SA, EN and PN in males with less education associated more with abuse and neglect. Father’s level of education was related to SA in adolescents and neglect in females with higher education being associated with lesser SA and neglect. Significant relation was found between perpetrators and EA, and PA in males. Conclusions: Our findings indicate evidence of high rates of abuse and neglect in adolescents of Jammu. While gender differences on some types of CAN especially SA differ from western studies, however some familial factors and perpetrator corresponds with the studies.  hide

73.Model to Develop Political Sentiment

By: Santosh Motiram Mulawkar Associate Professor Govt. College of Education Ambajogai Dist Beed , Maharashtra  Show abstract Details

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Now a day every field in life is influenced by politics. Even for ascetic it is not possible to get renunciation of politics. Nobody can live without politics. Therefore, nobody can leave politics. For common person scope of politics is limited to person’s field. Therefore, it is better to define human being as political animal. All political parties from national level to regional level have been reached up to election of body of festival of housing society. All political parties are using common persons to get power and to be in power. All political parties are only assuring and doing nothing. Every common person is facing political conflict to go to which party this or that it remains political dilemma for common person to vote to which party this or that. Political leaders also change their political party as change of dress. They usually change their political party in search power or when they are removed from power. Their behavior increases political conflict of common person. Due to this political conflict so called educated persons avoid voting. Poor persons sale their votes. However, politics reaches up to level of home. The remedy on this problem is to develop political literacy, political affection leading political sentiment. This paper of mine is an honest attempt in this respect to state model to develop political sentiment. This model seems to be practicable and advantageous.  hide

74.Does Social Networking Sites (Facebook) Promote Young Adults Life Satisfaction?

By: Seema Vinayak and Seema Aggarwal, Department of Psychology, Panjab University,Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Life satisfaction is a global judgement of subjective well being. In today’s scenario where almost everyone is online, it becomes all the more important to study how online experiences influence life satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to find out whether facebook usage promotes young adults life satisfaction? A random sample for the same was collected from the tricity area i.e. Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. A group of 30 subjects in the age group of 19-23 years were administered a Facebook Intensity Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Correlation and descriptive analysis ( mean, S.D and t-ratio) were applied. Results revealed non significant relationship between facebook usage and Life satisfaction.  hide

75.Depression as a Coping Mechanism

By: Shefali Singh and Parul Singh Department of Psychology University of Delhi Delhi  Show abstract Details

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The dominant view is to see depression as a mental disorder resulting out of a lack of coping resources for managing the challenges of daily living. The present study provides an altogether a new lens of viewing depression, not as a problem or an illness, but, as an adaptive coping mechanism that the individual resorts to when there is no other way out, acting more like a negative reinforcement for the individual. Just as coping is the process of attempting to manage the demands created by stressful events that are appraised as taxing or exceeding a person’s resources, depression as a coping mechanism informs the sufferer that current circumstances are imposing a threat to biological fitness, it motivates the sufferer to cease activities that led to the costly situation, if possible, and it causes him or her to learn to avoid similar circumstances in the future. As per the Jungian perspective, depression is functional and purposive because it causes the affected individual to concentrate his or her attention and focus on a complex problem in order to analyze and solve it. To highlight this adaptive function of mental disorders in positive psychology, in-depth interviews of five housewives suffering from depression were taken and were analysed by extracting diverse themes from their interviews. Through these themes it was learned that depression helps deal with the stressful situation with the help of the coping mechanisms of helplessness, escape, rumination, social withdrawal and isolation, and distraction. The major purpose of this study is to highlight the need of therapy that may intervene at the level of the coping mechanism that the client is majorly using as the person keeps on using the same coping mechanism to deal with the crisis. So, we need to break in this cycle to allow inner, unconscious, healing to take place by serving as an anchor for them. Such an approach will not only help the client to overcome their problems but it also allows them maintain that state through that unconscious healing.  hide

76.Understanding of Self Control in Indian Context

By: Shefali Singh, Parul Singh, Bhanu Prakash N. & Richa Malhotra Department of Psychology University of Delhi Delhi  Show abstract Details

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What people enjoy is not the sense of being in control, but the sense of exercising control in difficult situations. So, Self Control is about a desire to control oneself, one’s inner states, in order to moderate the impact of aversive events on our emotions, thoughts and wellbeing. But the traditional understanding has been to define internal control within the realm of outcome expectancy construct where consciousness is believed to have no effect on actions. This limits the understanding of control to expectancies about reinforcer and outcomes which doesn’t given a complete picture especially in the Indian culture. Therefore through the medium of present study a new definition of self control has been put forward from the perspective of the acting agency. So, internal control is where self is acting as an agency to regulate oneself as it is independent of the social environment whereas external control is where self is acting as an agency to regulate others or is being regulated by others as it is dependent on the social environment. The objective of the study was to see how this new understanding of control function and affect perceived subjective wellbeing of people. It was found that people falling under the dimension combination of high internal control with average external control had the highest perceived subjective wellbeing. This further shows that people from collective culture like ours balance both the types of control in order to have a healthy wellbeing unlike in the individualistic culture which gives more importance to controlling their environment.  hide

77.Burnout among Public and Private Sector Managers

By: Kiran Sahu and Shelley, Department of Psychology,G.D.H.G. College Moradabad  Show abstract Details

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The present study was an attempt to find out differences regarding burnout among public and private sector managers. A total sample of 200 managers (100 males and 100 females) from different organizations of Delhi city was included in the study. The data was collected by using Maslach Burnout Inventory developed by Maslach & Jackson (1981). The results revealed that there were significant differences regarding burnout among public and private sector managers. On the basis of mean it has been observed that private sector managers scored higher on the dimensions of burnout such as emotional exhaustion and depersonalization as compared to public sector managers. On the other hand public sector managers have scored higher on personal accomplishment than private sectors. This shows that private sectors have high level of burnout as compared to public sectors. Regarding the dimensions of burnout gender differences were found to be significant. When we look at the mean values we found that in private sectors males and females scored higher on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and scored lower on personal accomplishment than public sectors. Overall on comparing means we experienced that among public and private sectors males scored higher on emotional exhaustion while females scored slightly higher on depersonalization than males and have high level of personal accomplishment as compared to males.This indicate that females suffered low burnout than males.  hide

78.The Effect of Stuttering on the Youth

By: Shonali Sud, Vandana Cecil, Supriya Chaudhary & Jasmeen Kaur, St. Bede’s College, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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Stuttering as a disorder disrupts the normal flow of speech and may be a result of emotional trauma, head injury, or a developmental defect. Stuttering leaves a scar on one’s personality as one begins to feel incompetent and nervous. The present study was conducted on 50 female college students (n=25 who stuttered and n=25 who did not stutter), in terms of their college academic achievement. Major findings reveal that those who stuttered showed a significantly lower achievement score as compared to those who did not stutter. Results also indicate that stutterers spoke of how they were constantly reminded of their defect in school and told to speak slowly, regulate their breathing, made to gradually progress from simple to complex sentences, practice reading aloud and so on, which made them feel that they were suffering from some disorder and therefore different from the normal children. This study is a pointer towards the fact that stutterers should be treated as normal people which can help them to overcome this shortcoming and cope with this aspect with less stress.  hide

79.Level of Adjustment on Basis of Gender in Middle Aged Couples Everyday Life

By: Shweta Nema and Naina Gulati, Banasthali Vidyapith, Department of Home Science, Rajasthan  Show abstract Details

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Middle age is characterized by competence, maturity, responsibility and stability. This is the time when one wants to enjoy the success of job, satisfaction derived from the family and social life. People look forward to the success of their children, aging parents, the use of leisure time and plans for old age. In this period people find vast changes in many areas of their lives, their relationships, their work, and even to question the meaning of it all. The study was to explore the effect of middle aged couples everyday life in these different areas (such as: health, home, social, marital, emotional and financial). The main objective was to determine the variations in all the variables of adjustment in middle aged couples. The sample consisted of 124 respondents, out of which 62 were males and 62 females (mean age= 50 to 65). To measure adjustment we used Shamshad-Jasbir Old-age Adjustment Inventory (SJOAI) created by Dr. Shamshad Hussain and Dr. Jasbir Kaur. Middle aged men and women badly need health care, financial assistance, social recognition and counseling service to cope with concomitant stress, ‘sense of isolation’, ‘feeling of social deprivation due to negligence” ‘feeling of disability and dependency’, ‘low self-esteem’ and ‘lethargic feelings’. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test analysis. Statistical analysis was done according to the objectives of this with the help of SPSS software. T-test was used to analyze the results which indicated that there were found significant differences between two genders (male and female) in the areas of health, home, social, marital, emotional and financial adjustment. The result of the study revealed that there is a significant impact of these areas on males’ as well as females’ adjustment level.  hide

80.Wellness Counselling for Children With Cancer: A Case Study Analysis

By: Sreehari Ravindranath and Joseph Thomas, School of Life Skills Education, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Chennai  Show abstract Details

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The fact that Counselling among chronically ill adolescents is not researched in a positive, holistic, systemic and integrated manner is a cause for concern .(Wissing & Van Eeden, 1997, Wissing, 2000). Researchers in the health and social sciences traditionally used a pathogenic paradigm as point of departure for their investigations and interventions, which implied an orientation towards abnormality, sickness, disease and dysfunction as the direct opposite of wellbeing (Strümpfer, 1995, 2002). Knowledge thus generated was used to develop ways for treating and preventing each of these undesired states of health. This one-sided approach verifies the fact that attention should also be given to research on wellbeing aspects. Hence this approach would focus on developing the positive aspects and strengths among these adolescents even while they are battling with different kinds of chronic illness. Wellness counselling process is fundamentally a blend of individual counselling as well as the recently evolved concept of coaching and facilitative training with a basic objective to provide psychological first aid and facilitate the grieving and healing process. This study highlights the impact of Wellness Counselling for enhancing the wellbeing of the children affected with cancer. A total of 5 adolescents were taken for this study. Wellness counselling along with the medication for almost two months will be given for 2 months of time. The result of the study indicates that, counselling as an intervention was very much useful for these children to enhance their psychological wellbeing.  hide

81.An Attempt for a Practical Solution to Overcome Stressful Environment/Situations Skilfully

By: Subramanya D. Sanbhat  Show abstract Details

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Modern life is full of hassles, deadlines, frustrations and demands more so due to the fast pace at which life is moving. In a world riddled with such high expectations, deadlines and competition, it is difficult to stay grounded. And being grounded means avoiding the state of constant stress that one would be left with, by the end of each week. Yes, weekends are the only recovery times of sorts. Despite this, one can argue that stress is good. In the animal kingdom, adrenaline and other stress hormones jumpstart an organism’s “fight-or-flight” response, which can help it avoid becoming dinner. But in animals such as humans where stress can be created through experiences and mental processes, these temporary stress systems can be switched on permanently. For many such people, stress is so commonplace that it has become a way of life. Stress is not always bad, but when you are constantly running in emergency mode, your mind and body pays the price. If you frequently find yourself feeling frazzled and overwhelmed, it’s time to take action to bring your nervous system back into balance. As highlighted in National Geographic’s special on this “silent killer,” chronic stress can lead to heart disease, depression and a slew of other health problems. Given what we know about the topic, the question remains: Is it possible for humans and other primates with hierarchical societies to live without chronic stress? To understand stress in humans, let us first know what stress implies for an inanimate object say, a metal specimen. Stress for such an object (as defined in engineering) is the resisting force (which the inanimate object counters against the applied force) divided by the surface area of that object coming in contact (perpendicular or parallel) with the applied force. So, larger/smaller the force, larger/smaller is the stress considering a constant area. However, if we were to consider a constant force, then larger would be the stress for smaller area or vice-versa. This paper has attempted to: • Put this concept across towards animate subjects such as humans and other primates. • Learn how to recognize the signs and symptoms of stress. • Take steps to reduce its harmful effects and have the solution inbuilt within us considering that stress is a part of today’s fast life i.e. one way would be to work backwards from the stressful environment and find the efficient means to bring the balance in life back to normal by putting into regular practice such means that would calm the mind and bring in the appropriate normal body posture.  hide

82.An Analysis to Determine Low Turnover of Medals Tally at International Level Sporting Events from Indian Men and Women

By: Subramanya D. Sanbhat  Show abstract Details

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We know that a few decades ago international level sporting events for India (considering individual events only) have been the privilege of a selected men and women only. By selected means those who could afford to invest for themselves or sponsor sportspersons the heavy cost of equipments, infrastructure, coaches, diet controls, medications, etc. and thus prove their worth. Assuming, a good infrastructure and other requisites as on today, a lot more talented young and dynamic men and women are emerging trying to make a mark for themselves in sports. But, it is disappointing to know that medals are not being churned out by them. Even if they do so, a consistency of such a feat is not to be seen. The paper tries to focus this problem as a spectator from two perspectives viz. • High expectations from self - Perfectionism • High expectations from society - Typecasting Perfectionists criticize themselves for making mistakes, often hold high and unrealistic expectations for them and tend to get frustrated easily after making mistakes. On the positive side, one will find some advantages to perfectionism in young sports persons. Perfectionist players have a strong work ethic, are highly committed to their goals and are willing to learn and improve. These positive traits often disguise the problems that are associated with perfectionism in sports. These players are so motivated that others often do not think of them as having mental game struggles. Sports persons who try to be perfect can undermine their performance in many ways. They focus too much on results. This gets them stuck in a vicious cycle of working hard, setting higher expectations and then thinking they are failing to reach their expectations. It is important to understand that perfectionist’s often unknowingly embrace very high expectations. They do this unconsciously. When they don't achieve their expectations, they feel frustrated. They feel like they have failed. Perfectionists think that maintaining very high and often unrealistic expectations is a good thing. It is ironic because their need to succeed in sports causes fear of failure, which can undermine their performance. Fear of failure kicks in when they cannot meet their expectations. They become frustrated, lose composure and assume they are under performing. Then they do not achieve their full potential in sports. They begin to think they are failing at some level. This burden of high expectations say, for winning a medal before the actual events and fear of failure which again kicks in when they cannot meet expectations of others, similar to the issue of typecasting (sports) i.e. from our society, when after winning a medal you are expected to repeat such feats again and again to be in the limelight, seems to be the main problem. This paper presents a solution to play the sports event with an approach that not only reduces the formerly said burden but also shadows the latter mentioned typecasting as observed in our society.  hide

83.Depression in Working and Nonworking Elderly Women

By: Swati Mishra, Lecturer in N.S.N.P.G College, Lucknow and A.Shukla,Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology , Lucknow University Lucknow  Show abstract Details

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Depression may be described as feeling sad, blue, unhappy, miserable, or down in the dumps. Most of us feel this way at one time or another for short periods. True clinical depression is a mood disorder in which feelings of sadness, loss, anger, or frustration interfere with everyday life for weeks or longer. The exact cause of depression is not known. Many researchers believe it is caused by chemical changes in the brain. This may be due to a problem with your genes, or triggered by certain stressful events. More likely, it's a combination of both. Some types of depression run in families. But depression can also occur if you have no family history of the illness. Anyone can develop depression, even kids. In this empirical paper an attempt has been made to compare the level of depression in working and nonworking elderly women. For this Beck depression inventory-II developed and standardized by Beck (1979) were administered on a sample of 30 working and nonworking women. The obtained results revealed the significance difference between working and nonworking elderly women in term of depression. The level of depression was found high among working women as compared to nonworking women.  hide

84.Psychological Well-Being of the Senior Citizens in relation with their Depression and Loneliness

By: Swati Shah, Department of Extension Education and Communication Management and Department of Human Development and Family Studies College of Home Science, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The elderly people constitutes a good proportion of the population (7.4% according to 2001 census) and it is continuously growing due to the advancement in healthcare services but numerous physical, psychological and social problems challenges them to live happily..It has been observed in India that with increase in technology advancement, social transformations has been occurring and joint families have split into nuclear families. With this phenomenal change in structure of Indian society , elderly people are the one who face major psychological problems. They are left with no one to care, contact and listen to their problems, resulting in loneliness and depression among them. The present study was conducted with aim of investigating the relationship between psychological well-being of the elderly people and their depression and loneliness. The study was conducted in the Hissar city of Haryana. A total of 60 elderly people of age 60 years and above were taken as respondents from families and old age homes, to find out the correlation of psychological well-being with their loneliness and depression. The psychological well-being was measured by using the “PGC Morale Scale”. The depression and loneliness were measured using “Beck Depression Inventory” and “UCLA Loneliness Scale” tools, respectively. The statistical results of the study revealed that psychological well-being of elderly people are negatively correlated with the depression and loneliness.  hide

85.Job Involvement of Working Women in Relation to their Organizational Climate

By: T. Vijayakumari  Show abstract Details

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Job involvement is a management and leadership philosophy about how people are enabled to contribute continuous improvement and the ongoing success of their organization. To plan, Coordinate and control its various activities, an organization requires individuals who, in their day-today interactions, reflect a variety of leadership styles and skills in dealing with their subordinates. Modern Indian women have made inroads into different professions that were unthinkable to women in the past. Present research is an attempt to analyze the job involvement of working women in relation to their organizational climate. Objectives of the study: 1. To assess the job involvement of working women. 2. To find out the relationship between the working women’s job involvement and their organization’s climate. Hypotheses of the study were: 1. There is no relationship between job involvement of working women and their organizational climate. 2. Working women’s education does not influence their job involvement. 3. Working women’s nature of job does not influence their job involvement. 4. Working women’s type of family and type of organization do not influence their job involvement.The dependent variable of the present study is job involvement of working women. The independent variable of the present study is organization’s climate. In addition to these psychological variables the study also includes employee’s demographical variables like working women’s nature of job, qualification, type of organization, and type of family. To assess the working women’s job involvement “Job Involvement Scale’’ by Ashok Pratap singh (1989) was used. This scale consists of 40 items and all items are in the form of statement. Organizational Climate was assessed using an Organizational climate Scale developed by Singh (1989). The scale contains 31 items and all the items are to be rated on five point rating scale ranging on the continuum of highly satisfied to highly dissatisfied. It is divided into 9 dimensions and all the 9 dimensions of organizational climate are sought to be measured. Using simple random sampling procedure, 75 women were selected from ten organizations. The sample includes women teachers, women from IT profession and unskilled women workers. Out of 1000 questionnaire given to the employees only 680 were returned. The coefficient of correlation between working women’s job involvement and their organizational climate is indicates that working women’s job involvement depends on their organizational climate. Teachers and women working in private organization, post graduate working women show more job involvement. Statistical results indicated that working women’s job involvement depends on the type of the organizational climate Working women come from joint family and nuclear family remains in the same category. The investigation is an attempt to study the job involvement of working women. It tries to find out the job involvement of working women with their organizational climate. Working women’s job involvement depends on their organizational climate. Better organizational climate leads more involvement.  hide

86.Relationship between Spiritual Health and Life Satisfaction in Police Personnel in Uttar Pradesh

By: Vertika Singh and P.C.Mishra, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, UP  Show abstract Details

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Spiritual health may not be something that you think much of, yet its impact on your life is unavoidable. The basis of spirituality is discovering a sense of meaningfulness in your life and coming to know that you have a purpose to fulfill thus leading to job satisfaction and in turn life satisfaction. The present study is an attempt to examine the relationship between Spiritual Health and Life Satisfaction in Police Personnel in Uttar Pradesh. Keeping in mind their stressful lifestyle, work pressure, erratic work hours and lack of sleep, it was felt necessary to study the relationship between spiritual health and life satisfaction. Police personnel were selected randomly and a sample of 300 was taken for the present study from across Uttar Pradesh. The Spiritual Health Scale developed by Nevid Rathus and Rubenstein (1998) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) developed by Diener et al (1985) was administered on the subjects. Results revealed a high positive relationship between the two. The higher the spiritual intelligence of a person, the higher was their satisfaction with life.  hide

87.Work Life Balance – A Conceptual Evaluation of Its Maturity across Industries

By: Vasudha Singh Faculty(HR), Usha Martin Academy, Ranchi  Show abstract Details

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The escalating rate of work-life conflicts and increasing distress about work life issues in the corporate arena signify both a challenge and an opportunity for Human Resource (HR). In today’s fast-paced society, it becomes very challenging to improve employee morale, retain employees with valuable company knowledge, and keep pace with the workplace trends. Work –life aspects affects employees’ well- being in innumerable ways, hence an important area of concern for organization and individuals alike. It becomes a necessity for organizations to adopt human resource strategies and policies that accommodate the work-life needs of a diverse workforce in the current business environment. Aligning people to jobs and the other facet such as family, and other activities, it becomes a challenge to keep a balance between work and family. Changes in the demographic make-up of the workforce and the increasing double-income households have been the primary impetus for the increased focus on work and family issues. The term work life balance is no longer only a woman related issue. Initially it was recognized and constructed as a concern of working mothers, but now it’s an issue of today’s workforce itself which includes all classes of employee. It can impact work related issues like productivity and morale of the employees in an organization. Professional life has an immense impact on the personal life of an individual. Advancement of technologies and changing materialistic attitudes, diversities in professions has been the primary dictators of the work-life balance scenario. With the rapid development of science and the eagerness to gain domestic comfortability, human beings have become slaves of machines and work. Imbalances have been witnessed due to major changes in the work schedules across sectors. A larger part of the credit is attributed to the IT, Health Care, Retail and Hospitality sector. Working on the same lines, this paper seeks to conceptually reflect on some of the contemporary perspectives and contributions of different researchers. Also the antecedents and consequences of work family balance are considered for analysis.  hide

88.Exploration on the Psychological Penchant for Today’s Most Ideal Careers

By: Vidya N., M.Sc. Psychology, Dept. of Psychology, Union Christian College, Aluva  Show abstract Details

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“In which entrance coaching center has your child joined”, this is a very familiar statement among today’s public and be it at a formal or casual get together. And if the very child happens to be a commerce student, then option shifts to the most obvious choice of joining the CA institute. It’s a highly evident fact that almost 85% of India’s student population, coming from a science background tries the entrance exams in order to join an engineering or medical institution. And about 50% of commerce students attempt CA. But actually are they “all” really interested in their respective fields is a question that need to be answered. Of course there would be a good number who aspire for it but the existence of the forced or taken away cannot be forgotten. Currently, the study intended to explore the personality factors, leadership styles and emotional intelligence among professionals as a contributor to this immense inclination towards them. Sample of 120, 40 doctors, engineers and charted accountants each were selected. The Five Factor Personality Inventory by Dr. Neelima Ranjith and Dr. Kumari Bhagavathy G.P, the Path- Goal Leadership Questionnaire by Dr. J. Indvik, University of Wisconsin-Madison, (1985, 1988), and Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire by European Health Psychology Society (EHPS) were administered. The data obtained was statistically analyzed and student‘t’ test, f test and correlation were used. Results indicated that there were significant differences in leadership styles (directive 7.75**, supportive 27.01**, participative 4.89*, achievement-oriented 40.87), personality factors (extraversion 8.55**, agreeableness 5.20**, conscientiousness 1.12, neuroticism6.82**, openness to experience 1.70), and emotional intelligence (communicating emotion 22.94**, emotional fluency1, flexibility and balance23.63**, self esteem14.22**) among the considered professionals. The study concluded that an individual’s personality, practicing leadership styles and emotional intelligence are unique and one’s professional attributes are dependent on them.  hide

89.Believing in Counseling, a Prerequisite for Health Counseling Effectiveness after disasters

By: Yahya Bazyarizadeh, Family Counseling Red Crescent Society of Hormozgan Province of Iran, Iran  Show abstract Details

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A severe earthquake measuring 5.9 on the richter scale took place in Qeshm Island, south of iran on 25 November, 2005, leaving 9 casualties, 70 people injured and about 3500 dwelling houses demolished. overally, some 20,000 residents were affected by the quake. the rescue and relief operation by the red crescent society of hormozgan province throughout the disaster were carried out through interaction with the local institutions and the structured, voluntarily participation of the citizens who were members of numerous relief committees. the red crescent society of qeshm, after the initial reaction, to provide facilities and speeding up the rehabilitation and psychological- physical health restoration of the affected people, especially the vulnerable groups (including the elderly, pregnant and lactating mothers, kids and patients) adopted measures as regards to forming and dispatching a health counseling group to the accident affected regions. the group was comprised of psychologist, general practitioner, nurse, obstetrician and environmental hygiene specialist with leadership of the red crescent society of qeshm director.daily case report analysis and the health counseling group final report showed that the expected results have not been satisfactorily fulfilled. further surveys indicated that weakness or disbelief in consultation in the target population and consequently not welcoming towards using the health counseling services by them as well as their weak commitment as to paying attention to implementing the counselor advices was the major cause for the group failure. based on the findings, a targeted education course was compiled for the care seekers, based on describing the advantages, benefits, and the way the health counseling positively affects their basic knowledge and skills. the course, aiming at promoting the physical and psychological health level of the care seekers was implemented gradually in the affected regions. The second major earthquake of qeshm, measuring 6 on the richter scale took place in the region with similar consequences in september 10, 2008. the red crescent Society of qeshm after rescue and relief operation, once again sent the same counseling group to the region. after analysis of the group performance, a significant and improved difference was observed in the results, indicating promotion of the counseling services effectiveness compared with the previous course. further investigation revealed that the said promotion of effectiveness was attained due to higher belief in consultation by the care clients, caused by the education course effects. conclusion was drawn therefore, that the care clients’ level of belief in consultation is considered as a prerequisite for effectiveness and success of the counseling plans, especially the health counseling in disasters.  hide

90.Gender and Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Adolescent Problems

By: Bhaktidevi Pandit & Triveni Raina, Dept of Psychology, Fergusson College, Pune, Dr. Shobhana C. Abhyankar, Associate Professor, Fergusson College, Pune  Show abstract Details

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This paper examines male and female adolescents’ current problems, broadly divided in four categories: home, school, social and self and compares the male and female gender differences. It studies the relationship of emotional intelligence with adolescent problems and the relative contribution that both make towards the perception of problems. It was hypothesized that emotional intelligence will be inversely correlated with youth problems & male adolescents and female adolescents will not have a significant difference in their overall youth problems, family problems, school/college problems, social problems and personal problems. To test these hypotheses, a random sample of 77 males and 59 female (n=136) students (age- 16 to 21 yrs) were administered with Verma's Youth Problem Inventory (YPI) and Chaddha's Emotional Intelligence Test (EIT). The data was analyzed using the Pearson product moment correlation, point bi-serial correlation, multivariate stepwise regression analysis and the independent samples t-test. It was found that Gender and adolescent problems were negatively correlated (rp,bis = -.34, p<.01), thereby implying that female students experience less problems than male students. Emotional Intelligence was also negatively correlated with Youth problems (r = -.29, p<.01), indicating that as EI increases, youth problems decrease. Gender was a stronger predictor for Youth Problems than Emotional Intelligence, contributing 11% variance in youth problems. Observation has shown that today’s generation has many difficulties, inferiorities and insecurities. Socially conforming to what is considered as ‘cool’, immense peer pressure, increased materialistic needs, generation gap and lack of communication with parents are all a reason to identify problem areas and then help students overcome them. This study is one of the first attempts to comprehend the reasons behind these problems and possible relating factors.  hide

91.Psychological Fallout of Type A, Stress and Anxiety among Hypertensives

By: Anita Sharma, Assistant Professor, Psychology Department, HPU, Shimla-5  Show abstract Details

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The main objective of the present study was to assess the role of psychosocial stress, type A personality, anger and anxiety in hypertensives and normotensives. Hypotheses:(1) The hypertensive’s would not only report heightened elevation of stress, anxiety, Type A behaviour pattern and anger but also its impact when compared with their normotensive counterparts. (2) There would be no significant difference between the genders on the variable of stress, anxiety, Type A behaviour pattern and anger, hence the null hypothesis would stand. 2X2 ANOVAs were used to test the hypotheses. The main findings are: 1). The stress, health anxiety, anger and type A personality traits of hypertensives are significantly higher than normotensives. 2). For gender, the results revealed that males were significantly higher on the level of anxiety, type A personality, whereas, females reported significantly higher level of stress.  hide

92.Impact of Positive Psychology at work place- Self Well – Being & Experiences at Workplace

By: Ekta Sharma, Gopal Surya Tenement, Ahmedabad, Gujarat  Show abstract Details

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The positive psychology of the employee can be the catalyst of the organizational growth. One of the biggest challenges confronted by workplaces today is work related stress which causes health problems and hence higher absenteeism and higher turnover. So, wellbeing techniques and tools can be an antidote for the negativities of the workplace. The present study aims to find out the impact of Workplace experiences on the well being of the employee. The study has been conducted on the sample of 120 employees. The data pertaining to an employee perspective of ‘Self Well Being’ at work place has been collected through a General Satisfaction with life scale (GSWL) and Scale of positive and negative experiences at workplace (SPANE). As the results of the survey shows, the employee well being is not high, which corroborates the non salubrious work place environment. So, if the economic growth has to be accelerated the well being of the employee should be given utmost importance.  hide

93.Research in the Classroom: Effect of Picture Writing Practice Programme in Overcoming Language Disorders and Developing Language and Writing Ability

By: Talwar Mini Satish  Show abstract Details

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A lot of research is being undertaken around the world to decipher the best way to deal with the problems of students and teachers alike. On one hand is the effort to bring every child in the mainstream and on the other hand are factors like language disorders which are sometimes more psychological that medical. The present research is an attempt to find out if picture writing practice programme can help teachers in overcoming language disorders and developing language and writing ability.  hide

94.Happiness in Relation to Social Skills and Self-Esteem among Youths

By: Sandeeep Panchal,Research Scholar, Defence Institute of Psychology Research, Delhi and H. L. Joshi, Assistant Professor, Dept. of Psychology, K.U. Kurukshetra  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between happiness, social skills and self-esteem in youths. The sample consists of 200 undergraduate and postgraduate students (Male 76 and Female 124) within age ranged from 18 to 24 years. Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) by Argyle, Martin and Crossland (1989), Social Skills Inventory (SSI) by Riggio (1986), and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) by Coopersmith (1975) were administered to all the respondents. The data were analyzed by using Descriptive statistics i.e. mean and SD, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation and regression analysis. The result revealed that High happiness and low happiness group youth differ significantly on the measure of self-esteem, emotional sensitivity, Social expressivity and social control variable. The correlational analysis revealed that happiness variable found to be positively significant with self- esteem, emotional sensitivity, social expressivity and social control. The step wise Multiple regression analysis found two predictors of Happiness i.e. self-esteem Social expressivity. These predictors account only 48% of total variance in happiness.  hide

95.Delinquency Proneness in Relation to Neighborhood Environment of Adolescents

By: Supninder Kaur, Assistant Professor in Education, P.K.R. Jain College of Education, Ambala city and Rita Chopra, Professor, Department of Education, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra  Show abstract Details

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This study was conducted to explore (a) delinquency proneness, (b) neighborhood environment perception of the adolescents and to examine (c) relation between neighborhood environment and delinquency proneness. The sample of the study consisted of 280 adolescents of Haryana. Delinquency Proneness Scale (constructed and standardized by the investigator) and Neighborhood Environment Inventory (constructed and standardized by the investigator) were used. The study reveals that Delinquency proneness is negatively related to cohesion and active-recreational orientation in the neighborhood where as conflict in the neighborhood is positively related to Delinquency Proneness.  hide

96.Impact of occupational stress on job involvement in nursing personnel

By: Deepa Pandey, Amity University of MP,Gwalior and P.C.Mishra, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, UP  Show abstract Details

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Job involvement which refers to the degree to which a individual internalizes himself with the organization. The concept of job involvement has gained significance because of it’s important role in providing link between productivity and employee’s need and the quality of his working life. Occupational stress play very important role in job involvement of duties of nurses. Researchers in India attempted to determine the relationship of job involvement with demographic perceived importance of job factors, different occupational groups, anxiety, role stress variables like role conflict and role ambiguity ,company satisfaction of employee needs. The stress has become as inevitable part of nurse’s life in modern world representing serious costs for organization in human and monetary terms. The present study is directed at determining the impact of occupational stress on the job involvement in nurses. The job involvement has been treated as dependent variable; occupational stress has been treated as independent variable. The occupational stress index (Srivastava & Singh 1981) and Job Involvement Scale (Kapoor & Singh 1978) were administered on a sample of 200 nurses. The result shows that occupational stress adversely affect the job involvement in nursing personnel.  hide

97.Online Intimate Relationship: Nature and Communication Pattern

By: Mamta Ambujanani, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad and Prof. Ajit k. Dalal, Head, Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad  Show abstract Details

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The internet is not about technology and information, it is about communication, people talking with each other. The rapid growth of personal e-mail communication, instant messaging and online communities has caught attention of the social scientists to the establishment of online interpersonal relations. The purpose of the present study was to explore the online intimate relationship, a kind of virtual interpersonal relationship, to investigate the communication pattern by focusing on some dynamics of online intimate/close friend relationship, some dimensions of intimacy, like trust, similarity, self disclosure, commitment, and text communication. The information was collected from members of online communities, Orkut, Facebook and chat rooms with the help of online questionnaire. The analysis was done on questions related to dynamics of online intimate relationship with opposite sex, covered by section 1 of the questionnaire, section 2 included a scale of Intimacy, and questions on five dimensions of intimacy that are trust, commitment, similarity, predictability, self disclosure, and communication pattern in the context of online relations. The findings suggest that Social Networking Sites (SNSs) like Orkut and Facebook are mostly used sites and promoting the formation of online socio-emotional attachments. People make online friends who belong to same age, qualification and occupation. Self discloser is found the most important component of intimacy in online relationship as compared to other components. The communication pattern is also intimate type like emotional involvement and hyper personal.  hide

98.Self Esteem, Collective Self Esteem and Anxiety in relation to Indirect Aggression among Male and Female Employees

By: Nishtha, MA Applied Psychology  Show abstract Details

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The present study explored the relationship of Self Esteem, Collective Self Esteem and Anxiety in relation to Indirect Aggression among Male and Female employees because of competitive work environment especially in private sector and the changing world due to globalization, economic recession has resulted in increased work pressure on employees that has led to changes in personal, social and familial adjustments leading to aggression among employees. The absence of studies regarding the contribution of other factors such as self-esteem or group identity in Indian context that might be related to the use or presence of indirect aggression strategies has led to study the correlates of indirect aggression in an organization. The sample for the study included 120 participants with equal number of male (N=60) and female (N=60) employees from a private sector organization. A co-relational research design using two groups was followed with the predictor variables being personal self-esteem, collective self-esteem and anxiety; the dependent (criterion) variable being the indirect aggression and the control variable being the hierarchy with participants from the same management level. Data was obtained through survey by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965), Collective Self-Esteem Scale (Luhtanen and Crocker, 1992), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, 1983) and The Work Harassment Scale, indirect aggression (Bjorkqvist, Osterman, and Lagerspetz, 1994). The most important findings of the study revealed that the indirect aggression was significantly predicted by personal self-esteem in male employees and by personal self-esteem and trait anxiety in female employees. High personal self-esteem reduces the expression and experience of indirect aggression. Female employees perceive situations as threatening differently from male employees and this heightened state of arousal (Trait anxiety) directs indirect aggression. There was significant correlation (negative) among personal self-esteem and importance to identity collective self-esteem with indirect aggression in male employees and among female employee’s personal self-esteem and membership collective self-esteem was significantly correlated (negative) with indirect aggression. Collective self-esteem is one’s acceptance and acknowledgement of membership to a group. Higher the level of personal self-esteem, importance to identity collective self-esteem and membership collective self-esteem reported by both male and female employees less they experienced indirect aggression and vice versa. An important implication of the study is that organizations need employees to have a higher level of independence, self-reliance, self-trust, and the capacity to exercise initiative i.e. self-esteem and the development of the same needs to be stressed by developing various organizational strategies with a focus to reduce the indirect form of aggression that will perpetuate a healthy, work friendly environment.  hide

99.Management of Anxiety among School Children

By: Radhika Taroor, Student Counselor cum Instructor in Behavioral Science, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE  Show abstract Details

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The present study determines the level of Anxiety in school children and suggests remedial measures to cope up with the same to offset its harmful effects. The study used an experimental design was conducted on 450 students of grade VI – XII (11- 17 years) from a randomly selected Higher Secondary School, India. Multiphase sampling was adopted. The 100 students with the highest level of anxiety were chosen for intervention 50 randomly allocated into the Experimental Group and the remaining 50 for Control group. The Experimental group students were given the interventions such as Relaxation for Body and Mind, Low Frequency Breathing Exercise for 4 weeks, 1 hour per day. Both boys and girls were included for the study. Structured Questionnaire State – Trait Anxiety Inventory was used for data collection. t- test was applied to find out the significant differences between the means. The level of Anxiety of the subjects in the experimental group (75%) was significantly less than that of the control group (99.6%) after the intervention program and an overall improvement in scores (marks) was noticed. Girls showed significantly reduced levels of Anxiety from a Mean score of 99.85 to 76.35. Boys were found performing better in academics and extracurricular activities (74.2%). The research was highly rewarding and outlined the benefits of intervention for decreasing anxiety and improving scholastic performance of the adolescent students. The schools may introduce similar programs for the students with high anxiety levels.  hide

100.Dealing Life Hassles' with Hypnotherapy: Case Studies

By: Shruti Khare, Practicing Hypnotherapist, Agra, Uttar Pradesh  Show abstract Details

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There are many small events of the daily life can add up to serious problems if suitable options for the relaxation cannot be found. Present paper introduces hypnotherapy and its techniques for relaxation and dealing with problem like exam anxiety and stress relaxation. People suffer symptoms of stress evidencing in a kind of physical symptoms, of diverse levels of severity, e.g. headaches, anxiety, and incapability to cope with life generally (Jackson, 1993). The relaxation process is considered to counter balance the stress and anxiety process. Hypnotherapy is the art of letting out and calming down emotions and feelings that are disquieting. Two powerful tools of hypnotherapy are: creative visualization and hypnotic scripting. Where creative visualization is a psychological technique that uses a person’s subjective power of imagination to create mental visual image which he/she desires in life; Hypnotic Scripting is carefully written safe, positively oriented, amicable to hear, and empowering transcriptions, suggestions of what therapist says to induce a hypnotic state and create desirable, positive life change. The purpose of the present paper is to look at the benefits of these hypnotic techniques and utilize it in dealing with life problems. The paper mentions two case studies to elaborate and explain how the hypnotherapy works. So when someone has to come across the same stressful situations in future, the approach and reactions will be different after hypnotherapy.  hide

101.The Effectiveness of Software Intervention in Improving the Cognitive Variables Viz., Attention, Memory, Reasoning and Language

By: M. A. Syed Fathima, Ph.D, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore  Show abstract Details

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The digital children live today with an ever-changing influx of new computer-based technologies. Advances in computer technology can help students over-come their reading abilities. This study was conducted to a, develop a software; b, find out the effectiveness of software intervention in improving the cognitive variables viz., attention, memory, reasoning and language skills. The design of this study was two-group randomized design using Talland Letter Cancellation Test and Binet-Kamat Test. Study participants were two hundred learning disability children from four special schools in Chennai, India. The researcher had developed software based on information processing approach and Human-Environment/Technology Interaction Application. The reliability of the software was found to be 1. Attention – 0.816; 2. Memory – 0.816; 3. Reasoning – 0.883 and 4. Language – 0.851. Once the reliability was found, the students were enrolled in computer-assisted cognitive skills training group and a study hall control group for three months intervention. Before and after software intervention, students had their cognitive skills, as well as language skills, evaluated with a battery of tests: Talland Letter Cancellation Test and Binet-Kamat Test. A significant increase in cognitive skills (p<.01) was found only in experimental group. This is an indication of the possible benefits of a computerized cognitive skills training program focused on training attention, memory, reasoning and language skills. Replication of this study could hold far-reaching implications for future educational curricula.  hide

102.Mental Health Concerns of Young Women: Working Model of A Counseling Centre In An Urban Women’s College

By: Jennie Mendes, Vice Principal, Sophia College for Women, Mumbai  Show abstract Details

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Women’s spaces are unique. They come with their resistances and energies to survive in an unequal world. An exclusive women’s college provides benefits that coeducational institutions do not. This study attempts to arrive at and quantify young women’s (students) stressors and their mental health concerns. A cross-sectional stratified sample of 513 female students was administered a Questionnaire to identify stressors and to measure their perception of counseling /help needed. An attempt was further made to validate this quantitative data with an analysis of theme abstractions from a group of 67 student counselees who availed long term services of the counseling center on campus (2008 to 2012).The age distribution in this study is the undergraduate female student below the age of 24. The response rate was 97%. Results revealed 13 themes that would motivate young women to seek guidance. One strong pointer that emerged was the need for guidance was unavoidable. As a preventive approach to mental health all campuses would benefit from such a service  hide

103.Spirituality in Work Environment & Mental Satisfaction

By: Kalpana Sahoo Asst.Prof in OB & HRM Sri Sri University, Odisha  Show abstract Details

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In recent years psychologists have carried out a large numbers of studies to examine the relationship between religious experience and mental health. Some studies indicate a positive association between them, while other show negative relationship. So psychologists have distinguished two forms of religious experiences: external religiosity and internal religiosity. External religiosity is indicted in the form of attending the places of worships, rituals and other outward behaviors. Internal religiosity refers to attitude and values. Accordingly spiritually has been likened to internal religiosity. Spirituality, defined as a search for sacredness, not only highlights the search process; it also involves efforts to hold onto the sacred once it has been discovered .This paper highlights the role spiritualism in workplace and the individual role to develop spiritualism . In addition to effort of spiritually based leaders, organizations need to adopt some useful practices in this direction to face the upcoming challenges.  hide

104.Psychological Correlates of Couples Following Empty Nest Stage

By: Kanika Jindal, The IIS University, Mansarovar, Jaipur  Show abstract Details

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The present study examined the influence of status of couples (living with wards or without wards) and gender on the psychological measures of purpose in life and happiness. Sample for the study consisted of 30 males and 30 females between the age range of 45-55 years (M=49.5) drawn from Jaipur city. The participants were assessed with Purpose in life questionnaire and Happiness measure questionnaire. Results showed that couples living without wards were negatively associated with purpose in life and happiness, however no significant gender difference was observed.  hide

105.The Effectiveness of Experiential Exercises on Emotional Competence and Optimistic-Pessimistic Attitude among Mothers of SOS children village

By: Kokilageetha.P, Trainer for Trainees, SOS Children Village, Puducherry  Show abstract Details

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Today women have entered in diverse fields and are successful. Now-a-days many women have taken up professional roles to enhance their lives. Women working in SOS village should be more emotionally competent and optimistic attitude in thoughts because the children from SOS village are living without their biological families for a variety of reasons. Hence the purpose of the study was to find out the effectiveness of Experiential Exercises on Emotional Competence and Optimistic and Pessimistic attitude among mothers of SOS children. The design of this study was before and after without control group design. Emotional Competence Scale by Sharma, H., and Bhardwaj, R., (1995) and Optimistic and Pessimistic Attitude Scale by Parashar, D. S. (1989) and Training Program-Experiential exercises (Nandita, B., et al., 2011) were used as pre-test and post-test. The sample consisted of fifteen mothers (30 to 45 years) drawn from SOS village, Puducherry, India. All the mothers were included for the study as the experimental group and experiential exercise were given as training for eight weeks. Before and after the training, the mothers were evaluated with the battery of tests: Emotional competence scale and optimistic and pessimistic scale. Result showed that there is no relationship between emotional competence and optimistic-pessimistic attitude. The dimension scores are highly significant with the total sum scores of emotional competence except the dimension - adequate expression and control of emotions (AEC). A significant increase in emotional competence (p<.01) was found but there is no significant change in optimistic and pessimistic attitude. This is the indication of the possible benefits of a training exercise focused on emotional competence. The mean difference of optimistic and pessimistic attitude showed slight difference which indicates when the length of the program increase, there may be a chance of decreasing negative attitude of the mothers.  hide

106.Exploring The Consequences of Having A Chronically Ill Spouse: A Qualitative Study

By: Miny Chandra, Neelima Mishra and P.C Mishra, Department of Psychology, University of Lucknow  Show abstract Details

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Chronic illnesses are health problems that typically result in challenges to physical and psychosocial functioning of an individual. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define chronic disease as “illnesses that are prolonged, do not resolve spontaneously, and are rarely cured completely” (CDC, 2003). The word “chronic” signifies a long term condition encompassing course that may be stable, unpredictable or progressive. An empirical attempt has been made to study and explore the impact of chronic illnesses like Diabetes, Arthritis and Cardiovascular Diseases on marital relationship with reference to effects on self, spouse and significant others (family, friends etc). The paper aims to find out how one perceives the effects of ailment and the level of experienced stress and coping strategies. A semi-structured interview schedule was administered on 20 housewives in the age range of 30 to 70 years having husbands who suffered from chronic diseases. The results showed that the respondents faced stress due to illness of their husbands and they also used various coping strategies like diverting attention, yoga and meditation etc. to cope with it .  hide

107.Music Cognition: Preliminary observations on the aesthetic simplicity of the Lullaby

By: Jennie Mendes, Vice Principal, Sophia College for Women, Mumbai  Show abstract Details

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Lullabies are sung to all infants in all cultures in order to calm and put the baby to sleep. They are simple and repetitive. This preliminary study attempts to repeat earlier studies in the Goan cultural context with non Indian audiences. Thirteen female and twelve male non Indian listeners were presented with the tape excerpts. They were in the age group of twenty six to forty two years and all twenty five did not have any training in music. All participants rated the lullaby as the simpler song  hide

108.Job Involvement of Working Women in Relation to Their Organizational Climate

By: T.Vijayakumari. Student Counsellor, Mailam Engineering College, Villupuram District, Tamilnadu  Show abstract Details

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Job involvement is a management and leadership philosophy about how people are enabled to contribute continuous improvement and the ongoing success of their organization. To plan, Coordinate and control its various activities, an organization requires individuals who, in their day-today interactions, reflect a variety of leadership styles and skills in dealing with their subordinates. Modern Indian women have made inroads into different professions that were unthinkable to women in the past. Present research is an attempt to analyze the job involvement of working women in relation to their organizational climate. To assess the working women’s job involvement “Job Involvement Scale’’ by Ashok Pratap singh (1989) was used. Organizational Climate was assessed using an Organizational climate Scale developed by Singh (1989). Using simple random sampling procedure, 75 women were selected from ten organizations. The sample includes women teachers, women from IT profession and unskilled women workers. Out of 1000 questionnaire given to the employees only 680 were returned. The coefficient of correlation between working women’s job involvement and their organizational climate is indicates that working women’s job involvement depends on their organizational climate. Teachers and women working in private organization, post graduate working women show more job involvement. Statistical results indicated that working women’s job involvement depends on the type of the organizational climate Working women come from joint family and nuclear family remains in the same category. The investigation is an attempt to study the job involvement of working women. It tries to find out the job involvement of working women with their organizational climate. Working women’s job involvement depends on their organizational climate. Better organizational climate leads more involvement  hide

109.Corporal Punishment- Why Punish or Punished

By: G. Bhadramani, Asst Professor in Psychology, SPW Degree & PG College, Tirupati  Show abstract Details

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There is a lot of hue and cry regarding the prevalence of corporal punishment in the countries around the world. Innumerable studies have probed into the width and depth of the problem. Lengthy reports were presented with respect to the kinds and consequences of punishment on the student’s academic and personal life. As a consequence most of the countries have banned corporal punishment at school and home. In spite of the presence of strict laws condemning corporal punishment, it is still a regular practice resorted by many a teacher in schools today. The present paper makes an attempt to understand the modalities operating behind the use and abuse of punishment in schools. Why teachers resort to corporal punishment and why students invite it by adopting undesirable behavior in the classroom were discussed in the present paper.  hide

110.Role Stress, Marital Adjustment and Social Support among Teachers

By: Sandhya Ojha Associate Professor Department of Psychology, SAKPG College, Varanasi  Show abstract Details

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Women in present era are related to family and job. Thus job and family demand increase marital, mental, emotional and social problem. With this background present study examine the role stress, marital adjustment and social support between primary teachers and college teachers and also assess the relationship of this variable between primary teachers and college teachers. Role stress scale for working women by Bhatia & Srivastava (2005), Marrital adjustment Inventory by Bhatia & Sharma (2005) and Social Support Scale Asthana and & Verma (2005) was administered on 100 female teachers (50 primary teachers and 50 college teachers). Result indicates that there is no significant difference between primary teachers and college teachers on the level of role stress, marital adjustment and social support. Further result indicates that as a paid worker and as a mother dimension of role stress there is significant difference between primary teachers and college.  hide

111.Importance of Self Esteem among Students in Academic Performance and Coping with Stress

By: Pravakar Duari, Research Scholar, Department of Applied psychology, Pondicherry University  Show abstract Details

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Self-esteem reflects a person's overall self-appraisal on their own worth. Self-esteem is the dispositions to experience for student to become competent and to cope with the basic challenges of their life and of being worthy of happiness. Self-esteem is impotence concept for student for success, achievement, fulfillment, happiness in his/her life. Considering the importance, the study was designed to measure the self esteem of students. In the contemporary life-style, students are susceptible to stress in every phase of life. From the childhood to the late adulthood, stress acts as a threat to health-physical, psychological, social and spiritual. This two-group study includes 160 participants selected by random sampling method, out of which 80 males and 80 females. The subjects were administered by Cooper smith’s Self Esteem Inventory and Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Mermeistein, 1983) Personal stress test and the data were analyzed by means of ‘t’ test and Pearson ‘r’. The results revealed that female students were significantly higher in self esteem and than males. Self esteem was found to have significant positive relationship with academic performance. Self esteem was significantly negatively correlated with perceived stress among student. Implications and future direction of the study have been discussed in light of related literature.  hide

112.Behind the Iron Curtain: A Challenge to the Social Self

By: Ruby Gupta, Deptt. Of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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A ubiquitous aspect of today’s social life is Internet and in many people’s lives-its subset-Facebook. It depends upon one’s perspective to view it as just the social networking to stay connected with old and new friends and putting a step ahead to disseminate the required concern for various social issues or a way to live the virtual world in your own manner. An instant rage, Facebook has made its reach from metros to mandis. Though, it has been brought under scanner in the past few months by the moral, ethical as well as legal agencies specially after the episodes of N-E Exodus, hatred calls by one religion for other religions, Facebook is posing certain serious threats to psychological health also. The researchers say that the symptoms of Facebook Addiction are quite similar to that of any other substance addiction. More of the findings are discussed in the light of empirical data  hide

113.The Relationship of Parenting Stress with Subjective Well Being amongst Children

By: Shweta Kenneth, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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This investigation is an attempt to determine the relationship of parenting stress with subjective well being amongst children. The sample comprised 360 children (males {180} and females {180}), in the age range of 8-10, randomly selected from the various schools of Patiala, and their respective parents. The children were administered the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Pavot & Diener, 1993), Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (Huebner, 2001), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children {PANAS-C} (Laurent et al., 1999), while their respective parents were administered the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (Abidin, 1995) to assess parent’s parenting stress. Correlation analysis of the data results reveal that parental distress correlated negatively with satisfaction with school (-.15**) and the total domain specific life satisfaction (-.11*), while, correlating positively with negative affect (.15**). Difficult child was inversely related to positive affect (.15**), satisfaction with friends (-.12*), school (-.14**), living environment (-.12*) and the total domain specific life satisfaction (-.13*). Parent-child dysfunctional interaction correlated negatively with children’s positive affect (-.11*), while, showing a positive correlation with children’s negative affect (.14**). Total parenting stress was negatively correlated to satisfaction with school (-.15**), living environment (-.11*), positive affect (-.13*) and the total domain specific life satisfaction (-.12*), but displayed a positive correlation with their negative affect (.22**). The correlations demonstrate that parenting stress not only influences parent’s psychological health but also has an inverse impact on the child’s emotional functioning, thus reducing the child’s subjective well being. Parents are role models for their children, but distressed parents are unable to provide the necessary stimulation that promotes their children’s optimal social-emotional and cognitive development.  hide

114.Happiness in Relation to Social Skills and Self-Esteem among Youths

By: Sandeeep Panchal, Defence Institute of Psychology Research, Delhi and H. L. Joshi, Dept. of Psychology, K.U. Kurukshetra  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between happiness, social skills and self-esteem in youths. The sample consists of 200 undergraduate and postgraduate students (Male 76 and Female 124) within age ranged from 18 to 24 years. Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI) by Argyle, Martin and Crossland (1989), Social Skills Inventory (SSI) by Riggio (1986), and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) by Coopersmith (1975) were administered to all the respondents. The data were analyzed by using Descriptive statistics i.e. mean and SD, one-way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation and regression analysis. The result revealed that High happiness and low happiness group youth differ significantly on the measure of self-esteem, emotional sensitivity, Social expressivity and social control variable. The correlational analysis revealed that happiness variable found to be positively significant with self- esteem, emotional sensitivity, social expressivity and social control. The step wise Multiple regression analysis found two predictors of Happiness i.e. self-esteem Social expressivity. These predictors account only 48% of total variance in happiness.  hide

115.Need Hierarchy Pattern: A Study of Male and Female Executives

By: Nirmala Singh Rathore, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and Mahesh Kumar Choudhary, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan  Show abstract Details

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Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. Quite apart from the benefit and moral value of an altruistic approach to treating colleagues as human beings and respecting human dignity in all its forms, research and observations show that well motivated employee motivation is a mystery for many researchers. Instead understanding how to use these to improve performance. Organisations desiring to improve employee motivation need a system in place that consistently satisfies needs of employee. An understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in the work place and therefore effective management and leadership. In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied the subject of hierarchy of needs is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand need hierarchy pattern one must understand human nature itself. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is valuable assessment tool that is used in many different professions, particularly those in the field of education and health care. The ideas of needs are addressed in order, as the body resolves the most basic needs for survival before moving on to more complex needs. At the broadest level, an evolutionary approach implies that all behaviour is goal oriented, resulting from psychological adaptations that were designed by natural selection to deal with recurrent, threats and opportunities. A considerable body of comparative and neuropsychological evidence supports the assumptions of multiple motivational and cognitive systems. There is also reason to presume some degree of hierarchical relationship between functional motivational systems.  hide

116.Societal viruses (Stigma & Discrimination) are more detrimental to prevention of HIV/AIDS

By: Tulika Singh, Reseach Scholar(Psychology), HSS Departmernt, IIT Guwahati, Assam  Show abstract Details

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Social responses of fear, denial, stigma and discrimination have accompanied the HIV epidemic right from the time it was first discovered in India. Stigma and discrimination are potentially the most difficult aspects of HIV/AIDS to address, but addressing them is the key to overcoming the spread of the disease. This qualitative study explores the experiences of HIV positive people as well as the perspectives and experiences of members of these communities at large. The study sought to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear and how these impact on responses to HIV, including testing, treatment and support.Men and women over the age of 16 were part of the study. People who were HIV positive participated in private in-depth interviews. Other members of the communities participated in focus group discussions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 HIV positive men and 15 HIV positive women and focus groups were conducted with 30men and women from the communities at large. The study found that there are a range of cultural and structural issues that may increase risk for infection, create obstacles to testing and treatment, and lead to isolation and stigma experienced by HIV positive people. Participants discussed religious beliefs and norms, homophobia or the denial of homosexuality within communities, and silence about health and sexuality as issues affecting responses to HIV within communities. It is hoped that this report will be used to foster discussion and action to address HIV/AIDS within communities  hide

117.Cognitive Distortions and Depression

By: Firdos Jahan, Dr.Nadeem Luqman, Priyanka Verma  Show abstract Details

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Concept of cognitive distortions was originally defined by Beck (1967). The idea behind frame work of Cognitive distortions is based on the theory that individual’s subjective evaluation of early life experiences that shapes and maintains fundamental beliefs (Schemas) about self, in support of or in defense against early schemas, secondary beliefs develop and function as rules or assumptions about the self and world, according to Beck the depressed individuals acquired a negative schema, during childhood and adolescence; they develop a tendency to see the world negatively, there are many reasons for these negative thought processes, negative schemata or beliefs so acquired by depressed individuals are activated whenever they confront with new situation. similarly Depression is an emotional state marked by emotional symptoms (e.g depressed mood), Motivational symptoms (e.g loss of interest or pleasure), cognitive (e.g negative thoughts, feeling of hopelessness) and somatic (loss of energy, sleep disturbances). Methodology: In order to investigate the above mentioned aim/objective investigator collected the sample of N=100 mean age 23 years, Following measures were used Beck Depression Inventory-2 is revised version of BDI-1designed by Beck, Steer, and Brown (1996), Having r=0.71 and The test was also shown to have a high one-week test–retest reliability (Pearson r =0.93), test also has high internal consistency (α=.91).and The DAS-A Weissman and Beck (1978) is a 40 item self report inventory designed to measure cognitive schema containing dysfunctional attitudes and beliefs that may place individuals at risk for depression alpha coefficients ranging from .86 to .90 and high test-retest reliability (r=.84). Results and Discussion: Keeping in view the nature and purpose of the investigation investigator applied simple linear regression analysis results show that cognitive distortions appeared as significant predictor of depression. If we give more close perspective we will find that Psychological Rumination tends to be the potential cause of Depression.  hide

118.A comparative study of assessing the organizational learning of two educational organizations using Organizational Learning Diagnostics (OLD)

By: Meenu, PhD Research Scholar, NUEPA, New Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Organizational learning is inherent in every organization and for sustenance of an organization in this competitive world, it is necessary to adapt new learning patterns to keep pace with today’s changing era. If organizations are to gain a compeitive advantage in a changing world they need to have the ability to adapt constanly to new circumstances and challenges.Therefore the premise of this research paper is that organizational learning is a competence that all organization should develop. The reasoning underlying this premise is that the better organizations are at learning the more likely it is they will be able to compete and sustain in this changing & challenging world. The purpose of this study is to undersand the organizational learning component of two different types of educational institute viz; Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) & National Council of Educational Research & Teaching (NCERT). JNU as university which concerns with teaching & learning of higher education and NCERT concerns to school education , which is research organization that is devoted to research & training, publication of books for school education. For this study Organizational learning diagnostic questionnaire was used. Results reveal that JNU has highest organizational learning compare to NCERT and represent an organization holding the core characteristics of a learning organization. The analysis of the organizational learning diagnostic exhibited that to become a more effective & efficient educational organization, both the organization should raise the learning organization profile level of all the system & subsystems. In this regard the institution must initiate an organizational transformation process for learning excellence. This transformation must include developing a shared vision and an organizational learning culture, creation of a powerful strategy for building a learning organization and a structure capable of implementing that strategy, and finally developing a transformational leadership style at the decision making instances to achieve high levels of ethics, motivation, and performance.  hide

119.Personality Traits and Depression

By: Priyinka Verma, Firdos Jahan, Dr.Nadeem Luqman  Show abstract Details

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The present investigation seeks to investigate, do personality traits have any influence on depression or not, before we go in much depth let's have a glace over the general definitions. Personality is one of those concepts that is familiar to everyone but is difficult to define, most people use the term, “Personality” to identify the most obvious characteristics of a person, or to refer to that person’s social skills, Allport (1965) Revised his definition of personality, this new definition contained word “characteristic” for word “uniqueness” and words “behavior and thought” in place of adjustment, similarly depression can be defined as an emotional state marked by emotional symptoms (e.g depressed mood), Motivational symptoms (e.g loss of interest or pleasure), cognitive (e.g negative thoughts, feeling of hopelessness) and somatic (loss of energy, sleep disturbances) (APA,1980). Methodology: In order to investigate this core objective investigator collected the data of N=100, mean age=23 years in order to explore the above mentioned objective The NEO-FFI is a short version of the NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI) designed by Costa and McCrae (1985) to provide self and other reported measures of the five factor model of personality. Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C) internal consistency for the NEO-FFI was calculated using alpha coefficient values were .89, .79, .74, and, .84 for N,E,O,A, and C, respectively. Similarly for BDI-2nd Edition was used to measure the depression Beck Depression Inventory-2 is revised version of BDI-2nd designed by Beck, Steer, and Brown (1996), having 21 items having Pearson r of 0.71.The test was also shown to have a high one-week test–retest reliability (Pearson r =0.93), test also has high internal consistency (α=.91). Results and Discussion: Keeping in mind the nature and purpose of the investigation investigator applied the Multiple linear regression analysis findings revealed that Neuroticism appeared as robust predictor of Depression, even earlier findings show that Neuroticism is strong predictor of Depression, Isometsa (2009) also found that Neuroticism appears to be most powerful predictor of Depression, thus present findings are in conformity with previous findings.  hide

120.Need Hierarchy Pattern: A Study of Male and Female Executives

By: Nirmala Singh Rathore, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur and Mahesh Kumar Choudhary, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota  Show abstract Details

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Human nature can be very simple, yet very complex too. Quite apart from the benefit and moral value of an altruistic approach to treating colleagues as human beings and respecting human dignity in all its forms, research and observations show that well motivated employee motivation is a mystery for many researchers. Instead understanding how to use these to improve performance. Organisations desiring to improve employee motivation need a system in place that consistently satisfies needs of employee. An understanding and appreciation of this is a prerequisite to effective employee motivation in the work place and therefore effective management and leadership. In spite of enormous research, basic as well as applied the subject of hierarchy of needs is not clearly understood and more often than not poorly practiced. To understand need hierarchy pattern one must understand human nature itself. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is valuable assessment tool that is used in many different professions, particularly those in the field of education and health care. The ideas of needs are addressed in order, as the body resolves the most basic needs for survival before moving on to more complex needs. At the broadest level, an evolutionary approach implies that all behaviour is goal oriented, resulting from psychological adaptations that were designed by natural selection to deal with recurrent, threats and opportunities. A considerable body of comparative and neuropsychological evidence supports the assumptions of multiple motivational and cognitive systems. There is also reason to presume some degree of hierarchical relationship between functional motivational systems  hide

121.Personality Traits and Dysfunctional attitudes

By: Nadeem Luqman, Firdos Jahan, Priyanka Verma  Show abstract Details

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The aim of present investigation is to investigate Personality Traits and Dysfunctional attitude. Research in cognitive processes and attitudes is unclear whether alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes are only related to the depressive mood states, as far as present investigation is concerned only emphasis is on investigating that out of Five personality traits which one is more entangled to Dysfunctional attitude. Methodology: Sample of N=100, mean age = 20 years, was collected following measures were used NEO-FFI, The NEO-FFI is a short version of the NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI) designed by Costa and McCrae (1985) to provide self and other reported measures of the five factor model of personality. Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C) are the personality dimensions measured by the test. internal consistency for the NEO-FFI was calculated using alpha coefficient values were .89, .79, .74, and, .84 for N,E,O,A, and C, respectively, On the self reports, the convergent correlations ranged from .56 to .62. Similarly for The DAS-A Weissman and Beck (1978) is a 40 item self report inventory designed to measure cognitive schema containing dysfunctional attitudes and beliefs that may place individuals at risk for depression alpha coefficients ranging from .86 to .90 and high test-retest reliability (r=.84). Results and Discussion: Multiple linear regression analysis and t-test was applied findings show that Neuroticism and Conscientiousness out of all traits appeared as significant predictor of Cognitive Distortions, similarly t-test was applied to see the group differences findings revealed that males scored significantly higher on both the aspects.  hide

122.Contribution of Organisational Politics and Locus of Control towards Job Involvement

By: Surendra Kumar Sia, Venkatesh Elkuri, and Pravakar Duari, Department of Applied Psychology Pondicherry University, Pondicherry  Show abstract Details

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Through the present study the investigators have made a sincere effort to examine the relationship between perceived organizational politics, internal locus of control and job involvement of the employees. The study has been carried out the 184 faculty members of Pondicherry University. The tools used are the Perception of Organisational Politics Scale (Kacmar & Carlson, 1997); Job Involvement Questionnaire by Kanungo (1982), and Locus of Control Scale by Udai Pareek. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were carried out for the present study. The results indicate that, there is positive relationship between intrinsic control and job involvement where as there is significant negative relationship between perceived organizational politics and job involvement. Regression analysis reveals that two dimensions of perceived organizational politics, namely – ‘pay and promotion policies’, and ‘go along to get ahead’ contribute significantly, but negatively towards job involvement of the employees. The findings have been discussed in terms of related literature along with implications for future research.  hide

123.Behind the Iron Curtain: A Challenge to the Social Self

By: Ruby Gupta, Deptt. Of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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A ubiquitous aspect of today’s social life is Internet and in many people’s lives-its subset-Facebook. It depends upon one’s perspective to view it as just the social networking to stay connected with old and new friends and putting a step ahead to disseminate the required concern for various social issues or a way to live the virtual world in your own manner. An instant rage, Facebook has made its reach from metros to mandis. Though, it has been brought under scanner in the past few months by the moral, ethical as well as legal agencies specially after the episodes of N-E Exodus, hatred calls by one religion for other religions, Facebook is posing certain serious threats to psychological health also. The researchers say that the symptoms of Facebook Addiction are quite similar to that of any other substance addiction. More of the findings are discussed in the light of empirical data.  hide

124.Role Stress, Marital Adjustment and Social Support among Teachers

By: Sandhya Ojha Associate Professor Department of Psychology, SAKPG College, Varanasi  Show abstract Details

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Women in present era are related to family and job. Thus job and family demand increase marital, mental, emotional and social problem. With this background present study examine the role stress, marital adjustment and social support between primary teachers and college teachers and also assess the relationship of this variable between primary teachers and college teachers. Role stress scale for working women by Bhatia & Srivastava (2005), Marrital adjustment Inventory by Bhatia & Sharma (2005) and Social Support Scale Asthana and & Verma (2005) was administered on 100 female teachers (50 primary teachers and 50 college teachers). Result indicates that there is no significant difference between primary teachers and college teachers on the level of role stress, marital adjustment and social support. Further result indicates that as a paid worker and as a mother dimension of role stress there is significant difference between primary teachers and college.  hide

125.Kashmir after Afzal Guru’s Execution: A Phenomenological look into the Sociology of Peace Deficit

By: Adfer Rashid Shah Doctoral Candidate-Department of Sociology Faculty of Social Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University New Delhi  Show abstract Details

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How will you feel if your Cell phone network is deliberately put off on your own nation’s Republic or Independence Day? How will you feel if your contact to outer world via internet is blocked for weeks together, in the garb of security or law and order measures? How will you feel when you are always given a feeling of being a second class citizen in your own country? How will you feel, if you miss your very important events, deadlines, submissions, appointments, trips, family events, or festive occasions just because of the State, system and its security impasse? Who will reimburse you for all the losses you met because of the repressive state apparatus? How will you feel if you fear to be booked for even a simple analytical post on social media? Who actually pays the cost of chaos in conflict zones and who gets benefitted in such chaotic geographies? What does state mean by collective conscience? All these subjects haunt us and divulge the pain of suppressed existence here in Indian Kashmir. Kashmir Valley-the bruised paradise is again on boil and as usual unpredictable, peace deficit and active on the volcano of hostility. The fallouts of the mass unrest and shaping up of the geography of anger have finally set the peace process ablaze by clouding the paltry gains secured after enormous and all-round painstaking efforts of over last two years, that too in a blink of eye. Also, it will not be wrong to argue that even the shocking Khanyar Shrine burning incident in the last summer, later the protests over the blasphemous and anti-Islamic American video or the most recent incident of the Rock Band row though gave some jolts to the fragile peace here but generally speaking, all the three incidents were not too severe, affecting and upsetting. However, the blistering and perhaps much grave issue is the secret execution of the Parliament attack case convict, Mohamad Afzal Guru on February 9, 2013 in Tihar Jail and later a plethora of moral and agonizing questions about his undisclosed/hasty hanging even without letting the executed see his family for the last time or at least to inform them in time about the date of the hanging decision, that was done after his hanging only. Not only this, even the burial of Afzal Guru’s body (that is still a much contested debate) in the jail premises with hardly any intentions of returning it (the body) to his family living in a remote hamlet of north Kashmir, sent a strong shiver in the collective spine of Kashmiri’s, thereby destabilizing Kashmir again and simultaneously raising certain moral but painful questions. This paper gives a description of the people’s response, analysis and perceptions on the issue and employs the participant observation and interaction method, besides using the approach of understanding and interpretation under hermeneutic analysis.  hide

126.A Critical Assessment of the Flagship Programmes of Education in India: A Case of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan(RMSA)

By: Swaleha.A.Sindhi Assistant Professor Department of Educational Administration Faculty of Education & Psychology The M.S.University of Baroda Vadodara Gujarat  Show abstract Details

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Secondary education provides an indispensable link to the whole education system. While primary education is fundamental to the nation, secondary education forms the inter connectivity to the higher education system, by providing the required input. While India has still a long way to go in the field of education and educational universalization and emancipation. The Secondary education has gained importance for a number of reasons,one such reason is the rapidity at which universal elementary enrolment generate direct demand for secondary education. In addition, indirect demand for secondary education is generated due to the increasing demand for highly skilled labour force in the global economy. Secondary education has more significant effect on the redistribution of income, growth and reducing poverty than primary education (Tilak, 1989, 2005). Hence, secondary education is crucial for economic growth. Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is one such government flagship programme to universalize secondary education and meet the demand of increasing secondary education. This conceptual paper will highlight the flagship programmes in the field of education by the government of India and highlight the significance of the secondary education with a special reference to RMSA(Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan) in India.  hide

127.Women’s Visibility in Public Space: A Sociological Analysis of Women in Organised Sector in Kashmir Valley

By: Pirzada M Amin Head- Department of Social Work & Associate Professor of Sociology University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar  Show abstract Details

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Patriarchy is still a cultural universal in Indian Society and the valley of Kashmir is no exception. Human rights woes and Women issues still haunt the State, despite that women folk is not a totally disadvantaged section of the Kashmiri society. Amidst the violent conflict situation, issues of safety, no feel secure psyche, growing criminality, etc, especially since 1989, women have gradually created their visibility in public space and work sphere in spite of all odds in this chaos ridden part of the globe. Today the State of Jammu & Kashmir is not lagging behind in women’s general and professional education, skill development, trained women work force in health sector, development sector, etc,. As the goals of human development are closely intertwined with development and empowerment of women, the State is moving ahead though steadily in the development sector and empowerment of women and more importantly their presence/visibility in the organised and unorganised working sectors has considerably increased. Though there is much more still to be done to empower the women folk in true spirit and undoubtedly still a plethora of issues and challenges are faced by working women at work place that need a speedy redress .However, Kashmiri women have carved their social, educational, professional and political space over a period of time. Today a sizeable proportion of them work in the organised sector be that nursing, child development arena, education, centrally sponsored schemes like NRHM, ICDS, MNERGA, etc, reflecting their resilience, wit and enthusiasm even though living in the conflict zone like Indian Kashmir. This paper being a sociological analysis/description will highlight the prospects of women’s visibility in general working sector and cite the issues and challenges still faced by them at work place, etc, The paper will employ observation method, conversation method and narratives besides paraphrasing the text in a phenomenological perspective to understand the people’s sense of emancipation and empowerment regarding women’s growing presence in public space. Moreover the data has been collected from secondary sources besides analysing the grass roots empowerment via observation and informal conversations.  hide

128.Coping Skills as Predictors of Self-Efficacy among Adolescents

By: Jagpreet Kaur Assistant Professor, Deptt. Of Education, Punjabi University, Patiala, and Sandeep Kaur, Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Gippsland Campus. Melbourne, Australia  Show abstract Details

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A coping skill is a behavioral tool which is used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage or disability without correcting or eliminating the underline conditions. The main objective of this study was to explore the relationship of coping skills with self-efficacy in a sample of 196 adolescents from Patiala district of Punjab. Coping skills considered in the present study were proactive coping, reflective coping, strategic planning, preventive coping, instrumental support seeking, emotional support seeking and avoidance coping. Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI) developed by Greenglass et al. (1999) was used to measure the coping skills among adolescents. Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995) was used to study self-efficacy of adolescents. The results of correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant relationship of coping skills of proactive coping, reflective coping, strategic planning, preventive coping, instrumental support seeking, emotional support seeking with self-efficacy among adolescents. However, a non-significant relationship of avoidance coping with self-efficacy among adolescents was observed. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to examine the extent to which the various coping skills contributed to the variability in self-efficacy among adolescents. The results indicated that preventive coping and instrumental support seeking were the significant predictors of self-efficacy among adolescents. Implications of the results are discussed.  hide

129.Effect of Terror Attack on the Mental Health of Women Victims in Lower Assam

By: Rita Rani Talukdar and Nesmita Das, Deptt. of Psychology, Gauhati University, Assam  Show abstract Details

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India is a ‘land of disasters’. Every type of disasters (natural, man-made) has been experienced by the nation in the last century. Both the kinds of disaster negatively affects human beings, social and service structure of the society, community or environment. The victims of these disaster can be classified as direct, secondary and indirect victims. Irrespective of the type of victims, all of them share commonalities of suffering at both physical, psychological level leading to “psycho-social burden”. Unfortunately, the suffering of the victims are not understood in its true perspective and are more often forgotten after the climax of the monstrous episode is over. Thus, the current paper aims to explore the various type of psycho-social burden witnessed by the direct and secondary victims of one of the worst terror attack witnessed by people of Assam. The present study focuses on 30th October, 2008 Assam serial blast labelled as “black day” since the occurrence of the disaster.. The paper also tries to identify the coping mechanism adopted by them in order to handle with the crisis and the necessity of psycho-social care among the victims. The total number of participants selected for the current study was 10 families comprising direct and secondary victims using purposive sampling from the district of Barpeta in Assam. An in-depth interview was conducted based on the semi-structured interview guide developed and the verbatim were analysed using thematic analysis. The study attempted to understand the data using the qualitative approach (social constructivism and phenomenology) in order to explore the meaning rather than causes of the disaster. The interviews revealed that the victims were witnessing a lot of psycho-social burden and they adopted various coping mechanism to deal with the crisis witnessed. An immediate necessity of psycho-social care or support was revealed among the participants.  hide

130.Domestic Violence against Women- New challenges and Interventions

By: Anjali, Dewan, Associate Professor & Head, Department of Home Science, St. Bede’s College, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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The Indian mythology placed women on a very high pedestal but deterioration in the glorious status suffered a socio-cultural setback resulting in loss of their freedom. Gender injustice taking the shape of crimes against women has increased all over the world and India is no exception to this. Women continue to suffer from increasing tide of violence both inside and outside homes. Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse faced by women within the household. It has a debilitating effect on women’s physical as well as psychological health. It happens among heterosexual couples and in same-sex partnerships. It occurs within all age ranges, ethnic backgrounds, and economic levels. It is considered as an accepted norm, part of married life and not as a violation of woman’s rights. Domestic violence and abuse can happen to anyone, yet the problem is often overlooked, excused, or denied. This is especially true when the abuse is psychological, rather than physical. Emotional abuse is often minimized, yet it can leave deep and lasting scars. Noticing and acknowledging the warning signs and symptoms of domestic violence and abuse is the first step to ending it. In a situation of domestic violence, a woman needs protection even before the crime is committed as she apprehends the danger to her life from the assaulter on whom she is dependent and the threat is constant. There is a need to sensitize people especially women themselves to understand that domestic violence should be condemned at all levels.  hide

131.Indigenous Techniques and its Evolving Face in the New Millennium - Sport and Quality of Life

By: Diljot Soin, Associate Professor, Gian Jyoti Institute of Management and Technology, Phase-2, Mohali and Nayanika Singh, Assistant Professor, DAV College, Sector – 10, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Positive thinking revolves around positive emotions, positive individual traits, and positive institutions. It primarily concerns with human meaning, fulfilment, and engagement by examining how to increase positive experiences and decrease negative ones. Of late, in wake of the present global scenario there has been a lot of investigation, empirical research, and consequential evolution around the globe in mode of therapies applied for maintaining positive thoughts and bodily balance in the domain of sports. The focus is gradually shifting from western approaches to eastern/ indigenous techniques and unconventional methods of healing and treatment viz. meditation, yoga, reiki, music, and dance therapy. These indigenous techniques in sports and quality of life are powerful and simple, yet expressive and impressive mediums; and are swiftly gaining commendation as significant therapeutic techniques within the ambit of positive psychology that aids in contributing immensely towards restoring health and well-being of one and all, both at individual and community levels though integrated therapy programs. The present paper seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the psychological benefits of these traditional modes of healing and gives profound insight into the fact that they are associated with desirable personality characteristics; enhanced self-efficacy, life satisfaction, happiness, quality of life, longer life span; decreases in tension, anxiety and depression; increased resistance to the common cold; better stress management and coping skills; improved physical function and increased physical well-being; and better psychological health.  hide

132.A Comparative Study on the Concrete and Abstract Dimensions of Memory in High School Students

By: Sr.Marry Kutty and Ruchi Bajpai, St.Ann’s college of Education .Autonomous Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh  Show abstract Details

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One cannot imagine life without memory. No one can have an identity without it. Without memory we would live forever in present moment with no recollection of our past, including experiences and people that are important to us and no anticipation of future. Memory is crucial for all but there is no other time during which memory demands are greater than the school years. The aim of the study is to compare the concrete and abstract dimensions of memory among the students. All learning materials presented to students come under either concrete or abstract form. It is very important to find out whether different age groups have same or different ability in recall of learning material, concrete as well as abstract. Study includes 144 students, 72 boys and 72 girls from three different age groups i.e. 9 to 11 years; 12 and 13years and 14 and 15years. A list of concrete and abstract words was used as a tool for each age group. The statistical calculations include mean, standard deviation and t-test. The study concludes that 1.Concrete words are recalled significantly better than the abstract words. 2. There is no difference in recall of concrete or abstract words by both boys and girls. 3. Further it was also found that subjects of oldest age group had higher recall of both concrete as well as abstract words than the other two younger age groups.  hide

133.Life Skills Training for fostering Resilience

By: A.Radhakrishnan Nair and Sreehari Ravindranath, School of Life skills Education and Social Harmony, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Chennai  Show abstract Details

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One of the methods by which promotion of Child Mental Health can lead to prevention of mental illness is by the promotion of ‘Life Skills Education for Psychosocial Competence’ thereby promoting mental health, as a whole. This is a program designed by World Health Organization (WHO), with a rationale to improve individual’s Psychosocial Competence (PSC), given that most people in this world have average intelligence, although they may differ vastly and widely in their self-image and self-esteem and in being successful in education, work or relationship. Life skills are set of psychosocial skills which develop interpersonal skills, communication skills, coping skills and self management skills that help them to lead a healthy and productive life. There is much research literature that indicates that life skills education is needed by young people and should therefore be developed. Well designed, tested and delivered life skills programmes can achieve much in helping children and adolescents become more responsible, healthy and resilient both during childhood and as adults. The concept of resilience emerged in the psychiatric literature in the 1980’s, in an attempt to understand individual differences in people’s responses to stress and adversity, which has a direct linkage with wellbeing. Resilience, and Life Skills Training are topics of interests to school psychologists, yet little is known about the relationships among the two. It was hypothesized that resilience would mediate the relationship with Life Skills. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Life Skills Training for fostering Resilience. The training was conducted of 30 days for 60 min per day. A total of 15 students participated in the training programe. Wagnild and Young's Resilience Scale was utilized for the assessing the resilience before and after the training programme. The result of the training indicates a positive effect on life skills training for fostering resilience. The statistical analysis also indicates that there is an improvement in the level of resilience on the experimental group.  hide

134.A study of interrater reliability of behavioural coding: Two case studies

By: Ishhita Gupta, Shefali Thaman, and S. P. K. Jena, University of Delhi, South Campus  Show abstract Details

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This study is designed to formulate behavioural coding for child behaviours in various observational settings. In order to conduct these studies, an initial behavioural definition was obtained through audio – visual demonstration of child behaviour to a group of potential observers trained in behavioural assessment. Subsequently, a set of index behaviours was identified for the sake of coding. At the next stage of the experiment, these coded behaviours were subject to time sampling recording by the above observers. Consequently, an interrater reliability assessment was conducted to examine the reliability of their observations. The results of this on going study will be reported in the conference.  hide

135.Psychoanalytic Reflection on Spirit Possession and Cultural

By: Shikha Gill, School of Human Studies, Ambedkar University, Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Varied cultural groups have their own ways of understanding and defining natural and human phenomena. This understanding emerges as a culture develops and incorporates certain peculiar features. In the backdrop of a North Indian Hindu Culture, altered states of the mind are understood as spirit possession, which mostly affect women for being attractive to spirits for various reasons. To get relief from it, an entire system of a particular form of worshipping has been developed at various spiritual places like the temple of a celibate God, Balaji, in North India which seems to provide some relief. This paper will present the initial findings of a research work which attempts to understand how trance States in women emerge in the Brahminical patriarchal North Indian culture. It also aims to examine assumptions about how a person’s life and belief system contribute to the appearance of ghosts which in a major part of Indian cultural understanding is seen as an alien soul that has entered the victim’s body with devilish intentions. Understanding the idea of culture and mind as inseparable and seeing it from a psychoanalytic point of view, this work attempts to analyze the formation of social reality of these women which constructs their psyche. There must be some sort of psychological comfort or discomfort in possessed states and their expressions that leads such a large population of women thriving that place and engaging in a system of expressions that may be considered ‘obscene’ or ‘abnormal’ outside that arena. I would examine the role of society in a person reaching such state and the will to adjust in society being strong enough to make the person not express some of her needs, desires etc for the fear of social alienation while possession states and visiting places like Balaji makes her fall back into mainstream society. Prima facie it seems that some supernatural practices are taking place, however, on close introspection I realized that the roots are not in some supernatural processes but in the lived life of the women. This work would critically engage in these roots and explore the complexities of lived life that leads to possession states.  hide

136.Work Related Conditions of Female Police Personnel: Problems and Prospects

By: Sunita and Rakesh Kumar Behmani, Department of Applied Psychology Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The role of police personnel in India is very crucial from several angles. Several researches have proved that Indian police personals are working in some of the most inhospitable conditions in the world. The working conditions of the policeman are dismal in many aspects including social and human. Police officers are exposed to emotionally demanding interpersonal interactions, such as confrontation with death and illness, violence, and victims of crime or accidents on a daily basis. The induction of women in the Indian police system in comparison to other countries is of recent origin. There is evidence that women police are more effective than their male counterparts in handling family disputes and several other problems but they themselves are more prone to atrocities and problems related to insecure working conditions and work related other problems. In India there is a dearth of studies related to the working of female police personnel.  hide

137.Self Regulation and Emotional Reactivity among Hypertensive People

By: Randhir Singh, Research Scholar, Applied Psychology Department , GJUST Hisar  Show abstract Details

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The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between self regulation and emotional reactivity among hypertensive people. A sample of 100 people (both sexes) was selected out of these 50 are hypertensive 50 are normal control of 35 to 55 years of age. All the subjects were administered self regulation and emotional reactivity scale. Obtained data were analyzed by appropriate statistical tool for coefficient of correlation and compression of hypertensive and normal controlled, male and female sample. Finding shows that the hypertensive group is low level of self regulation and high level of emotional reactivity than normal group and female hypertensive group have low level of self regulation and high level of emotional reactivity than hypertensive male group  hide

138.Attitudes toward Poverty: A Psychological Analysis

By: Promila and Rakesh Kumar Behmani, Department of Applied Psychology Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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This review based paper outlines the studies related to the attitudes towards poverty and poor people. In developed countries, a lot of researches have done by researchers in the past, but in India there is a dearth of researches on this topic. This topic is very important from the point of view of a psychologist because these negative attitudes further leads to several types of discriminations and overall negative atmosphere in society. There is a clear controversy exists whether attitudes towards poverty is a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. People from their attitudes and stereotypical thinking regarding poor and poverty on the basis of information from several sources like media reports, newspapers, This stereotype influences not just which groups are perceived to be poor, but perceptions of who is to blame for poverty as well. This literature review is a small effort to examine the theories and attitudes towards poverty and how these attitudes emerge from the field of psychology.  hide

139.Role of Social Agents-Family, Peer and Media in Consumer Socialization of Teenagers

By: Vakil Singh and Sanjeev Kumar, Haryana School of Business, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Abstract: Consumer socialization is a Process by which young people acquires skills, knowledge and attitudes relevant to their functioning as consumer in the market place” (Ward, 1974, p. 2). The researcher could find little work regarding role of social agents in consumer socialization of teenagers in India. This calls upon for an attempt to study the role that social agents play in shopping behaviour of teenagers. That’s why this study is aimed to find out the influence of social agents in consumer socialization of teenagers in overall purchase decisions. Family plays a dominant role in consumer socialization of teenagers in overall purchase decisions of teenagers followed by peer and media. Role of family in shaping consumer behaviour of teens varies significantly across gender and age. Whereas the peer’s and media’s role in overall purchase decisions of teens doesn’t vary significantly across gender and age. When we look into the influence of social agents in consumer socialization of teenagers across cast i.e. SC (scheduled cast), backward cast and general cast and by residential status then SC Rural teenagers’ purchase decisions are more influenced by peers than of urban teenagers. It indicates that the influence of family and peers upon overall purchase decision of teenagers vary significantly by demographic variables but not in case of media. Research Methodology: Present study looks into the role of social agents in shaping consumer behaviour of school going teenagers in overall purchase decisions. Here teenagers represent the age group of 13-19 years. The data was collected from two districts of Haryana, one from north and one from south Haryana i.e. Kurukshetra and Hisar. Total of 234 samples were collected from rural and urban teenagers coming from various socio-cultural background by visiting them in person. Percentage, mean, t test, ANOVA had been applied to analyze and interpret the data. The study was conducted by taking sub theme “Teenage Issues” of the conference in consideration.Future Scope/Limitations: The present study is confined to influence of social agents in consumer socialization of teenagers but outcome of it have not been measured. Three social agents-family, peers and media have been taken to check role in overall purchase decisions of teenagers. The samples were collected from four villages of two cities of Haryana but in future it can further be expanded by taking more samples from more number of villages.  hide

140.Illness Cognition and Coping as Predictors of Emotional Well-Being in Diabetic Patients

By: Neena Kohli Department of Psychology, University of Allahabad, Allahabadf, UP  Show abstract Details

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The major objective of the present study was to test whether coping acts to mediate the relationships between illness representations and emotional well-being in adults with diabetes. One hundred and forty adults between 25and 65 years of age were asked to complete the Diabetes Illness representations questionnaire (DIRQ), the well- being and coping scale. The results showed that perceived impact, identity and cognitive restructuring were significant independent predictors for depressive symptomatology. For anxiety, perceived impact and identity were significant predictors and for positive emotional well-being, treatment effectiveness and treatment beliefs to manage diabetes were only significant predictor. Multiple regression analyses indicated that coping did not mediate the association between illness representations and positive emotional well-being. Social support greatly influenced emotional well-being. The implications of the findings would be discussed.  hide

141.Competitive Exams Stress in Teenagers: Problems and solutions

By: Sweety Dudeja (Lecturer in F.C College, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of this study is to find out scattered competitive exam stress in teenagers. Teenagers are the backbone of our society. Their rich future helps us to feel secure for our future. However, there are many problems that teenagers face in their student life. Students face more stress during their exams especially when there is the need for appearing in competitive exams for higher studies and job. There are many factor which are responsible for exams stress in teenagers which can affects both physically and psychologically. The present paper shall review what are the common exam stressors among teenagers and their prospective solutions.  hide

142.Impact of Academic Achievement and Human Ecological Variables on Life Skills of Adolescents

By: Richa Sangwan and Sheela Sangwan, Department of Human Development and Family Studies I. C. College of Home Science CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Skills that can be said to be life skills are innumerable, and the nature and definition of life skills are likely to differ across cultures and settings. There is a ten core set of skills, these are - decision making, problem solving, creative thinking, critical thinking, effective communication, interpersonal relationship skills, self-awareness, empathy, coping with emotions and coping with stress. The present study was conducted in Hisar District of Haryana state. For rural sample village Mayyad was selected. For urban sample city area of district Hisar was selected. One school from selected village was taken to draw the rural sample. For urban sample, two schools were selected. Hundred adolescents from each schools of rural and urban were (14-16 years) equally representing both the sexes i.e. 100 girls and 100 boys were selected on random basis. Results showed that life skills of urban and rural adolescents were high in self-awareness, empathy, interpersonal relationship skills, average in problem solving, critical thinking, coping with stress, creative thinking, coping with emotions, effective communication and low in decision making. Academic achievement of adolescents was significantly associated with life skill and most of its aspects in rural and urban area. Significant differences were found in life skills with area of residence, board of examination and gender. Academic achievement, birth order, number of siblings, family size, caste, family type, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, income, father’s education and mother’s education were significantly associated with life skills of adolescents.  hide

143.A Comparative Study on Emotional Maturity and Adjustment Level of College Students

By: Palak Malhotra and Kranti Sihotra, University of Jammu, Jammu  Show abstract Details

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Emotions play an important role in the life of an individual and one requires a higher emotional maturity to lead an effective life, especially the college students who are observed to be highly emotional in their dealings need to be studied. An emotionally nature person has the capacity to make effective adjustments with himself, members of his family, his peers in the world, society and culture. As college students are the future and pillars of nation, so it is important to study their emotional maturity. Since college is a huge transaction for fresher’s (first year students), it’s a time for adjustment. The present study was undertaken to study the emotional maturity and adjustment level of college students. 52 boys and 52 boys within the age of 18 to 21 years from two Govt. colleges of Jammu were selected as a sample. Data was collected by administering emotional maturity scale by Dr. Yashvir Singh and Dr. Mahesh Bhargava. While adjustment inventory for college students (AICS) by Prof. A.K.P Sinha (Patna) and Prof. R.P Singh (Patna) was used to measure the adjustment level of college students. Normative survey method and Random sampling technique was used in the present study. The data obtained was analysed statistically and the study revealed that Girls scored higher on both emotional maturity as well as on the adjustment level as compared with the boys.  hide

144.Effect of Terror Attack on the Mental Health of Women Victims in Lower Assam

By: Rita Rani Talukdar and Nesmita Das, Deptt. of Psychology, Gauhati University, Gauhati, Assam  Show abstract Details

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India is a ‘land of disasters’. Every type of disasters (natural, man-made) has been experienced by the nation in the last century. Both the kinds of disaster negatively affects human beings, social and service structure of the society, community or environment. The victims of these disaster can be classified as direct, secondary and indirect victims. Irrespective of the type of victims, all of them share commonalities of suffering at both physical, psychological level leading to “psycho-social burden”. Unfortunately, the suffering of the victims are not understood in its true perspective and are more often forgotten after the climax of the monstrous episode is over. Thus, the current paper aims to explore the various type of psycho-social burden witnessed by the direct and secondary victims of one of the worst terror attack witnessed by people of Assam. The present study focuses on 30th October, 2008 Assam serial blast labelled as “black day” since the occurrence of the disaster.. The paper also tries to identify the coping mechanism adopted by them in order to handle with the crisis and the necessity of psycho-social care among the victims. The total number of participants selected for the current study was 10 families comprising direct and secondary victims using purposive sampling from the district of Barpeta in Assam. An in-depth interview was conducted based on the semi-structured interview guide developed and the verbatim were analysed using thematic analysis. The study attempted to understand the data using the qualitative approach (social constructivism and phenomenology) in order to explore the meaning rather than causes of the disaster. The interviews revealed that the victims were witnessing a lot of psycho-social burden and they adopted various coping mechanism to deal with the crisis witnessed. An immediate necessity of psycho-social care or support was revealed among the participants.  hide

145.Women: Victims of violence

By: Manu Sharma, Department of Social Sciences Lovely Faculty of Education and Humanities Lovely Professional University Phagwara, Punjab  Show abstract Details

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The society that provides respect and dignity to women flourishes with nobility and prosperity. And a society that does not put women on such a high pedestal has to face miseries and failures regardless of how so much noble deeds they perform otherwise. *Manusamriti The Vedas glorified women as the mother, the creator, one who gives life and worshipped her as a ‘Devi' or Goddess. But their glorification was rather mythical in a patriarchal society. In the Indian society, position of women is always perceived in relation to the men. This perception has given birth to various customs and practices. Women are always considered as a physically and emotionally weaker than the males, whereas at present women have proved themselves in almost every field of life affirming that they are no less than men due to their hard work whether at home or working places. Behind closed doors of homes all across our country, women are being tortured, beaten and killed. It is happening in rural areas, towns, cities and in metropolitans as well. Violence against women both inside and outside of their home has been a crucial issue in the contemporary Indian society. Violence against women in India are of many types and from birth to death, women are prone to violence from men and society. Violence against women is not a new phenomenon. Women have to bear the burns of domestic, public, physical as well as emotional and mental violence against them, which affects her status in the society at the larger extent. The statistics of increasing crimes against women is shocking, where women are subjected to violence attacks i.e. foeticide, infanticide, medical neglect, child marriages, bride burning, sexual abuse of girl child, forced marriages, rapes, prostitution, sexual harassment at home as well as work places etc. In all the above cases women is considered as aggrieved person. This paper analyse the different phases, types and causes responsible for the violence against women as well as various Acts and preventive measures adopted by government to put an end or minimize the violence against women.  hide

146.Relationship between Perceived Workplace Harassment, Mental Health Status and Job Satisfaction of Male and Female Civil Police Constables

By: Mahesh Kumar Maurya, Department of Psychology, F.S.S., BHU, Varanasi (UP),  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of the study was to investigate the patterns of relationships between perceived workplace harassment, mental health status and job satisfaction among male and female civil police. The study was conducted on 118 civil police employees (59 male and 59 female) in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Participants’ responses were obtained on questionnaires which measured perceived workplace harassment (Berdahl and Moore, 2006), psychological well-being and psychological distress (PD) (Heubeck & Neill, 2000) and job satisfaction (Dantzker (1993). Data were statistically analyzed for examining the hypothesized relationships between the variables among the male and female samples. Results indicated that not-man-enough harassment, traditional sexual harassment and psychological wellbeing were significantly different among the male and female civil police personnel. However, ethnic harassment, psychological distress and job satisfaction were not significantly different among these two groups. Hierarchical regression analysis for examining the mediating effect of mental health status dimension showed that among male police personnel psychological wellbeing exercised suppressor effects on the prediction of job satisfaction by the factor ‘not-man-enough harassment’ while among female police personnel, psychological wellbeing exercised suppressor effects on the prediction of job satisfaction by the factor ‘traditional sexual harassment’. Psychological distress exercised suppressor effects on the prediction of job satisfaction by the factor ‘traditional sexual harassment’ only among male participants. The findings have significant implications for enhancing the job satisfaction among male and female police personnel so as to maximize their performance.  hide

147.Coping Skills as Predictors of Self-Efficacy among Adolescents

By: Jagpreet Kaur, Deptt. of Education, Punjabi University, Patiala (PB.) and Sandeep Kaur, Ph. D. Student, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Gippsland Campus. Melbourne  Show abstract Details

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A coping skill is a behavioral tool which is used by individuals to offset or overcome adversity, disadvantage or disability without correcting or eliminating the underline conditions. The main objective of this study was to explore the relationship of coping skills with self-efficacy in a sample of 196 adolescents from Patiala district of Punjab. Coping skills considered in the present study were proactive coping, reflective coping, strategic planning, preventive coping, instrumental support seeking, emotional support seeking and avoidance coping. Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI) developed by Greenglass et al. (1999) was used to measure the coping skills among adolescents. Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995) was used to study self-efficacy of adolescents. The results of correlation analysis revealed a positive and significant relationship of coping skills of proactive coping, reflective coping, strategic planning, preventive coping, instrumental support seeking, emotional support seeking with self-efficacy among adolescents. However, a non-significant relationship of avoidance coping with self-efficacy among adolescents was observed. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to examine the extent to which the various coping skills contributed to the variability in self-efficacy among adolescents. The results indicated that preventive coping and instrumental support seeking were the significant predictors of self-efficacy among adolescents. Implications of the results are discussed.  hide

148.Women’s Visibility in Public Space: A Sociological Analysis of Women in Organised Sector in Kashmir Valley

By: Pirzada M Amin Head- Department of Social Work & Associate Professor of Sociology University of Kashmir, Hazratbal, Srinagar  Show abstract Details

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Patriarchy is still a cultural universal in Indian Society and the valley of Kashmir is no exception. Human rights woes and Women issues still haunt the State, despite that women folk is not a totally disadvantaged section of the Kashmiri society. Amidst the violent conflict situation, issues of safety, no feel secure psyche, growing criminality, etc, especially since 1989, women have gradually created their visibility in public space and work sphere in spite of all odds in this chaos ridden part of the globe. Today the State of Jammu & Kashmir is not lagging behind in women’s general and professional education, skill development, trained women work force in health sector, development sector, etc,. As the goals of human development are closely intertwined with development and empowerment of women, the State is moving ahead though steadily in the development sector and empowerment of women and more importantly their presence/visibility in the organised and unorganised working sectors has considerably increased. Though there is much more still to be done to empower the women folk in true spirit and undoubtedly still a plethora of issues and challenges are faced by working women at work place that need a speedy redress .However, Kashmiri women have carved their social, educational, professional and political space over a period of time. Today a sizeable proportion of them work in the organised sector be that nursing, child development arena, education, centrally sponsored schemes like NRHM, ICDS, MNERGA, etc, reflecting their resilience, wit and enthusiasm even though living in the conflict zone like Indian Kashmir. This paper being a sociological analysis/description will highlight the prospects of women’s visibility in general working sector and cite the issues and challenges still faced by them at work place, etc, The paper will employ observation method, conversation method and narratives besides paraphrasing the text in a phenomenological perspective to understand the people’s sense of emancipation and empowerment regarding women’s growing presence in public space. Moreover the data has been collected from secondary sources besides analysing the grass roots empowerment via observation and informal conversations.  hide

149.Effect of Gender and Duration of Illness on Emotional Control and Suicidal Tendencies of Cancer Patients: A Psychooncological Study

By: Anjana Bhattacharjee, Department of Psychology, Tripura University, Tripura  Show abstract Details

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The term ‘psycho oncology’ is used in the psychological study of persons who develop cancer. Cancer is perhaps the most dangerous disease of all diseases. It is one of the leading causes of adult deaths worldwide. The present study was attempted to examine the effect of gender and duration of illness on emotional control and suicidal tendencies of cancer patients of Tripura. The sample consisted of 100 cancer patients (50 male and 50 female cancer patients) who were selected purposively from Regional Cancer Institute, Agartala. Again among them (N=100) 47 patients were suffering from cancer for the last one year while the rests were suffering from this deadly disease for more than one year. Tools used were Emotional Control Inventory and Suicidal Tendencies Inventory. Four hypotheses were formulated and they were verified by t test. Findings showed significant difference among male and female cancer patients in regard to their emotional control which again revealed that female cancer patients had low control over their emotions than their male counterparts. Further emotional control and suicidal tendencies of cancer patients across chronicity of the disease also differed significantly which indicates that the cancer patients with shorter cancer duration (less than one year) were emotionally more stable as well as less suicidal than their counterparts. However the study did not find any significant difference among male and female cancer patients in regard to their suicidal tendencies.  hide

150.Work Life Balance Practices and Its Impact on Employee Performance: A Study of Service Organizations

By: Chetna Pandey and Rajni Khare  Show abstract Details

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As in today’s global scenario change are taking place at a fast pace in the working culture. These changes are making it difficult for the employees to balance their work-life. The present study is designed to focus on work-life balance practices, their awareness and implementation in service organizations. Work-life balance means effectively managing the paid work and other obligations personal/family. As many of the researches have already being done worldwide in this topic previously in the western context, our research is also an attempt to find the importance of work-life balance among the employees in the Indian context. The study will also try to measure the impact of the work-life balance on the employee performance. This project is a voyage, starting with a set up of objective to assess the levels of commitment prevailing in various organizations, to assess the problems in balancing work-life among the employees in various organizations a subjective and objective survey of individual will be conducted mainly in the region of Gwalior. The results show the impact of work-life balance practices on performance of the service employees.  hide

151.Examining the Role of Home Environment on the Locus of Control

By: Aaliya Akhtar and Shailbala Saxena, Jammu  Show abstract Details

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The present study is an attempt to examine the role of home environment in developing an adolescents’ locus of control. The data were collected by mutiphasic sampling method. In the first phase 600 adolescents (300 boys and 300 girls) in the age range of 14-18 years belonging to nuclear families were selected and administered the self developed home environment scale. After that the respondents were categorized into two groups i.e. the participants with favourable and unfavourable home environment on the basis of their mean and standard deviation on the said scale which were the final research subjects for the study. In the last phase the final sample of 281 subjects (152 favourable home environment and 129 unfavourable home environment) were administered R. Pal’s Locus of Control Scale. The data were analyzed in the SPSS Program. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant role of home environment in developing an adolescent’s locus of control.  hide

152.Poverty, Mental Health and Its Effects

By: Anil Kumar and Rakesh Behmani, Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwer University Hisar,Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The paper aims to introduce the concept of poverty and mental health. It deals with the definition of the concept and its effects on rural poor, urban poor, on children, adults and on older people. The paper focuses on reviewing the pertinent literature and provide an overall picture of poverty and mental health condition existing today. The paper also throws light on the intervention that are designed to improve mental health condition of various ages people. Various studies that have been conducted in various countries are also mentioned to understand the concept. It is hoped that academicians, mental health workers and professional would benefits from this review through highlighting the studies.  hide

153.Psycho-socio, Economic conditions of left behind families by NRI Groom’s

By: Atinder pal Kaur , Department of Sociology, and Vivek Thakur , Department of police Administration, Panjab University Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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In this study we examine the problem faced by abandon wives in respect to their own self and their parents. Further psycho-socio and economic conditions of left behind brides have been examined with the help of case study and applying interview schedule. Study of 20 cases has been done. The study has been dealt with various effects of the left behind wives and also has tried to examine the situations and the difficulties they have faced  hide

154.Effect of Job Stress on Organizational Commitment and Quality of Work Life among Jaipur Development Employees

By: O.P. Sharma, Deptt. of Psychology, University of Rajasthan,Jaipur and Manasvee Dubey, Deptt. of Psychology, St. Wilfreds PG College, Jaipur  Show abstract Details

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Occupational Stress is a stress involving work. It can occur when there is a discrepancy between the demands of the workplace and an individual’s ability to carry out and complete these demands. Often a stressor can lead the body to have physiological reaction that can strain a person physically as well as mentally. The present research aims at identifying the effects of job stress on organizational commitment and quality of work life among Jaipur Development Authority employees.For the above research purpose a correlational design was being used. A total sample of 100 employees was taken out of which 30 were higher-level employees and the other 70 were middle-level employees from Jaipur Development Authority. The higher-level employees included those employees who were involved in decision-making. In middle level, those employees were included who implemented the policies made by higher-level employees. For measuring Job Stress the organizational role stress scale developed by Udai Pareek has been used. The t-test and correlation method was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The scores of the test revealed that Quality of Work Life is negatively related to Job Stress and positively related to Organizational Commitment in higher-level middle level and whole group of employees. Job Stress is negatively related to Organizational Commitment in all the three categories as well. There is no effect of the position held, age, educational status and job experience on Quality of Work Life, Job Stress and Organizational Commitment in the employees may be due to the similarity of the organization and working environment.  hide

155.Persona: The Face behind the Mask

By: Anagha S Deshmukh, Faculty of Arts, Department of Applied Psychology, South Campus, University of Delhi, Delhi  Show abstract Details

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The major objective of the present investigation was to study the respondents’ engagement in theatre activities during their leisure time, as affected by their personality traits, emotional intelligence, and general use of defense mechanisms. The sample of the present study consisted of 30 male and 30 female respondents, who were further divided into two age groups of 20-30 and 30-40 years. The respondents were professionals from the corporate sector who engaged in theatre as a leisure time activity. Besides the use of the unstructured interview to collect data about demographic variables, the NEO-FFI, Indian Scale of Emotional Intelligence, and the Defense Mechanism Inventory were administered. Females were significantly higher than the Males on the dimensions of Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The Old were found to be more Agreeable and Conscientious than the Young. All the respondents were placed in the higher category for Openness as per the norm tables. They were also found to be higher on Emotional Intelligence. Females were more likely to use the defense of Turning Against the Self while Males were more likely to use Turning Against the Object. Both Males and Females showed equivalent use of the adaptive defense mechanism of Reversal. Significant inter- correlations were obtained between Personality dimensions, Emotional Intelligence, and Defense Mechanisms. The results were discussed in the light of major theoretical perspectives, such as; Trait Approach, Freudian concepts, Cognitive Behavioral Approach, and the current Social Cognitive and Social Learning Approaches.  hide

156.Family Environment as a Predictor of Adjustment in Adolescents

By: Anita Sharma, Karuna and Jyoti Sharma, Department of Psychology, HPU., Shimla  Show abstract Details

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The study aimed to investigate the relationship between family environment and adjustment (home, health, social, emotional) in adolescents. The adolescents (100 males and 100 females) were assessed by using the Moos and Moos Family Environment Scale and Bells Adjustment Inventory. Family environment appeared to influence the adjustment of the adolescents. Data was analysed in terms of Correlation, Regression Analysis and t-test. Regression Analysis revealed that family environment has explained 80% of variance in gender (Males 32% Females 48%) and 92% of variance in schools (government schools 18% and private schools 74%). t –test reveals that gender wize females have shown better adjustment than males and school wize private school students have shown better adjustment than government school students. Thus it can be concluded that family environment plays a vital role in the adjustment of the adolescents.  hide

157.Correlates of Burnout among Female Employees of Non-Nationalized Banks

By: Sudha Katyal, Head, Department of Human Development and Family Relations Government Home Science College, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The present investigation was conducted to get an insight into burnout as related to general health and social support among female employees working in non-nationalized banks. The study was carried out in Chandigarh and its satellite towns-Panchkula and S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, on a sample of 100 female employees having minimum of 1year of job experience from 5 non-nationalized banks (20 from each bank). Standardized tools were used to measure various variables of the study. The findings revealed that majority of the subjects worked daily for 9-10 hours; frequently did overtime work with no payment and felt pressurized due to weekly targets. They were moderately satisfied with their job. They had moderate followed by high level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization but high level of personal accomplishment. There existed a highly significant negative correlation between number of social support and burnout. General health was found to have significant positive correlation with number of social support.  hide

158.The Relationship between Self efficacy and Hope among Post Graduate University Students

By: Rita Rani Talukdar and Kakali Goswami, Department of psychology, Gauhati University, Gauhati  Show abstract Details

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The present study is carried out to explore the association between general self efficacy and hope among post graduate students in Assam. A person’s belief in his/ her ability to organize and execute a required course of action to achieve a desired result is related to his hope in life. The sample consists of fifty students pursuing post graduation in difference courses. The sample age ranges between 20-23 years. Data was collected by using measures of General self efficacy scale by Ralf Schwarzar and Matthias Jesusalem (1995) and the Adult Hope scale by Snyder(1991).Data was analyzed by calculating mean, standard deviation and Pearson correlation of coefficient .The results indicated that high level of self efficacy and hope among the post graduate students. Results also indicated a significant positive correlation (r = 0.61, p< .01) between self efficacy and hope among students. Result showed the level of self efficacy and psychological wellbeing among the students.  hide

159.Student Problems as Related To Family Environment: A Comparative Study of Single and Dual Earning Families

By: Sudha Katyal, Head, Department of Human Development and Family Relations Government Home Science College, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The present study was conducted to identify the problems of students studying in IX and X standard as well as to find out the relationship of problems of students belonging to single and dual earning families with their family environment. The sample comprised of randomly selected 100 students, with 50 students each from single and dual earning families, studying in five different Government Models Schools of Chandigarh. The findings highlighted that students from single earning families were found to have more of academic problems while students from dual earning families were found to have more of social and personal problems as compared to their counterparts from single earning families. It was also found that highly significant differences existed between the two types of samples with regard to cohesion, independence, organization and recreational orientation of their families. Findings also showed that as student problems increased, the scores on family environment decreased.  hide

160.Violence against Women in India: Denial of Justice by Society and Kin

By: Sibnath Deb, Head, Department of Applied Psychology Pondicherry University (A Central University), Puducherry  Show abstract Details

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In our human civilization women have a paradoxical image. On one hand we ardently worship them as our goddess’s while on the other hand, in the society at large, the same goddess’s has a very precarious situation. They are subjected to various forms of violence despite myriad of legal measures and denied justice time and again. However, suffering of women varies from social strata to social strata and cultural background of women. A large number of women experience violence and neglect because of cultural beliefs and practices while another group of women experience violence which is situational and/or because of environmental factors. In the recent past media has brought so many such incidences before general public which is really shocking like Delhi gang-rape of a 23 year old medical student, Chennai acid attack girl and so on. Delayed justice system in India compelled the common people to come to the street and show their concern for the issues. As per a recent survey G-20, India has been ranked as the worst place to be a woman. The lives of many girls and women in India are constantly subjected to violence which includes female foeticide, sexual harassment, domestic violence and gender inequality, which is our country’s stark reality. Domestic violence in India and worldwide is underreported. As per the national survey the numbers on violence against women in the country draws a bleak picture. India records 8 percent of married women being subjected to sexual violence like forced sex, whereas 31 percent of the married women have been physically abused with ‘less severe’ instances, like punching or slapping. The survey report shows 10 percent to have suffered ‘severe domestic violence’ like attack with a weapon or burning. About 12 percent said that they suffered at least one physical injury as a result of the violence such as sprains, bruises, dislocation or burns, severe burns, broken bones or broken teeth and wounds. For all the problems faced by the women, gender inequality, low level of education, cultural beliefs and practices and delayed justice system are responsible. India is a country where there is not enough exposure and conviction against those who are perpetrating acts of violence against women. According to Verma Commission Report, failure of governance is the root cause of crimes against women. Ensuring school attendance for all girl children, empowering women with education and information from the school level, providing value education in the school, social awareness about socio-legal measures through electronic and print media as well as community-based programs especially regarding welfare of women, negative aspects of gender discrimination, caste system and its negative impact on women, negative impact of inequality and formation of Mahila Mondal in every locality especially in the rural areas are some of the measures which might improve the situation in future. In addition, it is very important to carry out study on issues like profile of the perpetrators behind all crimes against women, situation/environment when they were victimized, percentage of reporting of cases and percentage of disposal of cases, percentages of pending cases in the courts and reasons thereof and efficacy of various welfare and legal measures. Findings of these studies would help the Policy Makers to understand the situation better and take corrective measures.  hide

161.Development and it's Standardization of Tools based on Multiple Intelligences Theory for Preschool Teachers and Children

By: Swati Partani and Reeta Sonawat, Department of Human Development, SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai, Maharashtra  Show abstract Details

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Uniform assessment methods cater to the need of few children and exclude the need of rest as they focus on two or three intelligences. Multiple intelligences theory (MIT) is gaining momentum rapidly in education, as it is focusing on the multiple abilities of the children. The curriculum is implemented in varied ways in preschool setup, yet assessment of the same is questioned. Multiple assessment methods which are suggested by researchers are more subjective and hence might be biased if not used with expertise to identify the proclivity of MI. Therefore, there is emerging need of the tools with good psychometric properties for continuous assessment of the multiple intelligences (MI) preferences of teachers and children. Keeping this perspective, the present study was conducted at Mumbai, Maharashtra (India). The aim of this research was to develop and standardize tools to assess MI profiles of preschools teachers and children (3-4 years). Rating scale and questionnaire were constructed using items generated by detail study of existing literature. Tools were content validated by three experts from respective field. Construct validity was calculated by Principal Component Analysis with rotation method of Kaiser Normalization. Cronbach’s Alpha, Split-half technique for reliability like Spearman-Brown and Guttman formulae were used to calculate reliability of the tool. Analysis of data was obtained from five point rating scale and questionnaire, administered to 100 teachers and 364 preschool children. Tools illustrated the good factor structure and high internal consistency.  hide

162.Happiness as Mediator between Resiliency and Mental Health in University Students

By: Sarita Sood Lecturer PG Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu  Show abstract Details

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This study was carried out to assess the mediating role of happiness in relationship between resiliency and mental health. The relationship between resiliency, happiness and mental health was also assessed. The study was carried out on 120 students studying in university. For the statistical analysis of the data, mean, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation, regression analysis and Sobel test were applied. Results revealed positive relationship between all the study variables. Partial mediating role of happiness was confirmed in this study. This suggests that resilient students who tend to feel happy are likely to experience better mental health. The findings of the study urge to develop certain interventions to enhance happiness and resiliency in the students receiving higher education. These findings might be beneficial for the students as they experience sudden change in educational system requiring greater self reliance and active role. The interventions might focus on enhancing mental health through contributing in reduction of mental disorders and not developing the same at the first place. Findings of the study might be particularly useful for giving a face lift to the current education system through incorporating an element of counseling services.  hide

163.Psycho-Social Factors Contributing To Superstitious Behavior and Its Management: Literature Review

By: Manasvi Shrivastav and Anuradha Kotnala, Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar (UK)  Show abstract Details

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The present article reviews on researches on psycho-social factors contributing to superstitious behaviour and its management. In western countries so many researches has been conducted on superstition. Some researches shed some light on social and psychological factors responsible for superstitious behaviour. Psychological factors include fear, locus of control, confidence level etc. and social factors such as, locale, socio-economic status etc. management refer to the counselling to control superstitious behaviour. Superstitions exist everywhere in the world. Every country on the planet has its own local superstitions. Each country also has its own variations on common superstitions. Some of the most common superstitions have to do with cats, alcohol, and death.Most superstition from the past have been proven by science as unnecessary, ineffective or just plan silly but are still practiced by normal intelligent people today. Around the world, there are many reappearing themes for superstition. Every country has its own localized take on each theme.Superstition is quite common in human society. For example, a huge number of newspapers and magazines carry regularly horoscopes, which indicate the high demand for reading horoscopes. Different researches touch the different aspect of superstitious behaviour in differentsituation. This research review article is an approach to compile these researches to shed light on all these aspects.  hide

164.Stress among PG Students and Its Coping Mechanism

By: Mehta, M., Singh, K. and Sunita, Department of Family Resource Management COHS, CCS HAU Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Almost every person irrespective of caste, age, profession and sex faces stress in the modern era which is both positive as well as negative. Stress results in a lot of emotional turmoil which eventually affects a student’s general performance. The study was carried out to study the stress level reasons of stress among PG students. Fifty female PG respondents were selected randomly from the colleges of CCS HAU Hisar. Data was collected with the help of pre tested questionnaire. The responses of students were recorded on 5 point continuum scale. The most stressful situation was ‘too many assignments/presentations’ followed by ‘feel pressured because of my research work’, ‘don’t have interest in my research work/topic’. Least significant conditions causing stress were ‘health problem’, ‘fight with my friends’, ‘poor attendance’, ‘difficult to meet people and socialize’ and ‘responsibility for family members’. About half of the student had high level of stress followed by about 26% with medium level of stress and18%) with low level of stress. Only one tenth of the respondent had good control over their stress. The major reasons of stress were lots of assignments (80%), uncertainty in future (78%), research work (72%), examination (58%) and financial problems (56%). Advisor and health problems were the reason of stress for 42 % students. Coping mechanism adopted by the students to reduce the stress were talk with family friends whereas, chat on internet creative activity, crying and shopping etc.  hide

165.Intersectoral Comparison Regarding Personality Traits of Some Entrepreneurs

By: Suman Bhatia, K.L.P.College,Rewari, Haryana, Tilak Sethi, Associate Professor, Haryana School of Business GJUS&T Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The paper analyses the variations in personality traits of some entrepreneurs.To assess the difference of personality traits of some entrepreneurs, a study was conducted. The study aimed to highlight major personality traits responsible for the success of first & second generation entrepreneurs .In process, it also tried to tell the difference between various personality traits among entrepreneurs. There were six factors viz.: Creative Capabilities, Assertive Leadership Capabilities, Entrepreneurial Maturity with Commitment, Possession of Requisite Knowledge, Confident Decision Taker & Innovative Personality  hide

166.Tendency to Display Citizenship Behaviours at Work: Role of Subjective Well-being

By: Happy Paul and Pooja Garg, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Roorkee  Show abstract Details

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With the increased role of psychology in last two decades, research on subjective well-being (SWB) has gained much attention and as an outcome its role at workplace has been explored well in applied research. However, how this significant positive aspect of life functions in everyday life at work remains unknown. The paper bridges this gap and explores the potential role of SWB to augment the tendency of employees to display extra-role behaviours at workplace. It was proposed that the subjective experience of well-being would enjoy a positive relationship with the demonstration of organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs). In this venture, authors after briefly defining the constructs and looking into the literature, summarize the findings from a sample of executives working in Indian manufacturing industry (n=240). The participants were assessed for SWB (Life Satisfaction, Positive Affect and Negative Affect), and OCB (Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic Virtue). The results of regression analysis revealed that the two-component configuration of SWB constituting cognitive and affective dimensions relate positively to the dimensions of OCB. It is argued that since the citizenship behaviours demonstrate the state of everyday life of an employee at workplace, it is pertinent for organizations to achieve optimal human experience and well-being. Practical implications are discussed along with the future directions for research.  hide

167.Personality, Subjective Well-Being and Interpersonal Attraction in Adolescents

By: Anita Sharma and Jyotsana Gautam, Department of Psychology, HPU., Shimla  Show abstract Details

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The study aimed at exploring the role of personality and subjective well-being in interpersonal attraction (social attraction, physical attraction, task attraction) in adolescents. The adolescents (100 males and 100 females) were assessed by using 16 PF, The Subjective Well-Being Inventory and Interpersonal attraction Scale. Data was analyzed in terms of Correlation, Regression Analysis and t-test. Regression Analysis revealed that personality has explained 10% of variance in interpersonal attraction in females only and subjective well-being has shown 14% of variance in interpersonal attraction by gender ( in Males 9% & in Females 5 %). t –test has revealed that gender wise, females have shown better interpersonal attraction than males. Overall, Personality and subjective well-being appeared to influence interpersonal attraction of the adolescents. Thus, it can be concluded that personality and subjective well-being plays a vital role in the interpersonal attraction of the adolescents.  hide

168.Anger and Its Management

By: Anju Gautam, Teaching Assistant, C.C.S University, Meerut, UP  Show abstract Details

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“Anybody can become angry- that is easy; but to be angry with the right person, and to the right degree, and at the right time, and for the right purpose, and in the right way- that is not with in everybody`s power and is not easy” - Aristotle Everybody feels anger from time to time. People have been documented feeling anger since biblical times when God was considered angry. Babies even exhibit signs that are interpreted as anger, such as crying or screaming. Anger is not in any way unique to people. Animals also have the ability to feel and express anger. In our personal lives we get angry over at least one thing on almost a daily basis, whether it is on the job, with a spouse or loved one, or perhaps with a figure of authority. Anger is a healthy emotion when it is expressed appropriately. When it is not, it can have devastating effects. Anger is at the root of many personal and social problems, e.g. child abuse, domestic violence, physical and verbal abuse and community violence etc. Problematic interpersonal relations may also disrupt employment activities because of the interference of anger on workplace performance. Anger can destroy relationships, obstruct problem solving skills, and increase social withdrawal. Anger also affects our physical health. For example, it can tax our immune system; contribute to headaches, migraines, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Anger is a healthy and valid emotion. But many of us are taught not to express or show our anger. There’s no doubt about it: we live in an angry society. Signs that anger abounds are all over the place. There is desk rage, road rage, spousal abuse, sports rage and most recently spam rage. Anger is a worldwide phenomenon and referrals to anger management programs have exploded since. Present paper attempt to explore anger and its remedial aspects in a theoretical context.  hide

169.Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement of Ninth Graders: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls

By: Sudha Katyal and Anu Department of Human Development & Family Relations Government Home Science College, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The present study was an attempt to investigate emotional intelligence and academic achievement of boys and girls of ninth graders. The study was carried out on the sample of 100 students (50 boys+ 50 girls) from five randomly selected Government Model Schools of Chandigarh. The findings reveled that majority of boys had good followed by low level of emotional intelligence and academic achievement. On the other hand, majority of girls had good level of emotional intelligence and high level of academic achievement respectively. There existed highly significant difference between boys and girls with regard to both of these variables.  hide

170.Relationship between Temperamental Qualities of Siblings and Parental Differential Treatment

By: Poonam, Shakuntla Puniaand Shanti Balda, Department of Human Development and Family Studies College of Home Science, C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The concept of temperament directs our attention to important aspects of child individuality that must be considered in parenting. Using a sample of 120 families having two children who were between 10 and 17years of age and their parents, this study assessed the relationship between child temperament and parental differential treatment and was undertaken in purposively selected Hisar city, of Haryana State. Thereby, the total sample was consisted of 240 children (120 older and 120 younger siblings) and 240 parents. Both parents were informants for temperamental qualities. Malhotra’s Temperament Schedule (Malhotra and Malhotra, 1988) was used to study child temperamental qualities. Comparative distribution of younger and older siblings on different temperamental qualities depicted that younger siblings were more social, had positive moods as well as more active, and whereas, older siblings were relatively more attentive. Berkeley Parent-child Interview Schedule developed by Ablow and Measelle (1993) was used to study PDT. In the face of social norms for equal treatment, the present study provided evidences that mothers and fathers often treat their offspring differentially. As per siblings’ perception regarding PDT in the domains of warmth, over half of mothers and fathers both favoured younger siblings more than the older siblings, whereas, nearly same percentage of both parents were relatively more hostile to the older siblings. Correlation results clearly established that children’s temperament statistically predicted maternal differential warmth and hostility treatment of siblings in the family. Implications for intervention programs targeted at decreasing differential treatment are discussed.  hide

171.Job Attitude- A Case Study of Women Employees Working in BSNL, Panjab Telecom Circle, Chandigarh

By: Itika Sharma and Sarbjit Singh, Department of Public Administration Panjab University Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The paper deals with job attitude of women employees working in Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Punjab Telecom Circle, Chandigarh. The study has been conducted on 200 randomly selected women employees. The study reveals the level of satisfaction among women employees regarding their work culture and job satisfaction on basis of questions asked from them. SPSS and Karl Pearson test has been applied to assess their satisfaction level.  hide

172.Social Psychological Factors Contributing to Academic Failure: A Study of School Students in Punjab

By: Rajni Jassal, Assistant Professor Deptt. Of Sociology USOL, Panjab University, Chandigarh, and Aakash Sharma Research Scholar Deptt. Of PoliceAdministration Panjab University Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Academic failure leads to retention and school dropout that is the most graving issue among education policy makers or others. Children are future of the society if they remain blank or empty headed then there would be no sustainable society. The objective of this paper is to highlight social psychological factors that lead to academic failure among school students in Punjab. Elementary class students, teachers and parents of the students, dropout children were included in this study. Results and implications are discussed.  hide

173.Assessment of Depression among Children through Multi-informant Approach

By: Shakuntla Punia , Santosh Sangwan and Poonam Department of HDFS, College of Home Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar,Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Depression in the children merits special mention because the early onset of depression in children is associated with poorer prognosis and a severe and recurrent course in adulthood. Researchers are in favour of using multiple informants when assessing children for possible depressive disorders. The current study examined depression in a sample of 80 children aged between 11-15 years equally representing both the sexes selected from senior secondary schools. Using baseline data from multi-informants i.e. children, parents, and teachers, this study examined depression agreement across two or more informants. The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) (Kovac, 1985) was used to measure depression using child, parent and teacher version. The study indicated that as per child and teacher report, one-fourth of total sample was detected with depression symptoms but parents reported slightly higher percentage of children with depressive symptoms (31.3%). Mean comparison results revealed that reports of multi-informants were significantly different from each other. The results evidenced that girls were more depressed than the boys as well as more number of children was depressed in nuclear families. The results of the study provide confirmation of earlier findings on depression. The study will increase awareness in public and among stakeholders about mental health disparity among children in Haryana. Implications for the integration of multi-informant assessment information are discussed.  hide

174.Attachment Styles of Abused and Neglected Adolescents: An Exploratory Study Presenter

By: Vasundhra Sharma M.A Psychology, University of Jammu (J&K)  Show abstract Details

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The experiences of abuse and neglect can impede the attachment process and decrease the youngsters’ feelings of security and trust in their caregivers. The unmet needs of the child victims may result in anger and resentment of their caregivers, and these responses may then transfer to other relationships in their lives. This paper focuses on the detrimental effects of maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, on attachment styles of young children from shelter homes. The total sample consisted of 103 participants in the age range of 12-14 yrs; 33 abused shelter home adolescents (screened from 70) and 33 non-abused. Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) by Bernstein &Fink (1999) and Attachment styles questionnaire by Finzi et al. (1996, 2000) were the assessment tools. Findings of the study indicate emotional neglect (40%) as the most prevalent problem followed by physical neglect (35.7%), Physical abuse (17.14%) and emotional abuse (15.7%) among shelter home participants. t-test results indicated significant difference between abused shelter home and control participants on attachment styles, where abused shelter home participants were found to insecure and anxious compared to controls. As majority of the children in our study are screened positive for psychopathology, this disturbance demands for preventive interventions for our youngest and homeless population.  hide

175.A Scientific Study of Anger and Its Management

By: Vinita Kumari Sinha Asst.Prof. of Psychology Nirmala College, Ranchi  Show abstract Details

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Anger as a primary, natural, and mature emotion .It is a warning bell that tells us that something is wrong. It is a reaction to a perceived threat to us, our loved ones, our property, our self-image, or some part of our identity. Anger can be caused by external or internal events. Anger is our friend as well as enemy. Although anger is a universal human emotion, there are many variables involved in. like genetics, family background gender etc. Men tend to be more aggressive and impulsive in response to anger; women tend to talk more about their feelings of anger and stay angry longer. Women are also more likely to suppress anger. Everyone experiences anger, and it can be healthy. Certain amount of anger is necessary to our survival. An appropriate level of anger that is expressed correctly helps us take the right action, solve the problem that is presenting itself, or deal with the situation in a positive manner. It helps us react quickly & decisively in situations where there is no time for a careful, reasoned analysis of the situation. And it can motivate us to solve problems, achieve our goals, and remove threats. But on the other hand When anger is too intense, out of control, misdirected, and overly aggressive, it can lead to poor decision making and problem solving, create problems with relationships and at work, and can even affect our health. So it is necessary to control or manage anger. Anger management means to learn to use anger positively and express it appropriately. The best tactics for anger management are:-Relaxation, Cognitive Restructuring, Better Communication, Distraction, Exercise, Start Laughing etc.  hide

176.Appraising the Stress Level Of Private and Government School Children and Identifying Its Correlation With the Parental Stress Level

By: Arockia Maraichelvi, Bani Lekha Phukan, and M. Karthika, Department of Human Development, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore , Tamilnadu  Show abstract Details

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Stress level among Indian school children is high especially before getting into high school (i.e.) before their public exams. The objectives were to Appraise the perceived stress level of school children and identify its institution - specific differences, and to measure the stress level of the parents of the selected children and find out its association with the stress level of their children. Methods - The 8th standard students (N=128) and their parents (T =128) of a school under private management (n1=76 and t1=76) and a school run by government (n2=53 and t2=52) in the district of Coimbatore, formed the sample for the study. A checklist was framed to assess the stress level of the selected school children. A parental stress scale with 5 point rating was also formulated. The study was conducted and the data elicited were subjected to statistical analysis. Conclusion - The study indicates higher stress among government school children when compared to private school children. The parental stress does not affect the stress level of parents. The influence of other variables are also discussed.  hide

177.Impact of Yoga on Blood Glucose level among mother with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus at Government Hospital, Tambaram, Chennai, Tamilnadu

By: Abirami. P and Jayamohan Raj, SRM College of Nursing, Tamilnadu  Show abstract Details

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Background: Pregnancy induces progressive changes in maternal carbohydrate metabolism. As pregnancy advances insulin resistance and diabetogenic stress due to placental hormones necessitate compensatory increase in insulin secretion. When this compensation is inadequate, Gestational Diabetes develops. ‘Gestational Diabetes Mellitus’ [GDM] is defined as carbohydrate intolerance with onset or recognition First during pregnancy. To treat Gestational Diabetes Mellitus naturally the Antenatal Mother with GestationalDiabetesMellitus should practice Yogis positions(SUKSHMA VYAYAMAS) along with Pranayama (breathing exercises) & Meditation. Methods: This was a prospective interventional study and it was conducted at Government Hospital, Tambaram. 212Antenatal mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus were randomized into yoga and control groups. Sample size was detected based on Power analysis and selection of the samples based on Non-probability purposive sampling technique. Quasi Experimental -Time Series Design was adopted.. The yoga group (n = 104) received standard care plus Intensive, continuous Yoga practice daily for (30-40 minutes/ day ) from 24th week to 36th week for 12 Weeks from the trained yoga instructor.. The control group (n = 108) received standard care from the Hospital. Fasting and post prandial Blood Glucose level was Continuously monitored every 4th week before Yoga at 24th week after Yoga from 28th week to 36th week.Results: Among Yoga group, 24th week Fasting blood glucose mean score was 122.99 mg/dl after intensive practice of Yoga the mean score at 28th week 106.31 mg/dl, 32nd 102.37 mg/dl and 36th week 90.27 mg/dl and the Post prandial Blood Glucose mean score at 24th week 160.45 mg/dl and after yoga the mean score at 28th week 140.14 mg/dl, 32nd 127.01 mg/dl and in 36th week 117.13 mg/dl . So this reduction was statistically significance. It was assessed using Repeated measures analysis of variance F test (Fasting=25.70,P=0.001***, Postprandial=34.97,P=0.001***) . Between weeks like 24th week and 28th week,32 week,36 week differences was calculated using bonferroni t-test. There is a Significant reduction in the Fasting and Postprandial blood glucose level in Yoga Group than control group at p< 0.001 level of significance. Conclusion: .This study critically analyzed and it is proven that yoga reduces blood glucose level which prevents adverse outcomes of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  hide

178.Self Efficacy as a predictor of Academic Stress in Senior Secondary Students

By: Kirti Madnani, Research Scholar and Madhurima Pradhan, Associate Professor Department of Psychology Lucknow University , Lucknow, UP  Show abstract Details

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This study examined self efficacy as a predictor of academic stress among senior secondary students. The sample comprised of one hundred twelfth class students of different private schools of Lucknow district. All the students were from CBSE and ISC board with science (Physics, Chemistry, and Math) stream. Self efficacy was assessed by Bandura’s Multidimensional Scale of perceived self efficacy having 57 items in nine dimensions (i.e. Enlisting social resources self efficacy, Academic achievement self efficacy, Self regulated learning, Leisure time skill and extracurricular activities, Self regulatory efficacy to resist peer pressure, Meet others expectations, Social self efficacy, Self assertive efficacy, Enlisting parental and community support).Academic Stress scale was developed by the researchers having 46 items. Results revealed a significant negative correlation between self efficacy and academic stress. Regarding the correlation of academic stress with different dimensions of self efficacy, all the dimensions were found to have significant negative correlation with academic stress except leisure time skill and extracurricular activities, self regulatory efficacy to resist peer pressure and academic achievement self efficacy. The results of stepwise regression revealed that self regulated learning, meet other’s expectations, leisure time skill & extracurricular activities and enlisting parental & community support predicted 25% variance in academic stress. These findings imply that promoting these variables in senior secondary students may help them experience less academic stress.  hide

179.Effect of Yoga on Physiopsychological Parameters among Hypertensive Adults

By: T. Sujatha and Jaya Mohanraj, Dean, Dept. of Community Health Nursing, Srm College of Nursing, Tamil Nadu  Show abstract Details

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Background: Hypertension is a major chronic lifestyle disease and an important public health problem. This leads to numerous micro/macro vascular complications and subjects with hypertension are known to have a two-fold higher risk of developing coronary artery disease, four times higher risk of congestive heart failure and seven times higher risk of cerebro vascular disease compared to normotensive subjects. Aim: This community based study tested the efficacy of yoga controlling hypertension by studying its impact on Blood pressure and Anxiety among Hypertension Adults, Kancheepuram district, Tamil nadu, India.Design: Experimental before and after design .Setting/participants: villages under Kattankulathur block, 238 subjects aged 30 – 60 who were being treated for mild and moderate hypertension took part in the study. Intervention: The group allocated to practice yoga exercises for 5 days for 2hrs daily and continued performing twice daily for 12 weeks with regular treatment. The control group are also under medications but not given any specific exercises. The data were analyzed by proportions, chi-square tests, student independent t-test, karl pearson’s correlation and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The study shows that the mean systolic BP & Anxiety in interventional group differed significantly. As regards SBP in the pre & post intervention setting the mean SBP is reduced from 152.75 to 138.51 (14.24) mm of hg and For control group, 152.85to 152.38 (-0.47) mm of hg . This fall in SBP in Intervention group was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Likewise for DBP, it is reduced from 94.51to 86.17 (8.34) mm of hg whereas the change in DBP values of the control group was not significant. State trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of Anxiety and showed a mean reduction of 12.6% state anxiety and 11.3% trait anxiety among interventional group. Conclusions: The yoga asanas were very simple and can be done in the home setup with the daily activities to decrease the blood pressure and Anxiety to avoid Blood Pressure related complications.  hide

180.Health Risk and Physical Education

By: Lakhveer Kaur, Assist. Prof of Physical Education, C.G.M. College, Mohlan (Punjab)  Show abstract Details

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Throughout our lives, we depend on the skills and knowledge of physical educators and health professionals to help us make better decisions about nutrition, exercise, preventive health practices and lifetime activity — all important elements of a healthy lifestyle. The increasing number of health risks and conditions that are experienced by most people today, young or old, create concern about the impact of lifestyle and diet factors to increasing those risk factors. If you wanted to adapt a change in lifestyle, make sure to learn how you can incorporate those activities in your daily life and experience their benefits. Although a sport is viewed today as a competitive activity, it can also be practiced for leisure and fitness purposes. There are various levels of sports activities that one can engage in such as amateur, leisure, and professional sports. There are several sports activities that one can choose from such that it is easier to commit yourself into this activity, depending on what you enjoy doing most. Some of the most popular sports today include basketball, football, soccer, volleyball, tennis, swimming, to name a few. It is now clear that the risks of major chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, some forms of cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis are increased by sedentary living. In addition there is evidence that regular physical activity can improve immune function and help relieve symptoms of arthritis and asthma. Sport and physical activity, however, remains an attractive low-cost strategy to promote healthy behaviours and lifestyles throughout the lifespan and reduce the burden of chronic diseases on public health systems.  hide

181.Effect of Movements and Positions of Laboring Women on Maternal Satisfaction during First Stage of Labour

By: M.Vaijayanthimala, M.Sc, Research Scholar, SRM University, Chennai. Tamilnadu  Show abstract Details

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Introduction: Childbirth is primarily a joyful event and represents a major transition in a women’s life. The experience of pain during labour is complex, unique and multifaceted response to sensory stimuli. Several studies show that benefits of movements and position changes are decreases intensity of labour pain, facilitate fetal descend, stimulate dilation, reduce Oxytocin infusions and decrease perineal trauma. Research also suggested that being able to move and changing positions are both key factors in determining child birth satisfaction. The present study reports the effect of movements and positions of laboring women on birth satisfaction. Background: Existing controversy opinions on movements and positions during labor and common occurrence of immobility during labour in today’s scenario due to risk focused management made obstetricians and midwife become inconvenient, discouraged and restricted with the use of movements and positions. Additionally lack of resources and accurate information to these issues depicts that need for an hour to be discussed and analyzed to find evidenced based practice intervention and to maintain sense of normality and make birth “as nature intended”. Methods and materials: A quantitative randomized experimental study was conducted among 211 primi parturient mothers who were in active stage of labour with uncomplicated pregnancy were allocated to experimental group (n=106) and control group (n=105). Movements and positions like walking, swaying on birth ball, rocking with rocking chair and semi sitting position were used as interventions. Each of these movements was provided for 10 minutes with 5 minutes rest period during which the mother can assume any comfortable position. After the delivery the maternal satisfaction with freedom of movement was assessed by three point rating scale which has reliability of 0.82. Results: There was a significant difference found between experimental and control group on maternal satisfaction at p=0.02 level. Mean score also was high in experimental group depicted statistical significance. There was a significant association found in maternal age, education, source of information and body mass index. Conclusion: The study concluded that adoption of various movements and positions during first stage of labour enhanced maternal satisfaction on child birth. Considering available evidence and result of this study recommends that various positions and movements during labour is an effective intervention that can be practiced in birth centers and community setup by midwives  hide

182.Effect of Family Coping Interventions on Family System Strengths among Caregivers of Stroke Survivors

By: M. Hemamalini Senior Lecturer, Department of community Health Nursing and Jayamohanraj, Dean , Department of community Health Nursing, SRM College of Nursing, Kattankulathur, Tamilnadu  Show abstract Details

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Introduction: In Industrialized countries stroke is the third leading cause of death and disability among people living in their own homes. If a person survives, the initial effects of stroke, much function.nal capacity can often be restored with intensive rehabilitation efforts. WHO Collaborative study showed that both developed and underdeveloped country nearly one third of stroke patients died in three weeks and 48% died within one year. The incidence of stroke is about 19% higher in males than in females .About 25% of cases occur in people younger than age 65(American Heart Association 2007) .The presence of a serious, chronic illness in one family member usually has a profound impact on the family system, especially on its role structure and the family functions. Families play an important supportive role during the course of a client’s convalescence or rehabilitation. Most caregivers of stroke survivors find themselves in a stressful situation. Research has shown that taking care of stroke survivors creates burdens for caregivers and decreases their levels of well-being. Aim: To evaluate the Effect of Family Coping Intervention on Family System Strengths among the care givers of stroke survivors. Design: True Experimental pretest and posttest design. Setting and Participants: The study was conducted in Kattankulathur Block, Tamilnadu. 240 caregivers of stroke survivors participated in the study. Intervention: The experimental group was given family coping interventions such as counseling, enrollment in self help groups, and involvement in recreational activities, Result: After 3 months, there was significant difference in the family system strengths between the experimental group and control group at t=37.58, and p value was 0.001. Conclusion: The present study concluded that Family Coping Intervention programme is an effective nursing Intervention recommended for the caregivers of stroke survivors to enhance their Family system strengths.  hide

183.Ways of Coping among People Living with HIV: a Study from HIV Community Care Centre in Tamil Nadu

By: Dhanalakshmi S R, Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore and Vocational Rehabilitation Centre for Handicapped, Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of In  Show abstract Details

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Although medical advances over the past decade have ensured better treatment for people living with HIV, significant challenges remain in coping with the disease. The ability to cope successfully against HIV diagnosis is influenced by a number of psychological factors. The purpose of this study is to assess the patterns of coping among the recently diagnosed HIV infected people in Tamil Nadu. Our sample examined 70 HIV infected people (69% women), attending a Community Care Centre in rural Tamil Nadu. Respondents were interviewed using Coping with HIV Scale tool that examined five theoretically-unique coping mechanisms. Analysis revealed the mean scores for different coping strategies - distraction 58.03 (SD 10.69); blame 43.59 (SD 14.22); positive growth 55.33 (SD 15.67); expression is 50.17 (SD 10.73); wishful thinking is 62.8 (SD 16.7). Age, literacy, marital status, income had an influence on usage of specific coping strategy. However, usage of such specific coping strategy was not statistically different between men and women, type of family or number of children. The results of this study allowed us to examine the five theoretically-unique coping mechanisms and an in-depth knowledge of such strategies would allow planning of appropriate psychological interventions to enhance adaptive coping among the recently diagnosed HIV- population.  hide

184.How Do People Process Word-like Stimuli?

By: Dhiksha.J, Research Scholar, Christ University, Bangalore  Show abstract Details

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Repetition priming and the effect of perceptual specificity on priming have been investigated for a long time, yet there still has been heated debate about the underlying mechanism. The two main theoretical accounts of repetition priming are the abstractionist approach and episodic theories; the former asserts that preexisting abstract representations mediate priming whereas the latter claims that specific episodes support priming. To further understand how people process word-like stimuli, the present study investigated priming for studied and unstudied pseudowords and the effect of letter case shift using high-shift pseudowords. Participants learned uppercase pseudowords in the study phase, and one to three days later they were tested in a familiarity task in which both uppercase and lowercase pseudowords were used. Priming was observed for both studied and unstudied pseudowords; however, the specificity effect – reduction in priming due to letter case shift – was only obtained in studied pseudowords. The interaction between pseudoword type (studied and unstudied), letter case (uppercase and lowercase), and presentation (initial and repeated) was significant, indicating that manipulation of letter case influenced reaction times for different presentations when different types of pseudowords were used. Results provide evidence for episodic theories and for the abstractionist approach as well. In order to gain further understanding of pseudoword priming, suggestions for future studies using other techniques are discussed.  hide

185.Sexual and reproductive health education for adolescents: Need of the hour

By: Mutum Silpa Devi and Department of Human development, Avinashilingam Institute of Home Science and Higher Education for Women, University, Coimbatore  Show abstract Details

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Today, globally the reproductive health of adolescents is of growing concern undeniably due to the alarming increases of sexual and reproductive health problems. Even though reproductive health care is a relatively new concept it is undoubtedly proven to be a very important component in general health. Reproductive health care is needed throughout life span of every individual specially women and precisely during adolescence since it is crucial during this period. Yet in most culture it is most prominently addressed during adulthood. Adolescence being the period of pubertal changes, sexual maturation, curiosity and experimentation make them vulnerable. Despite being acknowledge the special needs of adolescents are largely ignored due to the perpetuate idea of discussing anything related to sex is taboo. Without any or little knowledge from unreliable sources adolescents are exploring themselves in this field resulting in adolescent pregnancies, unsafe abortion, contracting STIs including HIV/AIDS further hinder in social and economic development of nation. The findings of various studies recommend one of the key actions needed to improve reproductive health is the empowerment of adolescents especially through education programmes. This paper draws attention to the urgent need of the intervention strategies aimed at enhancing adolescents’ knowledge and bring desirable changes in their attitude thus to strengthen the quality of practices on reproductive health care.  hide

186.Multi & Transnational Business Corporations and Stress Management: An Analytical Case Study

By: Mohd. Asif Khan and Deptt. of Commerce, AMU, Aligarh, Ehtesham Husain Abbasi, Deptt. of Business Administration, AMU Centre, Malappuram  Show abstract Details

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Human body is the best creation of the Creator. So many amazing discoveries are still untapped in our body. We may say that the basic aim of creating such a beautiful human system is to give relief to the person to whom that body belongs to. That is why when ever we come across the word ‘human’ we have a feeling of sympathy, kindness and concern for others. However in race to become ‘economic superpower’ in the world economic order almost all the countries are crossing their limits and the results are inflation, unemployment, economic crisis, inequality in wealth level etc. It’s a big blow to the humanity. At micro economic level or corporate level story is not too different. The overambitious multinational companies set impossible to achieve targets for their employees and in result they stretch themselves beyond limit. The study which is being incorporated here is based on the sleep deprivation and its economic or cost effect in terms of $ US due to lost productivity of American workers. Little work has been done in the past to study the problems being created by corporate bigwigs in terms of employees’ health and their final result on overall productivity of the companies.  hide

187.Premenstrual distress: its causes, effects and management

By: Sunita Gupta and Supriya, Department of Psychology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar  Show abstract Details

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This paper discusses the origin and etiology of premenstrual distress (Syndrome).Many causal factors namely anxiety, depression, hormonal imbalance, negative attitude towards menstruation etc have been found to result in premenstrual distress. This paper reviews the physical, physiological, psychosocial, behavioral, neuropsychological, and cognitive effects of premenstrual symptoms. Finally an attempt has been made to highlight the therapeutic interventions and other treatment aspects of premenstrual syndrome.  hide

188.Terrorism catastrophizing in relation to mental health among Kashmiri youths

By: Ruqiya Bashir M. A. Psychology, University of Jammu, J&K  Show abstract Details

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There is scarce information about how people deal with the ongoing and potential threat of terrorism, especially in communities at risk. Thus the present study is an attempt to study the prospective fears of terrorism and mental health among youths under direct and indirect exposures to terrorism. The study sample comprised of 192 male and female participants selected from various colleges in Jammu and Kashmir using cross-sectional research design, under direct and indirect exposure to terrorism. Terrorism Catastrophizing Scale (TCS) (Samuel et al. 2007) and Self-Report Questionnaire (WHO, 1994) were used. Mean, SD, t-test and ANOVA was calculated for analysis. Specific patterns of cognitive disorganization such as ruminizaion and magnification and psychiatric disturbance were found among youths under direct exposure to terrorism. The findings have direct relevance for developing optimal practices to assist vulnerable youths under the exposure of terrorist attacks.  hide

189.Cognitive-behavioural intervention in learning disability and mental retardation: An empirical study of children from an urban slum

By: S. P. K. Jena, University of Delhi, Benito Jena and Martarez Road, New Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Slums are considered to be the breeding grounds for many social evils and pathologies, as these are more conspicuous among its members, than in general population. Similarly, learning disabilities, both in their specific and generic senses, are equally prevalent in children living slums. Present study addresses to their learning problems through application of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Although a good number of children participated in this study the attrition rate was high as the programme was intermittent and could not be incorporated to the children’s classroom setting. Results of 51 children with LD and 15 with mental retardation (MR) who attended the entire programme have been reported for various tasks. Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Diagnostic Test of Learning Disability, Reaction Time for Words, Vocabulary, Span of Immediate Attention, Verbal Memory, Porteus Maze Test and Experimental Academic Tasks were used as response measures. Single-case design was used to assess the effects of CBT and CAI. The results revealed that both the intervention programmes were found to be effective in treating LD. However, the effects of CBT were found to be more effective than CAI. Among other factors, this is attributed to constraints for generalization for CIA..  hide

190.Parents’ Perception on Developing Social Skills among Mentally Challenged Children

By: Babli Choudhury Asst. Professor, Deptt. Of Education University of Science & Technology, Meghalaya  Show abstract Details

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The research was done to study the parents’ perceptions and developing social skills among mentally challenged children in Greater Guwahati of Assam. Parents have to be continuously aware of the development of social skills of mentally challenged children. The study was focused on the opinions of parents on the categorized of social skills to be developed and activities to be developed in their children. The sample consists of seventy-four parents of the mentally challenged children. The findings were developing social skills like speaking courteously, meaningful interaction, participation in social functions independently is given high preference. Parents have accorded higher level of importance on social skills viz. smiling in response (59%), (57%) obeying commands 56% and behaving appropriately with opposite sex.  hide

191.Self-Esteem and Well-Being as the Major Indicators of Resilience to Stress

By: Anita Sharma, Deepika Bali and Virender Singh,Department of Psychology, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla  Show abstract Details

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In this study, an effort has been made to investigate the role of self-esteem and well-being on resilience to stress in the university students. The main findings were gauged through ANOVA. The findings suggest that: (i) High self-esteem and high well-being subjects have shown significantly more resilience to stress as compared to their counterparts by scoring significantly low on deficiency focusing and necessitating and high on skill recognition. (ii) With regard to gender, difference has been found to be significant only on necessitating with females showing more resilience to stress to that of males. (iii) The three factor interaction effect of self-esteem x well-being x gender has also turned out to be significant on deficiency focusing and necessitating.  hide

192.The Impact of Deprivation on Life Stress & Social Support of Aged

By: Baburao H Muddankar, Shantappa S. Melkeri and R. Venkat Reddy  Show abstract Details

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An attempt is made in the present investigation to the Impact of Deprivation on Life Stress and Social Support of Aged, from different domicile of Gulbarga city, Karnataka. 60 Aged constituted the sample of the study in which 30 Rural and 30 Urban. The Prolonged Deprivation Scale Developed and Standardized by Misra & Tripati (1980), Distressful Life Events Scale (DLES) and PGI Social Support Questionnaire (PGI-SSQ) developed by Dr Ritu Nehra et. al. (1998) were administered to the sample to assess their level of Deprivation, Life Stress and Social Support of aged. Keeping in view the research objectives and hypothesis of the study the statistical analysis, like-Mean, SD and t-test were applied on the collected data. The findings of the study concluded that there will be a significant relationship between the level of deprivation in Life Stress and Social Support of aged This paper depicts that the empirical evidence on the impact of Deprivation on Life Stress and Social Support of Aged different areas of Gulbarga city, Samples were selected randomly from Gulbarga District, Karnataka.  hide

193.A Comparative Study of Marital Adjustment among Parents Having Disabled or Non- Disabled Children

By: Sharmila, Babita and Chanderbhan, PGDRP Students , Govt. college, Bhiwani andMukesh, Clinical Psychologist, SIRTER , Rohtak, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Marriage is a commitment with love and responsibility for peace, happiness and development of strong family relationship. A good marriage not only produces a satisfied life but it also generates a sense of well-being . Having a handicapped child born in to a family and grow in to adulthood is one of the most stressful experiences of family can endure some parents perceive the handicapped infant as an extension of themselves and social rejection ,embarrassment. Parental reactions may be affected by economic status and marital stability. The current study was designed to examine Marital Adjustment of 40 disabled and 40 non disabled children’s parents. The age range of sample was 25-65 years. The results were analysed by using t-ratios. The result concluded that there will be no difference between disabled or non disabled children’s parents on marital adjustment.  hide

194.Coping with Job Stress and its effect on General wellbeing: A Study among Resident Doctors

By: Deepika Govil and and Shalini Singh, M.D. University, Rohtak, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Intense work demands, long working hours and lack of support from colleagues and supervisors cause stress among resident doctors. Job stress adversely affects the physical and mental health of resident doctors. The type of coping response determines the effect of stress on wellbeing. Thus, the present study was designed to explore the relationships among job stress, coping strategies and general wellbeing among resident doctors; and to identify the role of job stress and coping strategies in general wellbeing of resident doctors. Job stress survey, brief cope scale, general health questionnaire and PGI general wellbeing scale were administered on 75 resident doctors. The data was analyzed by means of correlation and regression analysis. Results revealed that job stress was associated with poor wellbeing. Lack of organization support was associated with greater psychological distress and poor wellbeing. Emotion- focused coping was positively related with problem-focused coping and negatively related with wellbeing. Whereas, problem-focused coping was positively related with wellbeing and negatively related with psychological distress. Both emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping emerged as significant predictors of wellbeing.  hide

195.Psychological Status of Elderly Women

By: Sharma,V., Singh.K. and Mehta,M Departmentof Family Resource management, COHS CCSHAU Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The Indian aged population is currently the second largest in the world. The absolute number of the over 60 population in India will increase from 76 million in 2001 to 137 million by 2021. Social scientists report that there is a general lowering of social status of elderly people in India. Increasingly, older people may be perceived as burdens due to their disability or dependence. Rapid changes in the family system, even in rural areas, are reducing the availability of kin support. With modernization of the country, older values are being replaced by ‘individualism’. The family’s capacity to provide quality care to older people is decreasing. The present study was undertaken in Hisar District with the specific objectives to probe out the reasons for different living arrangement followed by elderly women & to access the psychological parameters like stress level & death anxiety. 300 respondents above the age of 55 years were selected randomly from four randomly selected villages of Hisar district. Data was collected personally, by using a well structured interview schedule. The results revealed that maximum number of respondents (45.67%) were living with family and spouse, 41 per cent of respondents were living with family not with spouse, next came the respondents living alone and living with spouse. Less than one third of the respondents (30.33%) were having disturbed sleep, due to mental (56.05%) and physical (43.95%) reasons. Psychological status was found to be associated with age (2=31.312), marital status (2=45.469) and living arrangement (2=16.621).  hide

196.The Effect of Psychological Intervention on the Mental Health & Well-Being of Elderly Diabetic Patients

By: Nimisha Kumar, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi, and N.K. Chadha, University of Delhi, Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Type 2 Diabetes is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly population in India. Depression and burn out as a consequence of the challenging self-care routine for diabetes management are a serious threat to the mental health and well-being of these patients. This study aimed at studying the effect of a cognitive behavioural intervention on the mental health and well-being of elderly diabetic patients. A sample of 30 elderly male diabetic patients and a control group of 30 healthy male elderly were recruited for the study. The patients were recruited from the Geriatric Clinic at AIIMS. A range of psycho-social assessment instruments were administered to both the groups before and after the one-month cognitive-behavioural intervention period. The results showed a significant improvement in general well-being as well as diabetes-specific distress in the intervention group. It can be concluded that psychological intervention especially one targeting cognitions and behaviour patterns can significantly improve the mental health and well-being of elderly patients suffering with type 2 diabetes.  hide

197.Effect of Perceived Family Social Support and Optimism on Depression among Diabetic patients

By: Iram Feroz, and Asma Parveen, 2Department of Psychology Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh and Rehana Ahmad, Child Psychologist Department of Pediatrics Jawahar Lal Medical College Aligarh Muslim U  Show abstract Details

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In all developing countries diabetes is a big common disease. It is a one chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. Patients with diabetes may experience more depression and depression can interferes with the health care of individuals with diabetes. Diabetic individuals with depression are at greater risk for being noncompliant with medical treatment and for developing medical complications but having good social support and optimistic thinking can help ease the depression of diabetic patients. Family social support and optimistic thinking are important to support patients as they live and manage their diabetes. Methods: The present study comprised of 100 patients with mild diabetes problem and 100 patients with severe diabetes problems selected randomly from various city of India. Age ranged from 8 to 15 years. To measure perceived family social support, perceived family social support scale developed by Zimet and Farley (1988) was used it has 12 items with 7 response categories ranging from very strongly disagree, strongly disagree, mildly disagree, neutral, mildly agree, strongly agree, to very strongly agree was used and optimism scale developed by Seligman (1998) it has of 32 questions addressing explanatory style for both good and bad events was used for measuring optimism behaviour. Lastly Beck’s depression inventory was used to measure depression and it has 21 groups of statements, participants asked to choose one statement out of two. Results: Keeping in view the comparison between two groups of diabetic patients: one those who have mild diabetes problems and second are those who have severe diabetic problems. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by means of‘t’ test. Further analysis of variance was applied. Results revealed that patients of mild diabetic problems, those were with high perceived family social support and high optimism had lesser depression furthermore; interaction of perceived family social support and optimism also had significant effect on depression. Discussion: It was evident from Table ‘A’ that both groups of patients differ significantly from each other on perceived family social support scale. The higher mean score of patients with mild diabetic problems showed that they have more family social support. Table ‘B’ showed patients with mild diabetic problems significantly differ from patients with severe diabetic problems on optimism sale, significant value of ‘t' indicates that both have different levels of optimism. The higher mean score of patients with mild diabetic problems showed that they have more optimistic behaviour. Table ‘C’ showed significant ‘F’ value that patients of mild diabetic problems with high perceived family social support and high optimism had less depression furthermore; interaction of perceived family social support and optimism also had significant effect on depression. Conclusion: Results of the present study revealed that there were significantly meaningful differences among patients with mild diabetic problems and patients with severe diabetic problems. It means patients with mild diabetic problems have good family social support and optimism thinking it means that they have less symptoms of depression.  hide

198.Personality Assessment of Institutionalised Children

By: K. P. Gogoi Assist. Professor in Psychology Department of Education Dibrugarh University  Show abstract Details

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The present study aimed at assessing the various personality dimensions of institutionalised children who are put into certain institutions at an early formative period of life. In this study, the purposive sampling method was adopted and Rorschach Ink-blot Test, as an assessment technique, was considered an appropriate technique for data collection. Total 200 sample were selected out of which 100 Institutionalised Children and 100 Home reared Children from different such orphan homes and schools located in Assam. The 2x2 factorial design was employed. Age range from 6-11 years of the children. The findings of the study reveals that Institutionalised Children shows poor cognitive, perceptual and intellectual development. They develop negativistic behavioural pattern like anxiety and depression shows the extratensive characteristics.  hide

199.Internet Based Course Delivery: A Planned Reducation in Exam-Anxiety

By: Kalyan Sarkar Director, Academic Liaisons, WizIQ.com  Show abstract Details

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The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of Internet based course delivery for the students in terms of academic stress-busting. The study will try and explain the components of academic stress among the students. A wide range of academic stressors have been identified by the researchers around the world. The study will try to evaluate a few major components of academic stress and make an in-depth investigation to correlate with the positive impacts of course delivery via internet. It is obvious, that all the academic stressors cannot be curbed only by online delivery of the courses but a major portion of stressors can be presumably reduce in students. Vital quanta of stresses are attributed towards poor quality of curriculum planning and instruction related issues. In the offline delivery mode of the course, study materials, classes and discussions on the subject are hardly given any substantial amount of consistent-attention by the teachers as well as by the students in comparison to the examinations. Examinations are taken as the main aspect of education; as a result, the stress levels of the students go high significantly along with the approach of examinations. Analytically, it is well understood that the exam-anxiety is one of main stressors of the academic stresses amongst the students. Exam-anxiety is largely dependent upon the unplanned approach towards the examinations. A methodical and planned preparation of the curriculum always makes students less stressed during in the examination. Leaving apart the chemical inadequacy attributing towards the exam-anxiety, all other attributors are concerned to inefficient teaching and unplanned preparation process. Online delivery of the courses via internet makes the process archive-able and hence accountable with the ease accessibility of the course materials for all the students. This study will include a few data from a recently launched IIT Delhi online course which is considered as a paradigm shift in offering such type of courses to the students by the premier institutes like IITs.  hide

200.Educated Unemployed Youth and Psychological Distress

By: Anita Sharma, Kiran Thakur Department of Psychology, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, and Rakesh Parihar, Department of Psychology, Govt. College Sanjauli Shimla  Show abstract Details

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In this study, an effort has been made to investigate the role of unemployment in the development of the physical distress in youth. A sample of 400 subjects (200 males and 200 females) was drawn from Solan district of Himachal Pradesh. Comparison was done between unemployed and employed youth in both the gender groups i.e., males and females. A 2 x 2 ANOVA has yielded significant results that is, unemployed youth has significantly perceived greater psychological distress profiles (inadequacy, depression, anxiety, sensitivity, anger, tension) than employed people. Findings from this study suggest that unemployment has an adverse effect on psychological function, with the unemployed becoming more anxious, depressed and concerned with bodily symptoms. Unemployment leads to frustration, aggression, regression and finally to resignation from life.  hide

201.Maternal Socioeconomic Status & Nulliparity: A Double Fold Risk Factor for Preeclampsia among Antenatal Mothers

By: K. Latha and Jaya Mohan Raj, a) Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, SRM College of Nursing, SRM University, Chennai  Show abstract Details

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Background: Preeclampsia is a condition in which hypertension and proteinuria is present with or without edema in a woman after 20 weeks of gestation, who has been previously normotensive. In spite of known risk factors & screening tests being proposed over years, there is only a small part of association explained on the effects of established risk factors for preeclampsia in most of the studies, recommends for further research on risk factors. Purpose: To determine Maternal Socio-Economic status & Nulliparity together as risk factor for Preeclampsia among mothers. Design: A Prospective Observational Study Method: Total 109 Healthy antenatal mothers in 2 groups, 53 mothers in Group –A (Nulliparous Mothers in low socioeconomic status, 56 mothers in Group – B (Nulliparous Mothers in Upper Middle Socio-Economic Status) with absence of Clinical Features of Preeclampsia were recruited at 15 – 16 weeks of Gestation and were followed till 36 weeks of Gestation for the features of Preeclampsia. Results: There was no Significant Difference between both the groups with all the baseline characteristics. At the end of 36 weeks , the overall prevalence of Preeclampsia in Group – A was Higher about 73.58 % ( 39 out of 53 mothers) , compared to 48.2% (27 out of 56 Mothers) in group B at t(107) =2.598, P = 0.011,MD =2.161 ( 95% CI,0.512 – 3.810) respectively. Conclusion: Screening for risk factors has been relative lack of consideration among health care professionals towards prevention of preeclampsia among the high-risk population .Maternal socioeconomic status and Nulliparity together is considered as a significant double fold risk factor for preeclampsia & hence they should be targeted for intensive Preeclampsia surveillance. Hence the investigator recommends strengthening antenatal care, to establish a strong supportive framework for the guide to health care providers for better understanding of the impact and epidemiology of Preeclampsia in India.  hide

202.A Study of the Extent, Patterns and Causes of Domestic Violence As Reported By Women Seeking Counseling at Family Counseling Centers in Chandigarh

By: Mahek Singh, Department of Social Work, Punjabi University, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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Domestic violence continues to be a reality for Indian women in the 21st Century. It has been attributed to a range of factors, both old and new, but primarily stemming from the patriarchal social and financial structures, which results in an uneven distribution of power within the family. Victims report an array of triggers: inability to have a male child, unemployment of a woman or her husband, “insufficient” dowry, extramarital relationships, drug addiction, refusal to have sex, adjustment problems in a joint family and so on. The present study is an attempt to analyze the extent, patterns and the factors leading to domestic violence against women who sought help from all the five Family Counseling Centers situated in the Union Territory of Chandigarh. The study analyzed the demographic characteristics of the women; the means and methods adopted by the perpetrators of violence, their relationship with the victim as well as the circumstances leading to such violence; and the specific solutions expected by these women from the FCCs. Out of a total of 315 women visiting FCCs between April 2009 and March, 2010, 169 ( 53.6%) reported experiencing domestic violence in the shape of physical, emotional / psychological, economic, verbal and/or sexual abuse. Most of these women were of low educational background. They were house-wives/unemployed and thus economically dependent on their husbands  hide

203.Reinventing Moral Foundation in Education: As the solution for Teacher’s Violence behavior toward the Students in Indonesia

By: Patris Rahabav Pattimura University of Ambon, Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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The violence toward children has been a major critical issues concerned by people all around the world. The printed and visual media regularly revealed that violence act occurred in various types. The violence in school and homes appeared in the greatest numbers of example. Indonesia has become one of the countries with highest rank of children violence cases. Numbers of cases occurred as well as in social life also in Education Institution. Based on Scientific Studies, numbers of violence by the teacher toward Indonesian student were surprisingly high. The cases was astonished because of some crisis were happened beyond the experience of the teachers. Since the latest 20th century, Indonesian teacher had faced 3 types of crisis. They are intellectual,Financial and role mode crisis. Otherwise, strong feudalistic culture also being a major reason,discussion,and differentopinion created some violence practice. Violence toward student caused worse impact such as repeatedly behavior,stress,depression,nervous,unconffidence,alienation,lack of motivation and low achievement. In order to maintain those problems reinventing moral foundation is become a determine predictor. It needs teacher’s awareness to implement the professional values as the solution for their masterpiece. There are 7, professional principles values to acquire as a teacher: 1) Intellectual principle 2) Integrity principle 3) Subsidiary principle 4) Humanity principle 5) Solidarity principle 6) Solidity principle 7) Service excellence principle  hide

204.Yoga: An Approach to Holistic Health for Climacteric Symptoms - A Prospective Randomized Interventional Study

By: B. Jayabharathi and Jayamohanraj,Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, , SRM College of Nursing, SRM University , Chennai  Show abstract Details

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Background: Menopause is a normal occurrence in the life of every woman. The term is derived from the Greek, which actually means ‘cessation of periods’. Menopause occurs due to cessation of ovarian function. It also indicates a ‘change of life’ from one of reproduction, which is coming to an end. The age of menopause varies from 45 to 50 years .In some woman; the age of menopause may be 51 or 52 years. Aim: This community based study tested the effect of yoga on climacteric symptoms of menopausal women. Methods: This was a prospective randomized interventional study. The study was conducted in selected villages at Kattankulathur Block, Chennai,Tamilnadu, India. Multistage sampling technique was used for the identification of menopausal women for the study. The total sample size was 260 menopausal women and they were randomly allotted to two groups: 130 of them to yoga group and 130 of them to control group. The yoga group has undergone yoga training programme which consists of Yogasanas, Pranayama (Breathing exercise) and Meditation. The yoga group has practiced yoga for 5 days in a week for 1 hr /day for 12 weeks by trained instructor. The assessments were made by five point Rating scale ( to assess the physical and psychological symptoms ) which is based on Standardized Menopause Rating scale (MRS) and Perceived Stress Scale ( for level of stress of menopausal women). Result: After 12 weeks of yoga practice , the physical symptoms of menopausal women were reduced to greater extent in yoga group than in control group at p< 0.001 level of significance. There was significantly better improvement in the psychological symptoms of menopausal women in yoga group (p<0.001) than in control group. In the yoga group, there was a marked reduction of stress level after 12 weeks of intensive yoga practice (p<0.001) than in control group. Conclusion: The present study concluded that, yoga is an effective intervention in reducing the physical, psychological symptoms and level of stress of menopausal women. Yoga’s approach to holistic health is powerful tool for helping the women experience the passage into menopause as a positive event, both physically and spiritually.  hide

205.A Dyslexic Child - Case Study

By: M.Nageswari, Department of Rehabilitation Science, Holy Cross College, Trichy and Sheila Christopher, S.Francis Annuncia, Educational Consultant  Show abstract Details

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Children with dyslexia generally have difficulties in decoding, basic reading skills, and reading comprehension. They have difficulties not only in reading skill but are also in executive functions, social skills, and have emotional and behavior disturbances, including with-drawal, poor self-esteem, and depression. Hence, it is more essential to plan and implement systematic remedial program in treating dyslexics. Methodology: The main objective of this study is to enhance reading skills and comprehension of the child with reading disability. The researcher adopted case study method. The chosen client is Vinoth, eight years old boy, studying III Standard, in a regular English medium matriculation school in Trichy diagnosed with learning disability (predominantly reading) who was complained of poor academic and poor memory. The specific problems related to reading skill of the chosen case was assessed using NIMHANS index for specific learning disabilities and Kucera-Francis list of basic sight words. Intervention was planned and implemented using multisensory approach and phonetic approach. Results and Conclusion: The remedial program was carried out for 40 sessions. Each session was for one hour with 5 sessions per week. At the end of the program, his reading performance was found to be improved significantly. This paper highlights the intervention strategies, which can be used for children with similar problems.  hide

206.Combating Health Risks of Excessive UV Exposure through Changes in Clothing Behavioural Practices

By: Hema Sati, Neelam M Rose, and Saroj S. Jeet Singh, Department of Textile and Apparel Designing I.C. College of Home Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Sun is essential for supporting life on earth and is critical for human physical and psychological well-being. The solar radiation that reaches the earth’s consists of Infrared, Visible light and Ultraviolet radiation. Too less human exposure to solar UV radiations causes skeletal diseases whereas prolonged human exposure to solar UV radiation may result in acute and chronic health effects on the skin, eye and immune system and thereby enhance the risk of infectious diseases and limit the efficacy of vaccinations. Both of these act against the health of poor and vulnerable groups, especially children. Even though the incidence of skin cancer is lower in dark-skinned people however they are susceptible to the damaging effects of UV radiation, especially to the effects on the eye and immune system. It is believed that the right clothing gives better protection and allow for a more comprehensive approach to UV protection. Thus, recently attempts for establishing adequate UV protection through recommendation on change in clothing behaviour and personal protection, environment, and legislation has been made. Public education and awareness in UV protection is crucial for advancing people’s knowledge about the health risks of excessive exposure to UV radiations in order to achieve change in their attitude and behaviour. In developed countries, public awareness about the harmful effects of excessive exposure to the sun has grown considerably in recent years. But in Asian countries like India no such effort has been made so far and public have limited awareness amongst UV protection. Thus, an attempt has been made to bring a change in clothing related attitude and behaviour of consumers through present study. An awareness package was developed and dissemination of awareness among consumers about UV protection through textiles and clothing was done, questionnaire was administered to measure the pre and post knowledge level of the respondents regarding UV protection provided through textiles and clothing. The results indicate very limited awareness about UV protection through textiles and clothing and a significantly higher knowledge gain after awareness campaign and distribution of awareness package indicating the significant effectiveness of developed package.  hide

207.Proactive Coping Skills: Gender Differential in Different Ecological Settings

By: Neetu Singh Gautam, Shakuntla Punia, and Poonam Yadav, Deptt. of HDFS, I.C. College of Home Science, CCSHAU, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Proactive coping skills consist of efforts undertaken in advance for a potentially stressful event to prevent it or to modify it’s form before it occurs. The present study intended to compare the proactive coping skills of elderly males and females in different ecological settings. A sample of 120 males and their wives, belonging to NCR (Gurgaon) and Non-NCR (Hisar) were selected in the age range 35-40 years. Proactive coping skills were measured using Hindi Adaptation of Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI) developed by Bhushan et al. (2010). The results showed that males and females in higher percentage were in average category on all aspects of proactive coping skills as well as composite proactive coping skills. Though, non-NCR respondents (male and female) were using better proactive coping skills than their counterparts. Significant differences existed in reflective coping (z=2.54, p<0.05), preventive coping (z=2.70, p<0.05) and composite proactive coping skills (z=2.04, p<0.05) in male across two regions, whereas, females differed significantly in reflective coping (z=2.97, p<0.05) and composite proactive coping skills (z=2.09, p<0.05) in both regions. Instrumental support seeking, emotional support seeking and avoidance coping skills were more used by females. All aspects of proactive coping skills had significant strong relationship with each other aspects.  hide

208.Psychological Impact of Domestic Violence against Women

By: Prarthna Swani Associate Professor (Psychology) S.R. Government College for Women, Amritsar  Show abstract Details

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Relationships among family members are expected to be loving and nurturing and the family is ideally visualized as a supportive system. However, women and female children are often in great danger in the place where they should be safest, that is, within their families. For many, home is where they face a regime of terror and violence at the hands of somebody close to them – somebody they should be able to trust. Domestic violence includes child physical abuse and neglect, partner or spouse abuse and also elder mistreatment. All over the world 90 to 95% of domestic violence is committed by men against women. The present article highlights the different types of abuse within the family setup. Domestic violence against women is often a cycle of abuse that manifests itself in many forms throughout their lives, at every developmental stage. Some common causes and characteristics of abuse, as well as some specific factors that perpetuate domestic violence are delineated. Further, the psychological impact of domestic violence against women is discussed. While no single syndrome uniformly results from exposure to violence, the presence of some psychological problems alone or in combination with physical and behavioural symptoms is nearly universal. Finally, the extreme complexity of the dynamics of family violence prevents one to propose simple remedial measures for such behaviour. Support groups, individual or group psychotherapy, and at times, pharmacotherapy may be required.  hide

209.A Socio-Gerontological Study about Health Status, Desire for Longevity and Life Satisfaction among the Elderly Living In and Around Naggar Village, District Kullu, Himachal Pradesh

By: Rohit Kumar, UGC-JRF fellow Deptt. of Anthropology Panjab University, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Gerontology which is the study of all the processes of aging must be understood from the cultural point of view. Socio-cultural factors are also important for studying gerontological processes. The processes of aging and the aged have always interested man. The study of aging is a vastly varied field. It is, of necessity, a multidisciplinary approach, which is both its strength and weakness. The blending of many disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and biology and so on reminds us that human behavior is multifaceted. Healthy ageing is a priority area of global concern for the World Health Organization. This paper deals with the study of elderly aging above 60 years. The paper is based on the study conducted among the elderly villagers of both the sexes in Naggar Village of Himachal Pradesh. 160 samples (89 males and 79 females) were collected for the present study.for present study purposive sampling was used for data collection. The present paper deals with the general attitudes and opinions of elderly about Health Status, desire for longevity and life satisfaction. Hypertension was found to be a major health problem among the elderly. As regards to general attitudes and opinions, more male elderly were desirous of greater longevity than the elderly females. And life satisfaction was found to be higher among the elderly males of the present sample as compared to elderly females. Female elderly with economically independent were found to be more confident, satisfied, desired for longer life and had good relationship with their children as compare to dependent.  hide

210.Job Stress and Its Management

By: Roopal Malik, Department of Psychology, Pt. C.L.S. Govt. P.G. College Karnal, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Stress has become a major buzzword and legitimate Concern of the times. Occupational stress, although not always bad for the person(By the father of stress, Hans Selye, feels that complete freedom from stress is death or the organization(low level of stress may lead to performance improvement),stress is still one of the most important and serious problem facing the field of organized behaviour. Stress was first studied in terms of Selye’s general adaptation syndrome. The three stages of GAS are alarm, resistance and exhaustion. Since the beginning which concentrated mainly on the physiological, behavioral and psychological dimension of stress. The stress creates physical problems such as heart disease, ulcers, arthritis and may be even cancer. Psychological problems such as mood changes, low self esteem, in ability to make decision and job dissatisfaction and /or behavioral problems such as tardiness, absenteeism, turnover and accidents. There are a number of individual and organizational strategies have been developed to cope with these stress induced problems, exercise, relaxation, behavioural self control techniques, cognitive therapy, networking are some potentially useful copying strategies that individual can apply to help combat existing stress. An organization could create a more supportive climate enrich tasks, reduce conflict, and clarifying role. Whether an organization and or an individual level some steps should be taken to reduce job stress.  hide

211.Role of Demographic Variable in Service Quality Measurement of Internet Banking: A Study of Haryana and NCR

By: Sanjeev Kumar and Radha Garg, Haryana School of Business, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Banking industry is facing a heightened competition due to the new market entrants, innovation in banking technology, and dramatic change in the sales channel. To target the potential customers more efficiently and survive in the market, it is essential for bankers to adopt new technology i.e. internet banking. In the new era of faceless banking, Internet banking is proved as a boon for those people who don’t have time to go to bank for their banking activities. Internet banking has fast emerged as a worldwide phenomenon which interests both the bankers’ as well as the consumers. So, to explore the influence on demographic variable on customer perception about internet banking services, the present study has been conducted. A pre-tested structured questionnaire containing 28 quality attributes was administered in different areas of Haryana and NCR through snowball sampling. The demographic analysis using one way ANOVA test reveals that Age, Income, Occupation and frequency of using net banking are significantly associated with service quality dimensions whereas gender and education are not significantly associated with them. A mathematical model i.e. log-linear analysis has also been used to assess the relationship between customer satisfaction and demographic variables. The analysis divulged that the age and education are significantly related with the customer satisfaction of internet banking.  hide

212.Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors and Risk of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in 40-60 Year Old Adults from Northwest India

By: Shruti Chopra and Krishan Sharma Department of Anthropology Panjab University Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important health problem among all populations of the world, being a leading cause of mortality. A large number of biopsychosocial factors have been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Psychosocial variables like social isolation, chronic life stress, anxiety, hostility and depression besides others may cause damage to the cardiovascular system through physiological alterations and by influencing lifestyle choices and practices. Many of the psychosocial factors may aggravate the prognosis and clinical course in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. For example, individuals who are high in trait negative affectivity and social inhibition (explained under Type D Personality) experience frequent and enduring negative emotions, such as depression and anxiety (Watson and Clark 1984). Similarly, Type A (hostile) personality is described by many others to be related in causing Coronary Heart disease. In the light of above background, a community based epidemiological survey is being carried out on an urban population of Chandigarh in age range 40-60 years to study prevalence of cardiovascular heart diseases. As personality is a major determinant of chronic stress, they are being assessed for personality Type A and Type D by using standard methods. From the existing studies, it has been observed that prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is higher in males than females. Personality A and D have been found in both CAD patients and controls. No clear association between type A and D and CAD. Type D is associated with anxiety, depression and passive coping. Negative affectivity and social inhibition is related with type D. Hostility and anger are characteristics of Type A personality. The role of these factors in life style choices and practices has been discussed.  hide

213.Occupational Stress among Doctors: An Explorative Study

By: Triveni S. and Vijayalaxmi A. Aminabhav, of P.G. studies and research in Psychology, Karnataka University , Dharwad, Karnataka  Show abstract Details

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Doctors working in government organizations have been contributing to the public against all odds amidst various types of stressors. There is a strong need to identify these stressors and understand their experiences in order to help them deal with it effectively. Hence,in the present study is an attempt is made to understand the level of stress and also to identify the specific personal and work related factors that may contribute to the occupational stress of Doctors. Occupational Stress Index (A. K. Srivastava and A. P. Singh 1984) along with a Bio-data sheet (which includes the information related to other personal and work related factors) were administered on a sample of 100 Doctors. The sample consists of Doctors (M=60,F=40) within the age group of 30 to 60 years employed in government organizations in Hubli, Dharwad and Belgaum cities of Northern Karnataka. The scrutinized data was subjected to descriptive analysis and Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis using SPSS (9.0). Descriptive statistics reveal moderate level of Occupational stress on 12 dimensions of OSI. Among the variables entered in the regression model- expressed Job satisfaction and Caste and religion have emerged as significant predictors of the occupational stress among doctors. Results are discussed in detail and the implications are suggested.  hide

214.Reproductive and Sexual Risk Taking Behaviour among Married Young Women

By: Usha Devi & Raj Pathania Department of Human Development College of Home Science, CSK HPKV Palampur, HP  Show abstract Details

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The present study was undertaken with specific objectives to assess the induced abortion, knowledge about reproductive health and sexual risk taking behaviour. The study was conducted in Bhawarna and Rait blocks of district Kangra of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 100 married young women in the age group of 18-49 years from 4 villages were randomly selected for the study. The data were collected through self structured interview schedule for getting the general information and for information related to knowledge about reproductive health and sexual risk taking behaviour. The findings indicated that majority of the respondents were above 20 years of age and majority of the respondents were matric pass. Majority of the respondents had undergone three pregnancies and had at least one abortion. Reproductive health was significantly associated with sexual risk taking behaviour and treatment seeking behaviour.  hide

215.Dark Triad of Personality: A Theoretical Review of the Concept

By: Harprit Kaur, Assistant Professor and Swati, Research Scholar, Dept. of Psychology, Punjabi university, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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Dark triad of personality has been into limelight of research since early twentieth century. Initially the research in this area was limited to delinquent and criminal population but lately the focus shifted onto the normal population. Dark triad of personality is a group of three personality traits that are narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy. All these traits are interpersonally aversive There has always been controversy over the empirical overlap between the members of dark triad, this research paper tries to explain dark triad of personality and prove that though there is empirical overlap between the members of dark triad still all the three are distinct constructs and different research work pertaining to this has been compiled in this paper. The paper also throws light on how the dark triad of personality lie on other personality scales such as big five and HEXACO model. Moreover the issue of potential interest in this paper is that negative traits are part and parcel of normal personality profile.  hide

216.Impact of the Level of Parental Education on Adolescent Adjustment: A Cross Sectional Study

By: Georgitta Joseph Valiyamattam, Dept. of Psychology and Parapsychology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam and D.V Venugopal, Lecturer (Psychology and Human Values), AP IIT,  Show abstract Details

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We examined the impact of the level of parental education on adolescent adjustment from early adolescence into late adolescence, across gender and grade groups comprising high school and Grade 12. Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 1337 students (676 boys and 661 girls) from High School and grade 12 in various institutes of north coastal Andhra Pradesh. Adjustment patterns were measured along the six adjustment dimensions of the Culturally Relevant Bell Adjustment Inventory (Ashok, Madhu, Suneetha and Ramana, 2004). These dimensions include- Home adjustment, Health adjustment, Submissiveness Vs Assertion, Emotionality, Hostility Vs Friendliness and Masculinity Vs Femininity. Results obtained indicated a significant impact of parental education on adolescent adjustment with a greater impact at the high school level as compared to grade 12 level. Both paternal and maternal educations were relatively equal predictors of adolescent adjustment. While paternal education was a more significant predictor of adjustment for males at the high school level, maternal education became a slightly more powerful determinant of adjustment for males at the grade 12 level. Maternal education was also a slightly more influential predictor of adjustment among female students. An impact of the level of parental education was seen on the dimensions of home adjustment, hostility and masculinity in the male subsample and the dimensions of emotionality and masculinity in the female subsample. Male students with graduate fathers exhibited a greater degree of home adjustment difficulties and lowest levels of hostility. A higher level of maternal education was found to foster better home adjustment among males at Grade 12 and better emotional adjustment among females at the high school level. Both the independent and interaction effects of parental education largely revealed that the levels of masculinity tended to be high for both males and females, regardless of the grade group, when both the parents had either graduate or post graduate levels of education.  hide

217.A Construction of the Philosophy of Education: A Critical Reflection on Educational Thoughts of Emmanuel Kant

By: Firdausi Achmad Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Pontiana No.19 Pontiana, West Kalimantan, Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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It was Johann Gottfried Herder, a German writer and journalist, who revealed the personality of Immanuel Kant as someone who is disciplined and not overbearing (Kant, 1990: xxxix). Herder may be a representative of the admiration the world over Kant’s personality that is known by history as someone who is arranged neatly like a well-organized universe. This order is then a basic idea in Kant's moral philosophy. Even the idea of regularity, Kant explicitly criticized the metaphysics which he said did not correspond with the order of the human mind. The big name that can be compared with Immanuel Kant in relation to the theme of 'regularity' was Isaac Newton (1643-1727), an English physicist who much earlier had the hang of 'order' through his work Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687 (Brumbaugh, 1963: 98).  hide

218.Brain Based Instructional Strategies for Improving Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem

By: Latika Sharma and Anita Sharma Department of Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Learner is the pivot of teaching learning process. Achievement of a learner fairly depends on the teaching strategies employed in the classroom. This paper reviews the effect of Brain based instructional strategies on achievement and self esteem of science students. The empirical results show that there is a positive and significant gain in mean scores on achievement and self-esteem of class VII science students. Thus brain based instructional strategies can be used to enhance science achievement and also to improve self-esteem of the students.  hide

219.Teenage Issues

By: Shifa Rahman, M.A. Psychology at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam  Show abstract Details

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Teenage is a fundamental stage of life that each human being passes through. Teens undergo dramatic changes. In addition to the biological changes of puberty, they experience cognitive changes that allow them to think more abstractly. They become increasingly focused on friends. And as they seek greater independence, they often come into conflict with parents. Most get through adolescence with few problems, establishing identities and preparing for adulthood. Some, however, experience problems that lead to dropping out of school, drug use or crime. This depends on the environment these young adults live in, their parents, their friends, their living conditions, their education, and many other factors. Teenage issues are troubles or difficulties that may arise in an adolescents’ life when living in the modern world. Becoming an adult can be an exciting process, but it can also lead to awkwardness or an inability to control hormones as the body changes. Common teenager problems include: body image, sibling rivalry, peer pressure and bullying, divorce, teenage pregnancy, practicing safe sex, teen dating, schooling & jobs, school deadlines and exams, future study or career direction, drugs & alcohol, eating disorders, weight struggles, acne, self harming etc. Media, including print, television, film and online, can negatively affect young people by exposing them to extreme violence, reinforcing the importance of money, consumerism and status symbols, sexual relationships etc. Teens Today research has consistently revealed meaningful correlations between parental involvement and teen decision-making. For example, teens who report regular, open communication with their parents about important issues say they are more likely to try to live up to their parents’ expectations and less likely to drink, use drugs or engage in early sexual activity. Another research study showed that while the proportion of teens reporting positive relationships with their parents does dip somewhat during the early teen years, in general, teens feel close to their parents, think highly of them, and even want to spend time with them. In addition, research shows that quality parent-child relationships are linked to a wide range of positive outcomes for adolescents, such as mental and emotional well-being, adjustment, and social competence, and to lower levels of problem behaviors, such as substance use, delinquency, and premature sexual activity. It's true that teenage brains can be impulsive, but they are also vulnerable, dynamic and highly responsive to positive feedback by the people around them. Most teenagers agree that they will follow a peer's decision rather than their parents'. Peers are more influential in a teen's life and tend to have more power than parents. But if parents mistakenly believe that their adolescent children don’t care about them or respect them or enjoy spending time with them, a real risk exists that parents will step back from being involved in their children’s lives. Since research consistently indicates that adolescents develop better when they feel close to their parents, it would be a serious loss to all concerned "The message is, thus, clear: parents and the positive feedback are the key to helping young people make smart choices".  hide

220.Positive Life Skills

By: Shifa Rahman, M.A. Psychology at Andhra University, Visakhapatnam  Show abstract Details

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Life skills are behaviors used appropriately and responsibly in the management of personal affairs. They are a set of human skills acquired via teaching or direct experience that are used to handle problems and questions commonly encountered in daily human life. Life skills can vary from financial literacy, substance abuse prevention, to therapeutic techniques to deal with disabilities, such as autism. While certain life skills programs focus on teaching the prevention of certain behaviors the Search Institute has found those programs can be relatively ineffective. Positive Youth Development, or PYD, focuses on the strengths of an individual as opposed to the older methods which tend to focus on the "potential" weaknesses that have yet to be shown. The Family and Youth Services Bureau has found that individuals who developed life skills in a positive, rather than preventative, manner feel a greater sense of competence, usefulness, power, and belonging. Our attitude has a profound effect on the quality of our life. Optimism and pessimism create two completely different realities. By taking a few simple steps to adopt a more positive attitude, we can enjoy both immediate and long term benefits. Quite often when we're going through a challenging time, or we're just plain miserable, we invariably get the advice to just "think positively!" Perhaps, at times, we would prefer to wallow. However, at some point we have to pick ourselves up and move on. In order to do so, we must change our mindset or attitude from a non-productive one, into one that is positive and progressive. Negative feelings and circumstances do exist and often serve as an indication that something is not working or needs to be attended to. In such cases we must employ positive thinking and use it as a strategy for interpreting everything that happens to us in a useful, constructive way in order to make our lives work. We, often hear people saying “believe in yourself, acquire perseverance, think gratitude, choose happiness, substitute challenges for problems, view life as a journey, stop and smell the roses, begin your day on a positive note, be positively aware, act out happy, hang out with positive people, do a gratitude review nightly etc”. These are all age old saying, we hear them frequently and heed only occasionally, but programs and research conducted in the area does prove their effectiveness in everyday living. Ultimately, thinking positively doesn't mean being unrealistic or deluded. It means making sense of them and using what we can to strengthen our resolve and build resilience muscle. It means dealing with life and life's challenges as they are. There is a wide range of health benefits linked to thinking positively. From better overall psychological health, lower rates of depression, lower stress levels, increased resistance to the common cold, better stress management and coping skills, lower risk of heart disease and related death, increased physical well-being, to longer life expectancy.  hide

221.Parental Acceptance -Rejection in Relation to Suicide Ideation among Adolescents

By: RosHan Lal, Rajesh Kumar, Dept. of Psychology, P.G. Govt. College, Sector-46, Chandigarh, and Akbinder and Ritu Singh, M.A.Students, Psychology, IGNOU  Show abstract Details

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Nearly 1 million people kill themselves worldwide each year, equaling one death by suicide approximately every 40s. Despite decades of clinical, scientific, and policy efforts aimed at improving methods for predicting and preventing suicide, the rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts have remained virtually unchanged. There might be different roots of suicide but parental acceptance and rejection plays significant role, therefore, the authors intended to investigate the same. Objective: The sole aim of the present investigation was to study parental acceptance and rejection in relation to suicide ideation among adolescents. Methods: First of all verbal consent of all the participants were obtained for the conduction of psychological tests therefore, 180 adolescents (112 male and 78 female) of the age range of 18-21 years were randomly selected from City Beautiful, Chandigarh. Tools: Parental acceptance-rejection (Adult PARQ mother and father versions; Rohner, 1990), and Suicide Ideation Scale (Beck et.al., 1974) were administered on the randomly selected participants. Results: The analysis of the obtained results corroborates that the parental acceptance and rejection and suicide ideation is having significant relationship. The reciprocal influence of parental behavior and child temperament forms the basis for the very important principle of development. This principle states that the parent child relationship goes both ways: Parents influence children, and children influence parental behaviors. Another way to state this is to say that children’s development is a product of the interaction between their own characteristics and those of the people who participate in their socialization process. Conclusion: The parental acceptance is likely to induce a child to feel loved or accepted, whereas rejection can cause aggression and hostile behavior which are very much responsible for behavioral damages.  hide

222.Comparative Study of Depression and Spiritual Personality among Post-Graduate Students

By: Kamini C. Tanwar, Head of Institution Amity Institute of Behavioural and Allied Sciences Amity University, Haryana, Pratima Gulia & Nitika Grover Students, AIBAS Amity University, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Almost every day we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. The present paper includes two different dimension of personality, i.e., Spirituality and Depressive Personality. Depression is a disorder of major public health importance, in terms of its prevalence and the suffering, dysfunction, morbidity, and economic burden. The main objective of the present study was to examine: a) differences between post-graduate male and female students on depressive personality and spiritual dimension of personality; and b) differences between MBA and Non MBA students among depressive dimension of personality and spiritual dimension of personality. The Beck Depressive Inventory, developed by Dr. Beck, Steer, and Brown (1996) and Spiritual Personality Inventory, developed by Husain, Luqman, and Jahan (2012) was used to collect the data. The sample was collected from 100 P.G. students (50 males and 50 females) among different professional courses like M.B.A and Non M.B.A at Amity University, Gurgaon, Haryana. Data was collected by purposive sampling and analyzed by t-test for finding the comparison between the groups. The results indicates that there is a) significant difference between males and females on depressive dimension of personality and b) significant difference between MBA and non-MBA students on spiritual dimension of personality.  hide

223.Mental Health and Adjustment of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Investigation of 38 Gifted Children in the Indian Context

By: Amita Basu, Jinna Bordoloi and Anitha Kurup, NIAS Gifted Education Project  Show abstract Details

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In the research on gifted children – children who demonstrate high performance or high potential for their age-group – one topic of interest is the adjustment of gifted children. Are the gifted less well-adjusted, equally well-adjusted, or better-adjusted than their nongifted peers? The literature shows evidence for all three possibilities. According to one school of thought, the gifted are generally better-adjusted and also outperform their nongifted peers on a range of other variables including academic and career achievement, income, and health. The better adjustment of some gifted children is correlated with time spent with a caregiver. Other studies suggest that the gifted are no different overall from their nongifted peers in adjustment. These studies often focus on areas of adjustment, and conclude that the overall adjustment of the gifted is normal. The overt adjustment often conceal the child’s internal struggles and coping mechanisms. The pressure to conform to peer pressure is an important factor. Finally, some research suggests that the gifted are at a higher risk for maladjustment. Giftedness creates differences from the norm, and these differences create problems. Many gifted children demonstrate asynchronous development: their cognitive development may be above-age, while their socioemotional development is at-age or below-age. This creates two kinds of problems: 1) Gifted children have trouble adjusting with their age-peers. 2) Gifted children may have intrapersonal problems because of asynchrony. The present study investigates the mental health and adjustment of 38 gifted children in India. Research on giftedness in India is in its nascent stage. With an estimated 13 million gifted children in India, this is an urgent area for research. The 38 children were identified by classroom observations conducted as part of a national research project on giftedness, via the media, and via referrals. Detailed case-profiles were compiled via interviews with the child and his/her parents, teachers, and peers. Children were also assessed psychometrically. The case-profiles of these 38 children suggests some interesting results. Overall, the children seem well-adjusted. Most of them are performing well in school. The majority demonstrate stable and strong peer relations and positive home adjustment. In the cases where problems exist, they seem attributable to a misfit between the child and his/her environment – specifically, the school environment where their advanced learning needs are not met.  hide

224.Effectiveness of SKY in Enhancing Comprehensive Well-Being

By: Anjali Malik, Associate Professor Arunima, Professor Sarvdeep Kohli, Professor M. D. University, Rohtak  Show abstract Details

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Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the ANS and influencing psychological and stress related disorders. Sudarshan Kriya &Yoga (SKY) is a form of yoga practice that emphasizes rhythmic breathing exercises. The present study was undertaken with an aim to study the effect of SKY on stress levels as well as mental health of participants. The pre and post study involved a sample of 14 (7 males, 7 females) with age range from 23 to 60 years. Perceived stress scale, self esteem scale and Mental Health Index which measures anxiety, depression, loss of behavioral/ environmental control, general positive affect, life satisfaction, psychological distress, psychological well being as well as a global Mental health were administered. Results indicate that there is a significant decrease in anxiety and depression levels, increase in GPA, and increase in level of psychological well being, more life satisfaction and improved MHI score post intervention. Although no improvement was observed in the feelings of psychological distress, there was a highly significant rise in levels of psychological well-being. However, no improvements in the levels of self esteem or emotional ties have been observed. Implications of introduction of such programs in meeting the challenges of day to day life as well as for addressing specific problems have been discussed  hide

225.A Study on Assessment of Perceived Healthcare Services

By: Ankur Sabharwal, Research Scholar in HSB GJUS&T, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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Healthcare sector requires special attention from the government as quality of healthcare provides buoyancy and relief to the patients and their family. It also helps to make people psychologically prepare and maintain a healthy human capital which contributes in the growth of the country. Hospital industry is moving without an appropriate and adequate support from government. As very small percent of population are getting the required services from healthcare sector even then Growth of Indian healthcare sector is quite significant. Healthcare is one of India’s largest sectors, in terms of revenue and employment, and the sector is expanding rapidly. Near about 80 percent of the total spending comes from the private healthcare sector. The present study is a descriptive cum exploratory research in nature and primarily relies on primary data. The target population (universe) in the present study was people who avail the service of government and private hospital. There are total 145 respondents in the study but the researcher could get the 107 usable questionnaires only. The data collected through questionnaire was coded and tabulated. It was further suitably analyzed by calculating percentage, frequency, crosstab and mean score with the help of SPSS version 17.0 for windows throughout the study. It can be stated that respondents do not have positive perception about hospital services. Majority of services have mean scores less than or around 3 meaning thereby that the respondents are either neutral or dissatisfied. Low cost services (61.7%) and all facility available under one roof (57.9%) are the major reason for choosing the specific hospitals. Good brand name (45.8%) and good past experience (43.9%) with the hospital also are the important factors which comes into consideration while making a choice regarding hospitals.  hide

226.Relationship between the Individual’s Psychology and Body Posture

By: Baljeet Singh and Indu Talwar Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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Posture in most common usage almost exclusively refers to the way a person sits or stands, and is generally termed 'good posture' or 'bad posture. Posture is species and age specific, posture of man has changed from quadruped to biped during course of evolution in millions of years. It may be defined as a proper alignment of body Skelton and different body organs. Any alteration in the proper alignment leads to deformities, and sometimes chronic diseases. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the body posture and individual psychology. These studies suggest that Posture has direct relation with the individual’s psychology thus mental set up of an individual and is an important factor for the healthy society. Good posture is widely recognised as being associated with good appearance, good health, strength, athleticism, and stamina. Bad posture can be acquired and congenial, it leads to inferiority within the individuals. Bad posture can be categorized into functional and structural deformities. So it can be concluded that body posture good or bad can affect the psychology of an individual.  hide

227.Self Esteem, Gender Difference and Academic Achievement among Teenagers

By: Rajesh Kumar, RosHan Lal, Dept. of Psychology, P.G. Govt. College, Sectro-46, Chandigarh, Akbinder and Garima Chauhan, Students M.A. Psychology, IGNOU  Show abstract Details

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Self-esteem is how people feel about themselves and how much they like themselves, especially academically, when it comes to college students. Through the many pressures and daunting responsibilities of being a student, one learns and understands the importance of having a high self-esteem among teenagers. The main objective of the present investigation was to study self esteem, gender difference and academic achievement among college students. 188 school going teenagers from the age range of 15-19 (100 Boys and 88 Girls) years were randomly selected from different schools of Chandigarh. First of all their verbal consent has been sought to extend their help in the present study and their academic records were taken from the official records of the respective schools and finally Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was administered. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, M. (1965), consisting of 10-item scale that measures global self-worth by measuring both positive and negative feelings about the self applied on the randomly selected teenagers. Results: The collected data was analyzed by using ANOVA, which compared the pre-test and post-test scores of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was administered before and after their House Exams. The obtained results significantly agree with previous research that academic achievement and self-esteem have a positive relationship. Further also corroborated that female having high self esteem and academic achievement as compared to male participants.  hide

228.Impact of Educational Programme on Gender Differential Opinion of Rural Mothers

By: Krishna Duhan, Department of Human Development and Family Studies College of Home Science, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Gender roles are a learned attribute – not biological an inheritance. By age five, most girls and boys have already internalized the gender role expectation communicated to them by their families, schools and society as a whole, and these norms will influence their behaviour and development for rest of their lives. Present study was undertaken on mothers having children (3-5 years) of both sex attending anganwadi centers to study gender discrimination in their opinion/ feelings with regard to educational provision and type of occupational opportunities provided to their children. Gender discrimination was assessed by using modified Child Gender Socialization Scale on two main aspects followed by many sub-aspects on five point continuum. Each sub-aspect was scored for sons and daughters separately. Means and standard deviations were calculated for each sub-aspect. Independent sample‘t’ test was applied to study gender differences in mother’s feelings. On the basis of pre-testing results an educational programme was planned and imparted through a series of lectures, role- plays, slogans, slide shows and discussions on these aspects. After a gap of 15 days respondents were post tested to assess the improvement in the opinion of mothers. Before imparting educational programme mothers exhibited significant differential treatment for sons and daughters in all the aspects. According to rural mothers sons are given educational experiences to prepare for earning a living and to be economically independent while daughters are given education to prepare for marriage and child rearing. Mothers had the feelings that sons should be encouraged to go to college for career & technical education. Mothers showed interest to borrow money or bank loan to provide higher study to their sons’ only. With regard to choice of occupation, Girls would be preferred by mothers to work as crèche worker, beautician and nurse as the differences were highly significant, whereas boys would be encouraged to undertake the occupation of electrician, driver, carpenter, and waiter. Mothers had the feelings to prefer occupation of doctor, teacher and tailoring for both sons as well as daughters. Post –test results revealed significant improvement in mother’s feelings on three sub aspects of educational provision and remarkable improvement was found in provision of occupational opportunities for sons and daughters. Study concluded that continuous education of mothers on gender socialization is an important measure to reduce gender discrimination in the society.  hide

229.Work Life Balance: Challenges and Solutions

By: Fehmeena Bakht and and Chandrani Sen ICG College, Jaipur, Rajasthan  Show abstract Details

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In organisation and on the home front the challenge of work/life balance is arising to the top of many of many employer and employee consciousness. In todays work life human resource professional seeks options to positively impact the bottom line of their companies improve employee morale, checked turnover rate and keep pace with work place trends. This paper provide human resource professional with an historical perspective, data and possible solution for organisation and employeers in relation to work life balance. It offers the prospective that human resource profession can assest their companies to capatilized on these factors by using work life initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the market place.  hide

230.Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Problem Behaviour of Children with Intellectual Disabilities

By: Jai Prakash, Psychologist, Vocational Rehabilitation Centre for Handicapped, Ludhiana, Punjab and Amrita Sahay, Clinical Psychologist , National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Regional Centre  Show abstract Details

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Problem behaviours of children with intellectual disabilities is one of the stressor factors of their parents, as reported by them and it is observed that four to five times more in intellectual disabilities as compared to intellectually normal children. Therefore it is important for parent and professional to know what are the variables involved in the manifestation of problem behaviours. The socioeconomic status of their parents was one of the important factors in the manifestation of problem behaviour. This study was undertaken to find out prevalence in the perspective of gender, parental educational level and economic status of the different problem behaviours among children with intellectual disabilities. The present study sample consisted of 45 children with intellectual disabilities, registered in National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, General OPD Services (Andhra Pradesh). Behavioural Assessment Scales for Indian Children with Mental Retardation (BASIC-MR) Part-B questionnaire was used to identify problem behaviours. Findings suggested that parent’s education affects the child’s problem behaviour. Both male and female children showed hyperactive behaviour (53% and 55% respectively). In this study we found that hyperactive behaviour was more prevalent (38%) among professionally educated parents in comparison to less educated parents (22%). Violent and destructive behaviour was (30%) more observed among children of those parents involved in professional works. Temper tantrums and violent behaviour (50% and 32 % respectively) were more common among those parents who belong to the high income group family. Temper tantrum behaviour was significantly different (4.36 at 0.05 levels) in respect to the severity level of children with intellectual disability. Other behavioural domains were not found significant.  hide

231.Depression, Hostility, Guilt Feeling and Conflict over Hostility in Criminals and Non-criminals : A Comparative Study

By: Kamini C. Tanwar Head of Institution Amity Institute of Behavioural and Allied Sciences Amity University, Haryana, Sona Raghuvanshi Faculty, AIBAS Amity University, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The present study aimed to compare criminals and non-criminals on the basis of psychological factors like depression, guilt-feeling, hostility, and conflict over hostility. The study was conducted on 200 respondents including 100 criminals and 100 non-criminals. The criminals were selected from the four important jails of Bihar namely Patna, Buxar, Gaya and Bhagalpur and equal number of non-criminals (persons having non-criminals record) were also selected from the same four towns of Bihar mentioned above. The sample was incidental-cum-purposive one and included only married males in the age group of 21 to 40, who had minimum education up to seventh standard. The scales used were (1) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Hindi adaptation, Arora et.al, 1988), and Questionnaire of Hostility, Guilt and Conflict (Q-HGC, Sowaid, 1972). The data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The hypotheses formulated were: (1) The criminals would score higher on depression level than the non-criminals. (2) The criminals would score higher on hostility as compared to the non criminals. (3) The criminal group of subject would score lower on guilt feeling toward hostility than their non criminal counterparts and, (iv) The criminal group of subjects would score high on conflict over feeling of hostility than the non-criminal group of subjects. The findings confirmed all the four hypotheses.  hide

232.Correlation of Self Reported Questionnaire (KOOS) With Some Objective Measures in Primary OA Knee Patients

By: Kulandaivelan, S., Assistant Professor, Dept. of Physiotherapy, GJUST, Hisar, Haryana, Ateef, Md, 2- Research Scholar and Clinical Physiotherapist, V-CARE Physiotherapy Center, Hyderabad, Shaziya T.,  Show abstract Details

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Purpose: Objective of the present study was to see the correlation of subjectively measured KOOS questionnaire with objectively measured 6 minute walk test (6 MWT), age, height, weight and BMI. Participants: 251 subjects (aged between 56-79 yrs) with OA knee based on American college of Rheumatology criteria. Methods: After passing inclusion and exclusion criteria, following parameters were recorded: age, height, weight, BMI. Then subjects were asked to fill KOOS questionnaire that consists 42 questions covering five subscales namely pain, symptom, ADL, sports and QOL. Finally all subjects were asked to do self paced walk for 6 minutes on 30m corridor. Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS 10.0 version. Spearman rank test was done to see correlation of KOOS subscales with 6 MWT and other variables. Significant level was set at p<0.05. Results: 6 MWT had a weak correlation with KOOS-ADL (rho 0.440) and strong correlation with KOOS-symptom, KOOS-pain, KOOS-sports (rho 0.571, 0.634, 0.528 respectively) and very strong correlation with KOOS-QOL (rho 0.735). BMI had a strong correlation with KOOS-pain, KOOS-symptom, KOOS-ADL, KOOS-sports (rho -0.695, -0.637, -0.511, -0.629 respectively) and very strong correlation with KOOS-QOL (rho -0.814). Weight had a weak correlation with KOOS-symptom, KOOS-ADL, KOOS-sports (rho -0.475, -0.327, -0.378 respectively) and strong correlation with KOOS-pain, KOOS-QOL (rho -0.563, -0.565 respectively). All the above values were highly significant with p<0.001. There was no correlation between age, height and any of KOOS subscales. Conclusion: KOOS has strongly positively correlated with 6 MWT and negatively correlated with BMI. Its correlation strength has decreased with weight. There is no correlation between age, height and KOOS subscales.  hide

233.Emotional Make-Up of Visually Impaired and Hearing Impaired Children

By: Mamta Tripathi Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati  Show abstract Details

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The adaptive experience, expression, and regulation of emotion are increasingly being recognized as core features of healthy intra-and interpersonal functioning across the lifespan. A critical aspect of child and adolescents development of social competence involves the ability to experience and express both positive and negative emotions. This to a large extent is hampered in the children with special abilities particularly visually impaired (VI) and hearing impaired (HI) mainly because of their physical limitations. Despite being aware of all these facts studies have focused on EQ or emotional maturity but very few have tried to explore the role of Emotional Security in special children (visually impaired and hearing impaired) and its affect on their emotional make-up. Given the salience of the parent-child relationship to development, author proposed that security in the parent-adolescent relationship may be associated with functional emotional behavior leading to a healthier emotional development in special children. Family support is very important, more so in case of special children, who are already struggling with their disability since their birth, as they begin their life with an emotional set back of being different (not normal) from others which affects their further development. Therefore this study has attempted to investigate how emotional security with significant others affects the emotional make-up in terms of emotional proximity, awareness of emotion, expression of emotion and management of emotions in visually impaired and hearing impaired adolescents (N=40). The study employed qualitative methodology for both data collection as well as analysis. The findings of the study established that mothers followed by fathers were predominantly needed for the emotional proximity by both VI and HI adolescents. The results also showed that VI adolescents were happier when they achieved something whereas HI adolescents were happy when they received some gift. The results are discussed in light of earlier studies. Moreover the present paper will emphasize on the implications of present research for advancement and adjustment of VI and HI adolescents.  hide

234.Level of Adjustment on Basis of Gender in Middle Aged Couples Everyday Life

By: Shweta Nema and Naina Gulati, Banasthali Vidyapith, Department of Home Science, Rajasthan  Show abstract Details

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Middle age is characterized by competence, maturity, responsibility and stability. This is the time when one wants to enjoy the success of job, satisfaction derived from the family and social life. People look forward to the success of their children, aging parents, the use of leisure time and plans for old age. In this period people find vast changes in many areas of their lives, their relationships, their work, and even to question the meaning of it all. The study was to explore the effect of middle aged couples everyday life in these different areas (such as: health, home, social, marital, emotional and financial). The main objective was to determine the variations in all the variables of adjustment in middle aged couples. The sample consisted of 124 respondents, out of which 62 were males and 62 females (mean age= 50 to 65). To measure adjustment we used Shamshad-Jasbir Old-age Adjustment Inventory (SJOAI) created by Dr. Shamshad Hussain and Dr. Jasbir Kaur. Middle aged men and women badly need health care, financial assistance, social recognition and counseling service to cope with concomitant stress, ‘sence of isolation’, ‘feeling of social deprivation due to negligence” ‘feeling of disability and dependency’, ‘low self-esteem’ and ‘lethargic feelings’. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test analysis. Statistical analysis was done according to the objectives of this with the help of SPSS software. T-test was used to analyze the results which indicated that there were found significant differences between two genders (male and female) in the areas of health, home, social, marital, emotional and financial adjustment. The result of the study revealed that there is a significant impact of these areas on males’ as well as females’ adjustment level.  hide

235.Role of Emotional Empowerment Technique (EET) in Overcoming Shame and Guilt in People Living With HIV/AIDS

By: Neetu Bala, Hypnotherapist, Psychologist and Counselor, Naina Sharma, Assistant Professor, Department of Distance Education, Punjabi University, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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The present study attempts to study the efficacy of Emotional Empowerment Technique (EET) in overcoming Shame and Guilt in people living with HIV/AIDS. The sample comprised of 15 HIV positive male patients between the age group of 20-40 years seeking treatment from Civil Hospital, Ludhiana. The consent for voluntary participation from the patients was taken before the clinical trial. The patients were assessed by State Shame and Guilt Scale (SSGS), which measured the state level of shame, guilt and pride. Emotional Empowerment Technique (EET) was applied on them for 5 days and again same scale was administered. To study the efficacy of the ETT, t test was applied and the results revealed significant differences on pre and post test.  hide

236.Relationship between Lingualism and Creativity: A Review

By: Preeti Gulati, Junior Research Fellow, and Davinder Singh, Department of Psychology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar,  Show abstract Details

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This has been a review article written keeping in mind the relationship between lingualism and creativity. A number of articles were reviewed to study the relationship between lingualism and creativity. Many researchers through their studies established that bilinguals have an advantage over monolinguals as far as creativity is concerned. On the other hand, some of the researchers have shown that monolinguals have performed better on verbal creativity as compared to the figural creativity. All the research articles have been reviewed to conclude the role of lingualism in creativity. We are of the opinion that this topic is under research and more systematic studies are required to identify the role of lingualism in creativity.  hide

237.Users of Facebook and Narcissism: The Issue of Young Generation in the Present Scenario

By: Prerana Bhatnagar and Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of the present research is to identify the users and non-users of Facebook, a social networking site, to discriminate between non-addicted users and addicted users of Facebook and to compare the Narcissistic Personality Traits of addicted users and non-addicted users of Facebook of those who are adolescents. A sample of 100 adolescents, age range from 17 to 20 years was taken, out of which 50 were the users of Facebook: a social networking site and 50 were the non-users of Facebook. These adolescents were selected randomly from a population of 200 users and non-users of Facebook. Thus, finally 50 users of Facebook out of which 25 were females and 25 were males and 50 non-users of the Facebook with the same ratio of males and females were included in the sample. To discriminate between addicted users and non-addicted users of Facebook and to measure the level of addiction in the Facebook addicted users and Non-addicted users, the self constructed questionnaire i.e. Facebook Addicted Users Identification Questionnaire was applied. To measure the Narcissistic Personality Traits in the Facebook addicted users Narcissistic Personality Inventory by Raskin and Hall(1979) was used. An interview schedule was also applied to identify the ways of using Facebook only in the addicted users. The data was analysed on the basis of t-test. Results showed that the addicted users of the Facebook would be higher on Narcissism (M=24.58) as compared to Non-addiction Users of Facebook (M=11.84), there is significant difference between the addicted users and non- addicted users on Facebook (t= 21.6178, p>.01). Thus the hypothesis “Addicted Users of Facebook would have more narcissistic personality traits as compared to non- addicted users and non-users of Facebook”. The results have also been discussed in respect to gender. The present investigation has implications with respect to lowering the use of Facebook to prevent the Narcissism in the adolescents.  hide

238.Gender Agenda- Gaining Momentum

By: R.Radha, Assistant Professor, Department of FSMD, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore  Show abstract Details

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Gender equality means that women and men are of equal value and have the same rights, obligations and opportunities. Gender equality is identified by men and women across the globe, as well as by researchers. The four priority areas for policy going forward towards gender equality would be reducing excess female mortality and closing education gaps where they remain, improving access to economic opportunities for women, increasing women's voice and agency in the household and in society and limiting the reproduction of gender inequality across generations.By contrast to areas that have seen good progress, change has come slowly or not at all for many women and girls in many other dimensions of gender equality. Although women have entered the labor force in large numbers across much of the developing world in the past quarter century, this increased participation has not translated into equal employment opportunities or equal earnings for men and women. Laws, policies, government, NGO’s and the community at large should encourage gender equality and subsequently constant awareness needs to be created among the entire strata of the society on the importance of maintaining the equality. Everyone in the society has a responsibility to enforce/ provide equal opportunities without any gender bias.  hide

239.Job Stress on R&D Employee

By: Rajbala Soni, Vaish College of Engineering, Rohtak, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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A study released earlier in 2003 shows that stress is still regarded as a taboo subject in today's workplace. Despite the huge costs and high risks associated with work-related stress, many working environments are still chiefly characterized by high pressure and heavy workloads. Moreover, susceptibility to stress is very much considered to be a weakness that employees cannot afford to highlight without fear of repercussions Stress is the "wear and tear" which bodies experience as employees adjust to the continually changing environment .It has physical and emotional effects on employees and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel employees to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. A report from the Industrial Society, Occupational Stress, published earlier in 2001 showed that almost 70% of people surveyed cited difficulty in balancing work and home demands as a significant contributing factor to occupational stress. Nearly 50% reported unrealistic deadlines and the consequent time pressure as a factor. More than 40% identified poor communications as a factor in raising stress levels.  hide

240.Prevalence of workplace bullying and its impact on workplace wellbeing academia

By: Richa Gupta, Research Scholar, PG Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu  Show abstract Details

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Workplace bullying is a serious issue that needs immediate attention. It is deliberate and repetitive form of interpersonal behavior that adversely affects the wellbeing of the targeted person. This study examined the prevalence of workplace bullying in academia. An attempt was made to determine the impact of workplace bullying on workplace wellbeing. The Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised was used to assess the perceptions of being exposed to workplace bullying among college lecturers in Jammu. Self-report questionnaires measuring workplace wellbeing (job satisfaction and work engagement) were also administered to the sample in their workplaces. The results based on data gathered from 216 college lecturers indicated that 41% (89 lecturers) of the participants had experienced bullying behaviors during the previous six months. Correlation and regression analyses showed that workplace bullying has a negative impact on workplace wellbeing of lecturers. The findings suggest that workplace bullying is a part of faculty experiences in academia and if ignored can crop up serious repercussions. A discussion of these findings is noted. Furthermore, recommendations for future research on workplace bullying are elaborated on.  hide

241.Understanding Mental Constructs of Language and Emotions

By: Sakshi Ghai, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai  Show abstract Details

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The word ‘Emotion’ has been microscopically studied through psychological, anthropological and biological lenses and have indubitably been one of the most researched concepts as, in all situations and reactions that constitute human life, emotions form the very niche of our mutual existence. While understanding the social aspects of cognition, one can realize that emotions are deeply interwoven with language and thereby are pivotal in inducing human actions and behavior. The society or the outward social structure is the result of the inward psychological structure of our human relationships, for the individual is the result of the total experience, knowledge and conduct of man. The aim of this paper is threefold- first to establish the relation between mental representations of emotions and its neuropsychological connect with language on a conscious and sub-conscious level. Secondly to describe how Innate, basic and higher cognitive emotions affect the constantly changing state of an agent and peruse its assistance in determining the moral compass within all beings. Lastly, In the course of this paper, the concept of the architecture of mind is explored and how it has developed an ability to display adaptive emotional states and responses, which are in sync with the language of thought. For every response to the social environment is so deeply determined by the very social milieu in which one is situated. Language has a fundamental role in constructing emotions and articulating behavior. Being linguistic beings, we tend to associate emotion, feelings and other aspects of inwards mental states intrinsically with the language we use. This paper aims to devise a discursive approach to understand how emotions are fabricated, intertwined with the mental constructs further expressed and communicated through the various units of language. The relation between emotions and language is well established as dynamic and complex process. Language connotes the sociological, historical, linguistic, physiological, and behavioral determinants that comprise emotional matrix within beings and these social and self-conscious emotions that tend to be distinctive to human experience. People in their negative emotive state may also express benevolent behavior and people in their spiritual state may also express violent behavior expressed through actions or language. There persists a perennial response bias in most our behavior and social states. This study takes a first step toward understanding the likely impact of implicit social cognition by highlighting the importance of making careful distinctions between specific aspects of automatic thinking, such as distinguishing awareness, intention, and controllability. While studying these mental representations of ethical dilemmas one often questions the integrity of moral judgments and its consecutive emotional repercussions. But in conclusion, Morality is a way to describe the overall well-being of conscious entities.  hide

242.Global Warming and Women- An Overview

By: Seema Sharma- Asst Professor- DAV College-Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere has increased to cause climate change.However,it is now time to mitigate, the green house emission, to save world, by adverse effect of climate change. The present paper, seek to highlight and discuss, the role and contribution of women as agents of change in global warming. Climate change is not only an environmental issue, rather a social issue, where women’s involvement is the need of the hour.  hide

243.A Study of Cognitive Emotional Regulation Techniques and Life Satisfaction among Undergraduate Students of Haryana State

By: Tanu Kukreja, Lecturer Amity University, Haryana, Aaffreen, Post Graduate Student Amity University, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The aim of the research was to study the correlation between life satisfaction and Cognitive Emotional Regulation Techniques used by human beings in daily life settings. The topic of the study was chosen with a rationale of correlating the Emotional Regulation Techniques being used in everyday life and Life Satisfaction. Life Satisfaction refers to the cognitive, judgemental process, Shin and Johnson (1978) define life satisfaction as “a global assessment of a person’s quality of life according to his chosen criteria” Whereas Cognitive emotional regulation refers to the cognitive processes that manage emotionally arousing information(Zhu et al 2008; Garnefski et al ; 2007 Thomson 1991). A sample of 75 undergraduate students was taken from a University campus of Haryana State. Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire by Garnefski (1999) was used to assess the different cognitive emotional regulation techniques and Life Satisfaction Scale by Diener (1985) was used to assess Life Satisfaction level. The results state that no significant correlation existed between life satisfaction and Cognitive emotional regulation techniques.  hide

244.Effects of Brand Image among Adolescent Female’s Buying Behaviour of Clothes: Trends and Prospects in India

By: Rajiv Kumar Assistant Professor andSuman Research Scholar, Haryana School of Business G.J. University of Science and Technology Hisar (Haryana),  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of this theoretical paper is to examine effect of brand image on adolescent female consumer’s buying behavior and understand the key factors which influence female consumer’s involvement towards trendy branded purchase of clothes. Influence of brands on consumer buying behavior is a very vigorous subject and is of great importance in India. Adolescent females do most of the experiments with their image as concerned with clothes. They generally preference to wear branded clothes for several reasons. This paper is showing light on the main causes of brand preferences in the case of clothes of adolescent females. Peer pressure and urge to fit in the group is a major factor in this brand preference. Other reasons are TV program fashion shows and magazines. This piece of review highlights the major gaps in researches particularly in Indian scenario regarding this issue.  hide

245.Importance of Happiness at Workplace

By: Pravakar Duari and Surendra Kumar Sia, Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry  Show abstract Details

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Happiness is a holistic ideal. It speaks to the person that his/her life is complete in the sense that his/her reasonable desires are fulfilled over his/her life time. According Mayer & Diner (1995) happiness may be defined as the experience of frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect and overall senses of satisfaction with life as a whole. Gandhiji mentions that “the people became happy when what they think, what they say and what they do is a harmony situation”. Workplace happiness is not just a feel good thing- it really matters in hard, financial term. Workplace happiness is a key factor in motivation and productivity. It’s hard to get much dynamism, efficiency and enthusiasm from someone who is unhappy. However, workplace happiness is even more important in retaining key people within an organization. . Happy at work is crucial both to the employee and to the company. People will spend more of their adult life on their job than on anything else. People’s work will take up more of their time than their families, friends and hobbies combined. It would be nicer if that time is spent at a job that actually makes them happy. Happy people and happy company can create a lot of good things such as increasing productivity, quality, sales, customer satisfaction, creativity, innovation, adaptation, flexibility, and decreasing loss, absenteeism, stress of workers, accidents and occupational diseases. So, quality organization starts with quality personnel, not quality machine or quality office. Quality personnel are personnel with knowledge, competence, creativity, virtue and happiness.  hide

246.Classroom Problem Behaviour and Working Memory of Reading Disabled and Skilled Readers

By: Gopal Chandra Mahakud, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Keshav Mahavidyalaya, University of Delhi  Show abstract Details

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Behavioural problem among school going children is the problem of world wide. Numbers of researches affirmed that working memory scores on measures of central executive function are closely associated with language and reading abilities. Numbers of researches have been conducted in relation to conduct problem and reading disabilities among school going children. But very few researches have been focused on the behavioural problem and working memory of the reading disabled and skilled readers. In this research the researcher assessed the working memory capacity like digit span auditory and visual memory for consonant vowel and meaningful words etc along with the behavioural problem of reading disabled and skilled readers. The main objective of the study was to found out the discrepancies level of working memory capacities and frequency of problem behaviour of children with reading disabilities and skilled readers which will help the teacher, parents and special educators working in the field of concern.  hide

247.Reinvention of Moral Foundation in Education: Solution to Violence Practice from Teacher to Students in Indonesia

By: Patris Rahabav Pattimura University Ambon, Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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The violence toward children has been a major critical issues concerned by people all around the world. The printed and visual media regularly revealed that violence act occurred in various types. The violence in school and homes appeared in the greatest numbers of example. Indonesia has become one of the countries with highest rank of children violence cases. Numbers of cases occurred as well as in social life also in Education Institution. Based on Scientific Studies, numbers of violence by the teacher toward Indonesian student were surprisingly high. The cases was astonished because of some crisis were happened beyond the experience of the teachers. Since the latest 20th century, Indonesian teacher had faced 3 types of crisis. They are intellectual,Financial and role mode crisis. Otherwise, strong feudalistic culture also being a major reason,discussion,and differentopinion created some violence practice. Violence toward student caused worse impact such as repeatedly behavior, stress, depression, nervous, unconffidence,alienation,lack of motivation and low achievement. In order to maintain those problems reinventing moral foundation is become a determine predictor. It needs teacher’s awareness to implement the professional values as the solution for their masterpiece. There are 7, professional principles values to acquire as a teacher: 1) intellectuality principle 2) integrity principal, 3) subsidiarity principal, 4) humanity principal, 5) solidarity principal, 6) solidity principal and 7) prima service principle.  hide

248.Career Planning and Development Plan for the Managers

By: Nipun Aggarwal, Research Scholar, School of Management Studies, Punjabi University, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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The career planning process is often illustrated as the last step in an ever-changing work environment. The technical, professional, managerial, and interpersonal skills to successfully perform and succeed in this rapidly changing work environment are essential. There is a very real and immediate threat that many of the professional skills that we have learned yesterday and today will be obsolete and insufficient to cope with the inevitable changes in the future. While most professionals are aware of the very real threat of skill obsolescence, few take the opportunity to do definitive career planning regarding their future. The career planning process is designed to help individuals examine their careers; evaluate their training and educational needs; and develop some specific action plans to maintain, enhance, and reevaluate the relevance of their professional and managerial skills in a work environment that values rapid change and adaptation.In this Paper, an attempt is made to clearly identify that how career development plan of a newly recruited MBA and the career development process to be followed and how it is a path towards the successful growth .  hide

249.The Effect of Organizational Culture, Leadership, and Job Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment in Private Higher Education: A Study of Path Analysis Model in Private Institutions of Higher Education under the Umbrella Foundation of Binaniaga: STIKOM Binaniaga, STIE Binaniaga, AMIK Bogor and Sukabumi BBC Polytechnic

By: Ismulyana Djan Prod Manajemen Pendidikan Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Jawa Barat-Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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The research objective was to determine the lecturer commitment to the organization, which is directly affected by three variables; organizational culture, leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment indirectly affected by organizational culture and leadership through job satisfaction. The research method used was survey method with causal techniques, and to analyze whether or not there is effect of one variable to another, path analysis was applied. In the analysis of research data to fully use the help of software SPSS (statistical product and service solutions), including descriptive statistical analysis, a prerequisite test data analysis and statistical hypothesis testing. The research indicates that there is a direct positive effect of organizational culture towards the organizational commitment ( :0,271), leadership toward organizational commitment ( :0,252), job satisfaction toward organizational commitment ( : 0,411), and organizational culture on job satisfaction ( : 0,625) and there is a direct positive effect of leadership towards job satisfaction of lecturer ( : 0,303).  hide

250.The Relationship Between Organizational Culture, Leadership and Worker Motivation Towards the Performance of Educationists: A Coorelational Study at the Centre of Education in Educational Indoctrination and Training of Indonesian Infatry Brigade (Army)

By: Nugraha Gumilar, Prod Manajemen Pendidikan Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Jawa Barat-Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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This research aimed to study the relationship between organizational culture, leadership and worker motivation on the performance of educators. To reach the objective, a surevey was conducted among 111 teachers, which was determined by proportionate random sampling in 14 educatuonal institutions of Indonesian National Armed Forces and then the obtained data were analyzed by using correlation methods. In Indonesia, the Army has its own unique spirit, called Sapta Marga and the Soldier's Oath as guidance in performing tasks to achieve organizational goals. The values contained in Sapta Marga and the Soldier's Oath are able to shape the attitudes and behavior of members of the organization, generate pride and spirit of togetherness that create a conducive organizational culture, strong leadership and motivation to improve their performance. Thus, the values contained in the Sapta Marga and the Soldier's Oath are implemented within the Army organizational culture, leadership and motivation of educators to improve the performance of educators.The implementation of the values containted must be done consistently and consequently in order to be internalized in the mindset, action and constructive attitudes of the educators in improving their performance.  hide

251.Community Participation in the Development of Nonformal Education Programmes : A Case Study carried out in Cimahi City Council, West Java, Indonesia

By: Juma Abdu Wamaungo, Prodi: Pendidikan Luar Sekolah, Sekolah Pasca Sarjana , Universitas, Pendidikan Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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This study intended to investigate the role of community participation in the development of nonformal education programmes through community learning centers. The researcher used a qualitative method and the design was a case study. The research was conducted in two selected CLC’s of Cimahi city council, West Java, Indonesia. Data collection was done through; observation, interview, documentation study, and audiovisual analyses with the intent of establishing the kinds of nonformal education programmes, forms of community participation, categories of community members that participate most, and to ascertain the role of community participation in the sustainability of nonformal education programmes in community learning centres. Findings of the study; the staff members at the two CLCs are aware of the kinds of nonformal education programmes, the CLC programmes are basically government programmes, the forms of participation are of three categories, that is; passive participation, information giving participation and consultative participation, the CLC staff conduct field analysis only during the socialization process of CLC programmes to the grassroot community, and the participants from CLCs are mostly from poor families with low economic background, but there were also those from well-off to do families. The recommendations made based on the findings of this research are: Nonformal education Professionals should be ready to face the needed desire for change in the development, planning and implementation of nonformal education programmes, Governments should allow educational and development programmes to come from the grassroot with the active participation of the would be beneficiaries, people should be encouraged to; improve their knowledge, Skills and attitudes with the aim of systemic change, and Government should set standards to be followed by community learning centres such that quality is maintained.  hide

252.The Influence of Organizational Culture, Transformational Ledareship and Job Satisfaction on the Performance of Elementary School Head Teachers

By: Saefulloh Graduate Program of Educational Management (Prod Manajemen Pendidikan) Universitas Pakuan, Bogor, Jawa Barat-Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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This research aimed to study and analyze the direct influence of organizational culture, transformational leadership, and job satisfaction on the performance of elementary school head teachers in the Region of Leuiwiliang, Bogor District Education Service. The research employed the survey method, and to analyze whether or not there is any effect of one variable to another, path analysis was used. The analysis of data was done entirely with the aid of Excel and SPSS software (Statistical Product and Service Solution). The findings of the research revealed that: (1) Organizational culture has direct influence on the elementary school head teachers’ performance (41 = 0.306, t41 = 4.434); (2) Organizational culture does not have a directly positive effect on the elementary school head teachers’ job satisfaction (31 = 0.075, t31 = 0.954; (3) Transformational leadership has a directly positive effect on the elementary school head teachers’ performance (42 = 0.187, t42 = 2.710); (4) Transformational leadership has a directly positive effect on the elementary school head teachers’ job satisfaction (32 = 0.193, t32 = 2.45); and (5) Job satisfaction has a directly positive effect on the elementary school head teachers’ performance (43 = 0.201, t43 = 2.912).  hide

253.The Effect of Leadership Behavior, Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction On Teachers’ Organizational Commitment

By: Tatik Wijayati, Prof.Dr. Abin Syamsudin,M.A, & Dr.Hj.Rita Retnowati, M.Si, Program Pascasarjana Jurusan Manajemen Pendidikan Universitas Pakuan  Show abstract Details

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The effect of principals’ leadership behavior, organizational culture, and teachers’ job satisfaction on organizational commitment of junior high school teachers. (Descriptive Analysis Study on junior high school teachers in the city of Depok 2013). This study aimed to obtain information about the effect of principals’ leadership behavior, organizational culture and teacher’s job satisfaction on teacher’s organizational commitment. This research was conducted by survey on junior high school in the city of Depok, with sample of 142 permanent teachers which was determined by proportional random sampling technique. The instruments of this research are based on content validity. The reliability was calculated using the Microsoft Excel program. Result of the instrument test shows that the reliability variable of principals’ leadership behavior is 0.920, organizational culture is 0.901, teacher’s job satisfaction is 0.930, and teacher’s organizational culture is 0.900. Then the obtained data was analyzed using Path Analysi and the result shows that principal’s leadership behavior (X1) has a direct positive effect on teacher’s organizational commitment (X4), with a path coefficient of 41 = 0.226 and significance level of t41 = 2,190; organizational commitment (X2) has a direct positive effect on teachers’ organizational commitment (X4), with a path coefficient of 42 = 0.214 and significance level of t42 = 2,317; Teachers’ Job Satisfaction (X3) has a direct positive effect on teachers’ organizational commitment (X4), with a path coefficient of 43 = 0.182 and a significance level of t43 = 2,074; principals’ leadership commitment (X1) has a direct positive effect on teachers’ job satisfaction (X3) with a path coefficient of 31 = 0.667 and significance level of t31 = 10,592; has organizational culture (X2) has a direct positive effect on teachers’ job satisfaction (X3) with a path coefficient of 32 = 0.166 and significance level of t32 = 2.63. Therefore this study found that the following have a direct effect on teachers’ organization commitment; principals’ leadership behavior, organizational culture, teachers’ job satisfaction, principals’ leadership behavior and organizational culture also has a significant effect on teachers’ job satisfaction.  hide

254.The Meaning of People Participation as Cadres of the Search and Rescue (SAR) Team

By: Wahyu Edy Setiawan, Prodi Pendidikan Luar Sekolah (PLS) Sekolah Pascasarjana Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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Abstract The aims of this research are: 1. for the general communities interested in becoming members of the Emergency Research and Rescue Team of Malang (ERTM). 2. to establish the reasons for their involvement in the Emergency Rescue Team of Malang (ERTM). 3.to establish the usefulness of membership and management in the ERTM organization. To attain the mentioned objectives, this research employed a qualitative approach with a case study design. The informants of this research included the managing team and members of the Emergency Rescue Team of Malang. The technique of data collection was “Snow Ball” which rolled from one informant to another. The findings of this research noted the following characteristics among communities interested in Search and Rescue: a) They have organization experience or have ever participated in Search and Rescue activities, b) They are interested in social activities, c) They have high dedication, d) they have different expertise, for instance, swimming, diving, P3K, etc; e) They have a sense of responsiveness towards others, f) There is no force, g). They have free time, h) Men are between 20 – 60 years, i). Take it as a Hobby, j) are Capable of doing the needful, k) interact with other people, m) support from close people, for example family n) are loyal to SAR. While the reasons for informants’ participation in the Emergency Rescue Team of Malang include: a) learning experiences, b) to share experiences between one another, c) To discard boredom, and d) get involve in religious activities.The meaning derived from membership participation and management of ERTM organization include: a) Self-actualization; b). Voluntarism; c).aquisition of special skills, d) to benefit other people; f). Leads to discipline g) to have a feeling of brotherhood, h) They need recognition from others and i) they are ready to sacrifice in both material and moral form.  hide

255.The Improvement of Students Learning Activities and Learning Outcomes in the Study Program of Technical Fabric Design The Case of Semester Seven Students in the Course of Learning and Jigsaw Instruction at Gorontalo State University

By: Wenny Hulukati Guidance and Counseling Department, Faculty of Education (FIP), Gorontalo State University, Indonesia  Show abstract Details

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In Indonesia, universities have continued to change due to the desire to meet the demands of the public and also to catch up with the neighbouring countries’ like Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Brunei Darussalam. With the fact that students joining universities are on increase within the country, services provided are expected to be satisfactory in terms of content, and quality and of course with concrete and promising outcomes. The concern of this research was therefore: 1. to establish whether a course like learning and jigsaw instruction technique could improve semester seven (vii) students learning activities and hence help to improve the learning outcomes, and 2. to find out whether the process of learning in the course of learning and Jigsaw instruction technique could enhance semester seven (vii) students learning outcomes. The research hypotheses were: 1. the course of learning and jigsaw instruction technique in the seventh semester could improve students learning activities, 2. the jigsaw instruction technique could lead to the improvement of the learning outcomes of the undergraduate students in the program of technical fabric design. This research was conducted in three (3) cycles, each cycle consisting of 3 (three) meetings. Data was collected through observation and questionnaires and it was later on analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. The findings revealed that: 1. the course of learning and jigsaw instruction could improve learning activities and learning outcomes of semester seven students. This was proved by an improvement in student learning activities by 47.62% from the initial percentage of 25% to 72.62%, 2. Application of jigsaw technique led to the improvement of learning outcomes. This was expressed by an improvement in students’ performance from an average of 2.50 to 3.33.  hide

256.Coping Strategies amongst the Patients of Arthritis

By: Suman Hooda, Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, PGIMS, Rohtak, Promila Batra and Sarvdeep Kohli, Department of Psychology, M. D. University, Rohtak  Show abstract Details

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Arthritis is a chronic disease which has a very high incidence in India. Since it is a disease related to pain, it is very important for the patients to learn about how to manage the disease and the pain. Arthritis has also been shown to be accompanied by a variety of emotional reactions e.g. anxiety and depression etc., due to the pain and the daily hassles. Therefore, it is all the more important to learn about how to cope with this disease. Keeping this in mind it was planned to study the coping strategies amongst the patients of arthritis and compare these with control group. Accordingly, a two group design was employed with n=60 i.e., a total of 120 subjects. Coping Responses Inventory Adult Form by Moos (1993) was administered. The analysis was done by employing ONE WAY ANOVA and t-test. The results indicated that the patient of arthritis were high on avoidance coping. However, they did not differ in their coping strategies from the control group. The findings have an implication in preparing the psycho- educative programs for arthritis patients.  hide

257.Enhancement Techniques of Empathy for Adolescent: A Review

By: Rahul Kumar Singh, Ph. D. Student, Department of Psychology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajastha  Show abstract Details

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Teenagers are more emotional than elders and younger. Everywhere, teenagers are in floods from being dumped, having nervous breakdown from stressing for exams, being ignored by getting bullied and falling in love. Higher rates of teenage problems are related to low empathy. Teenagers with low empathy levels are related to much higher incidents of violent bullying. Empathy is the ability to not only see a person’s point of view, but also experience other’s pain. Empathy can be developed from a very early age by parents. Parents can create a warm and understanding environment to develop empathy through some techniques such as (1) modeling (how person must feel), (2) sense of morality (develop an internal sense of right and wrong), (3) giving paralinguistic knowledge (understand bodily gestures and behavior of body language), (4) identify other’s perspective (develop emotional insight to other person), (5) imagine (imagine own self in other person’s situation) and (6) having pet. These techniques can help to prevent lot of teenage issues. Empathy enables teenagers to understand others’ point of view and recognize how their action can affect others, which will benefit both socially and academically.  hide

258.A study of Job Satisfaction of High School Teachers in Relation to Anxiety and Burnout

By: Monika Kumari, Dakshin Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha, Chennai and Nirmala Devi, Principal, C.R. College of Education, Hisar (Haryana)  Show abstract Details

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The main purpose of this research was to find out the mean difference between Private & High School Teachers. The total sample consisted by 300 (Govt. & Private) High School Teachers. This study aimed at finding the level of Job satisfaction of High School Teachers in Relation to Anxiety and Burnout. The study revealed that Govt. High School Teachers were more satisfied as compared to Private High School Teachers because of their low expectations and also the percentage the level of anxiety is higher in teachers of Private High Schools than the teachers of Govt. High Schools. This study is also revealed that job satisfaction of high school teachers is negatively significant related to burnout.  hide

259.How social feedback effects stress level?

By: Shallu Dhanda and Anna Bansal, Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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The focus of this article is on the role of social feedback on the levels of stress, commonly known as social stress, which have been recognized as the most frequent type of stress factor in daily lives. Social stress is stress that stems from one’s relationship with others and from the social environment in general. It has been seen that societal feedback and society as a whole, as a support system, and plays a crucial role in elevating or diminishing the stress levels, in individuals. The current paper reviews how social feedback can be effective in dealing with stress level in everyday life among people.  hide

260.Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Differences in Quality of People Who Meditate and Those Who Do Not Meditate: A Comparative Study

By: Sangeeta Trama and Navreet Cheema, Dept. of Psychology, Punjabi University, Patiala  Show abstract Details

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Mental health, once defined in terms of absence of illness, has gradually become understood in a more holistic way, which also includes the positive qualities that help people flourish. This evolving definition of mental health has led to an exploration of other traditions and practices, including meditation, which for thousands of years, has been devoted to developing an expanded vision of human potential. Meditation is a practice in which an individual trains the mind and/or induces a mode of consciousness to realize some benefit, although it can be argued that meditation is a goal in and of itself. Meditation often involves an internal effort to self-regulate the mind in some way. Meditation helps an individual overcome these emotions to facilitate a calm, peaceful mind, and a healthy, stress-free body. Meditation is a mental/spiritual technique for relaxing the restlessness of the mind, and freeing it from anxiety and stress. In its higher forms, it aims for attaining peace of mind, inner silence and spiritual awakening. The present study attempted to explore differences between people who meditate and those who do not meditate in three areas, viz., cognitive elements, affective elements, and behavioural elements. Pre-test scores on demographic variables (viz., perceived stress), cognitive elements (viz., hostility and flow), affective elements (viz., affective experience, anger, empathy, and emotion regulation) and behavioral elements (viz., aggression and generativity) of quality of life were procured. A sample of 120 university students (60 males, 60 females) was taken which was further divided into the experimental and control group. In case of the experimental group, those participants who had been practicing meditation since past the six months were taken. In case of control group participants, university students belonging to similar socio-economic background as in the experimental group was taken. t-test was applied to analyze the results. The findings have been discussed in light of the Indian socio-cultural context, and with respect to the eastern and western models of spirituality.  hide

261.Importance of Thriving at Organization

By: Pravakar Duari, Department of Applied Psychology, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry  Show abstract Details

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The world of yesterday is not the world today. Twenty years ago businesses, organizations, and university systems employees expected continuity, stability, and longevity in their jobs. Today, that is not the case. Change occurs daily in our work and community. We are required to adjust, learn, and move forward as individuals and organizations. Or, we move out of the organization. Organizations are looking within themselves for the initiative to move with the technology of the 21st century. Thriving is a positive organizational behaviour concept. It includes the joint experience of vitality and learning at work. Vitality denotes the sense that one is energized and feels alive at work. Learning is growing through new knowledge and skills. Thriving lens sheds light on how individuals play a role in creating the contextual conditions for their own growth, thus making the thriving process a joint product of the context and an individual acting to architect their own work context. Thriving is defined as the psychological state in which individuals experience both sense of vitality and learning. Spreitzer et al (2005) suggested that thriving matters because it enhances the health and personal development of employees. Thriving individual learn to navigate protean careers (Hall, 1998) and to sustain their performance, health, and well-being over time (Pfeiffer, 2010).  hide

262.Work- Family Conflict

By: Vimla Verma Associate Professor Department of Psychology JNV University, Jodhpur  Show abstract Details

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Work-family conflict is produced by simultaneous pressures from work and family roles that are mutually incompatible. Research has often distinguished role characteristics and personal characteristics as antecedents of work-family conflict. In the work domain, role characteristics such as work hours, schedule inflexibility, unsupportive coworkers and supervisors, etc. have been associated with high levels of work-family conflict. Family role characteristics associated with high work-family conflict include hours spent in family activities, the number and age of children, unsupportive family members, and family-induced stress. Extensive conflict has been associated with dissatisfaction, distress, withdrawal, and ineffective performance within the work and family domains. The notion that work and family roles can benefit one another has been referred to as enrichment. Enrichment is a bidirectional concept, work can enrich family life and family can enrich work life. Because enrichment results from the direct or indirect transfer of resources from one role to another, any characteristic of the work or family environment that produces resources is capable of generating work-family enrichment. Work-family enrichment has positive consequences. Work and family roles is no longer considered a “woman's issue” but rather applies to men and women with significant family and work responsibilities. Additional research is necessary to understand the interdependencies between work and family roles.  hide

263.Construction of an Achievement Test Measuring Academic Achievement In Mathematics At Secondary Level

By: Kumud, Pratap College of Education,Jundla Karnal and Hemant Lata Sharma, Department of Education MDU, Rohtak  Show abstract Details

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Through out the world, Mathematics is taught as one of the subjects in schools, colleges and universities. But, majority of the students feel that mathematics is a difficult subject which leads to higher failure methods. Testing of students’ Mathematics knowledge gleaned from school curriculum is one way of evaluating the whole programme of mathematics. However teacher made tests are not often scientific and biases may inadvertently creep into them. So an achievement test in mathematics for IX class on the topic “Surface Areas and Volumes” was prepared by the investigator herself to evaluate the pupils’ Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application. The reliability of the test was found to be high(r=.97).  hide

264.Academic Stress in Relation to Self-Efficacy and Mindfulness among Senior Secondary School Students

By: Sangeeta Saini GSSS, Gangwa, Hisar, Haryana, and Vandana Punia, Department of Education, CDLU, Sirsa, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Academic stress is the product of a combination of academic related demands that exceed the adaptive resources available to an individual. If a student is unable to cope effectively with academic stress, then serious psycho-social-emotional health consequences may result (Arthur, 1998; MacGeorge, Samter, & Gillikan, 2005; Tennant, 2002). The current study examined relation in academic stress in relation to self-efficacy and mindfulness among senior secondary school students. The findings indicated that there was significant negative relation in academic stress, self-efficacy and mindfulness among boys and girls.  hide

265.Effects of Paternal and Maternal Avoidance, Peer Pressure and Self-Esteem in School Bullying Victimization among School Children

By: Easht Preet Kaur, Research Scholar, Sai Nath University, Ranchi and Dalbir Singh Saini District Social Welfare Officer, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Bullying victimization is associated with many psychological problems, for example, depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, insecurity, loneliness, low academic achievement, eating disorders, interpersonal problems, anger, hostility aggression, substance abuse, in severe cases suicidal ideation, etc. The present research examined the effect of paternal and maternal avoidance, peer pressure and self-esteem on school bullying victimization in school children. The sample was comprised of 400 students (200 boys and 200 girls) of 10th to 12th standard studying in English medium schools of district Sirsa, Haryana. The findings indicated that paternal and maternal avoidance, peer pressure and self-esteem were significantly related with school bullying victimization children  hide

266.Body dissatisfaction in Relation to Peer Attribution, Media Influences, Social Anxiety and Self-esteem among Adolescent Boys and Girls

By: Neelam Goyal, Indian Association and Health, Research and Welfare and Simmi Bansal Department of Psychology, FC College Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Feelings of body dissatisfaction are common phenomenon in today’s adolescents. Like the Western countries, even in India there is an increased awareness of body image, body importance and disordered eating problems among adolescents, particularly in girls. Most of the boys and girls want to change their appearance of their bodies through various forms of figure management behaviour, which in turn, is associated with emotional distress, preoccupation with appearance and unnecessary cosmetic surgery (Hoffman & Brownell, 1997; Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999). The present study examined the role of peer attribution, media influence, social anxiety, and self-esteem towards body dissatisfaction. The sample comprised 200 male and 200 female adolescents in the age range of 15-18 pursuing degree courses in arts, commerce and science at the various colleges. The findings indicated that peer attribution was significant predictor of body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls. Body dissatisfaction was found to be positively related with social anxiety and negatively related with self-esteem in boys as well as girls  hide

267.Awareness of HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour among the Migrants in Ludhiana

By: Vishal Saini, District Social Welfare Officer, Ambala, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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HIV/AIDS a pandemic disease still remains a problematic concern for everyone since 80s cutting across geo-political boundaries. ‘Migrant’ are considered as ‘bridge populations’ for HIV/AIDS transmission from vulnerable populations to general populations. The study seeks to reveal the relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among the migrants in industrial city, Ludhiana of Punjab state. By using the descriptive research design, a total number of 250 migrants were covered in different locations of Ludhiana. Closed ended questions and statements which were standardized originally developed by Odu and Akanle’s (2008) in their study of Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour among the youths in South West Nigeria has been adopted to seek the relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among the migrants in Ludhiana. The instrument consisted of sixteen main questions with seven subsidiary statements that measured the sexual behaviour while the second one contained of thirteen statements that measured the knowledge of HIV/AIDS of the migrants in Ludhiana. Knowledge of basic/key concepts of HIV/AIDS has been limited to transmission and cure knowledge of the disease, which was standardized and used in the present study. Frequency counts and percentages were used in describing the knowledge and sexual behaviour of migrants. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis and calculation of Pearson Product Moment Correlation to reveal the relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among the migrants in Ludhiana. The analysis revealed that migrants are incessantly sexually active and engaged in high-risk sex. It was clear that migrants were having adequate awareness of basic concept on HIV/AIDS but many migrants were also harping myths & misconceptions about the cure of HIV/AIDS. The study recommended policies and programmes that can transform the sexual behaviour of the migrants inspiring them to reduce and regulate their high risk sex behaviours and also contended that prevention message should be consistent, clear and effective to counteract other unreliable sources of information.  hide

268.Attachment style, Self-Esteem, Job-Satisfaction and Life-Satisfaction –A Correlational Study

By: Vaishali Gupta, Vaish Mahilla Mahavidalaya, Rohtak, Suman, Department of Psychology, Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak and Sunita Malhotra, Department of Psychology and Dean of Social Sciences, M  Show abstract Details

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The present study intended to establish relationship among Attachment style, Self-esteem, Job-satisfaction and life-satisfaction. For this purpose a sample of two hundred teaching professionals with age range of 30 to 40 years was randomly selected from Rohtak, Bhiwani and Faridabad cities of Haryana state. Attachment Style Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Inventory, Job-Satisfaction questionnaire and Life-Satisfaction Scale were administered to all the subjects. The scores were statistically analyzed by using Pearson coefficient of correlation. The results revealed significant relationships among attachment style, self-esteem, job-satisfaction and life-satisfaction. The results have been discussed in this light.  hide

269.Type a Behavior Pattern as risk factors of coronary Heart Disease

By: Radhika Rattan, Dept. of Psychology, GRD College for women, Phagwara (Punjab)  Show abstract Details

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The past few years have witnessed an enormous amount of research activity in the field of Psycho-social and behavioral factors are associated with risk of coronary disease. These variables can broadly categorized Behavioral characteristics i.e. (Type A Behavior Pattern, TABP), life stress including life dissatisfaction , life problems , international problems and life change, anxiety and personality factors, sociological factors (Increased urbanization industrialization, geographical mobility) and socio economic status ( occupation education and income). In the present paper and attempt had been made to explore into the relationship between Type a Behavior pattern as risk factors in the incidence of coronary Heart Disease. Through analysis of some cases(Heart Patients) reports indicate that the TYPE A behavior personality (People who were habitually hurried, competitive, hostile ambitious and aggressive) Than TYPE B behavior personalities. (People who lived less pressured and hard driving) are play a major roll in the incidence of coronary Heart Disease.  hide

270.Raising Resilient Children with an Art of Positive Parenting

By: Soamya and Sandeep Singh, Department of Applied Psychology Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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In today’s climate of growing rates of relationship breakdown, depression, suicide, substance abuse, delinquency, bullying and violence, many parents are rethinking their primary parenting task. In the present article an attempt is made to define resiliency in children and adolescence taking into consideration the different approaches and skills of positive parenting which helps in inculcating healthy emotionally resilient children. Numerous scientific studies of children facing great adversity in their lives have supported the importance of resilience as a powerful force (Masten 2001). People have different beliefs about how to raise children, and children can turn out well in the families that use various parenting approaches. But one or another most parents are trying to find the right balance between control and freedom. Everyone has individual factors that help make them who they are and determine their levels of resilience. Resilience explains why some children overcome overwhelming obstacles, sometimes clawing and scraping their way to successful adulthood, while others become victims of their early experiences and environment. Each interaction with children provides an educational opportunity to help them weave a strong and resilient fabric. Resilient children feel secure, special, and hopeful, possess high self worth. They have developed the ability to solve problems and make decisions and thus, are more likely to view mistakes, hardships and obstacles as challenges to confront rather than stressors to avoid. They rely on productive coping strategies that are growth fostering rather than self defeating. Their self concept is filled with images of strength and competence.  hide

271.A study of Stress Coping of Cardiovascular Patients on Different Time Duration

By: Alpna Agarwal and Anshu Agarwal, Department of Psychology, Ch.Charan Singh University, Meerut, UP  Show abstract Details

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This research paper is an attempt to study “The effect of time duration of cardiac problem on stress coping strategies”. The study is based on a sample of 300 cardiac patients age ranges of 45-60. For this purpose stress coping strategies were measured with the help of “coping strategies scale” constructed by Prof. A.K. Shrivastav. Independent variable was time duration of cardiac problem, varied at three levels i.e. having this problem within 1 year, for 4 years and 8 years. Dependent variable was stress coping strategies. Two types of coping strategies were measured ‘approach coping’ and ‘avoidance coping’. For statistical analysis, mean and one way ANOVA was calculated. On the basis of obtained results it was found that, the effect of time duration of cardiac problem on stress coping strategies was found significant at .01 level of confidence for ‘approach coping’ and ‘avoidance coping ’. Thus it may conclude that time duration of cardiac problem is an influencing factor to affect the stress coping strategies. Findings indicate that the level of approach coping decreases and the level of avoidance coping increases with the increase of time duration of illness.  hide

272.A Study on Work Life Balance and Performance Management in Female Teachers

By: Nisha Goyal, Sunena Jain and Ritu Jain, Department of Commerce, F.C.College, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The purpose of this paper is to find the various factors effecting the work life balance and performance of women academician. The sample was comprised o 50 female teachers in the age range of 30-40 years from school and college level. As we know time has been changed women have play a vital role in society. It is very difficult for them to make a balance with their work and performance along their family responsibility. To analyze the data statistical tools like frequency, mean etc. have been used. The results indicated that authority pressure, unreasonable groups and conflict between their role and responsibility can affect their work. Factors like stress of overloaded work affect their performance.  hide

273.Gender Differences on Spiritual Wellbeing in Cancer Patients

By: Nisha Rani, Researcher, Department of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh  Show abstract Details

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The aim of the present investigation was to study spiritual well being, religious well being and existential well being among 120 (60 cancer patients and 60 healthy controls, that is, without any terminal illness) from low middle socioeconomic strata at two levels of gender. Spiritual wellbeing scale (Paloutzian and Ellison, 1982) scale was administered. Two way ANOVA, means and SDs revealed that patients with cancer were lower on spiritual well being, religious well being as well as existential well being as compared to healthy controls (with no terminal illness). Female cancer patients as compared to were found to be higher on spiritual well being religious wellbeing and existential well being, but in healthy controls males were higher on spiritual well being, religious well being and existential wellbeing. However, main effect of gender emerged to be in significant on spiritual well being, religious well being as well as existential wellbeing.  hide

274.A Study of Organizational Stress in Relation to Role Stress and Work Motivation in Public and Private Bank Employees

By: Bhavna Singla Research Scholar, CMJ University, Shillong and Sunena Jain FC College Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Stress is involved in an environmental situation that perceived as presenting demand which threatens to exceed the person’s capabilities and resources for meeting it, under conditions where he or she expects a substantial differential in the rewards and costs from meeting the demand versus not meeting it. Organizational stress is increasing day by day due to job insecurity, increasing workload, work-family imbalance, etc. in both public and private units especially among private sectors. The current study examined the relation in organizational stress, role stress and work motivation in public and private bank employees. The findings are discussed with practical implications.  hide

275.Impact of Psychological Work Climate on Work-Life Imbalance and Job Satisfaction

By: Naresh Kumar, Department of Clinical Psychology, Pt.B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Sunita Malhotra, Dept. of Psychology, M.D.U Rohtak, Kavita Sharma, Dept. of Education, M.D.U Rohtak, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Intensified global competition has changed the nature of work recently. In this scenario significance of Psychological Work Climate of an organization has increases. Psychological Work Climate is based on the extent to which employees perceive the organization to be a psychological safe and meaningful work environment. The Psychological Work Climate therefore, has to do with how employees experience and interpret the organizational environment. The fact that one’s experience is subjective implies that two people in the same work situation can experience the situation completely differently. This is due to individual factors and perceptual biases which effect how individual interpret situations. The Psychological Work Climate is then an attribute of the individual rather than the work objective situations. It is employee’s subjective impressions of the work situation and one’s perception of the significance of the work. Psychological work climate has an effect on Work - Life Imbalance which leads to the job satisfaction. To shed light on the basic connections between dimensions of psychological work climate, work–family imbalance, and job-satisfaction, an ex-post facto research was conducted. To study the relationship amongst these variables measure of Psychological Work Climate, Work - Life Imbalance Scale, and job satisfaction, measures were administered on 300 executives and managers (between 20-35 years age) employed in private telecom industry. The inter correlations were computed between different dimensions of the above mentioned variables i.e. psychological work climate - supportive management, role clarity, contribution, recognition, self-expression, challenge; Work-life imbalance -Work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC); Job-satisfaction establish the nature of the relationship among these variables. The data were analyzed by employing statistical test viz. Pearson’s Product Moment correlation. The statistical analysis revealed that psychological work climate is positively and significantly correlated with work-life imbalance and job-satisfaction. It indicates that when psychological work climate is better than job-satisfaction would also be better of the employees.  hide

276.Stress in everyday life and its management

By: Pratibha, B.P.S. College of Education, B.P.S.M.V., Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Davender, Department of Applied Psychology, GJUS&T, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Stress is man‘s adaptive reaction to an outward situation which would lead to physical, mental and behavioral changes. Stress is your reaction to the changes and pressures in your everyday life. Some stress is good and helps us stay alert to accomplish important tasks. But constant, unrelieved stress can lead to serious physical and mental difficulties. You cannot eliminate stress, but you can learn to manage it and prevent it from damaging your relationships, your college and work performance, and your life in general. Stress makes your heart beat faster, raises your blood pressure, and quickens your breathing. So the purpose of this paper is people how to manage their life if they feel stressed and how they cope up with their day to day life stress in today scenario.  hide

277.Self Efficacy and Proactive Attitude among Patients with Diabetes

By: Abdul Majeed Bhat, University of Delhi, Sajad Ahmad Najar, Govt. Degree College Hadipora, J & K, Mehraj ud din Dar, Neetu Saini, Rehabilitation Psychologist  Show abstract Details

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Diabetes exhausts individual’s physical as well as psychological resources because of its chronic nature. It has been seen that certain individuals’ belief in themselves make it easy for them to survive efficiently through the prolonged uneasiness of the disease. Self efficacy and proactive attitudes are two of the components thought to create a certain kind of possibility to follow a strict medical regimen and build up an optimal confidence level for self-management of the chronic disease. The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between self-efficacy and proactive attitude among diabetic patients. It also studied the impact of different demographic variables like gender, educational qualification, residential area, age, family type, marital status, monthly income and employment status with respect to self efficacy and proactive attitude among diabetes patients. The sample included 180 diabetic patients (59 male and 121 female) taken from different hospitals of Srinagar city belonging to different parts of Kashmir. Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease developed by Stanford Patient Education centre and Proactive Attitude Scale developed by Ralph Schwarzer were used in the present study for assessing self-efficacy and proactive attitude respectively. Data so collected was analyzed using mean, S.D, correlation, t-test and ANOVA. Findings of the study suggest that there is a significant correlation between self-efficacy and proactive attitude among diabetic patients. Gender, residential area, educational qualification, and family type showed no significant difference with respect to self-efficacy and with respect to proactive attitude only educational qualification showed a significant difference.  hide

278.A Critical Study on Work-family Balance of Teachers

By: Suman Dalal, Dean, Faculty of Education & Chairperson, ITTR BPSMV, Khanpur Kalan, Sonepat, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Work-family balance is not just about managing time at work. It is about creating a positive working environment that can contribute to a healthy and balanced personal life, whilst meeting the requirements of the institute. This balance is a self defined state of well being. It allows one to effectively manage multiple responsibilities at work, home, and in the society. It supports physical, emotional, family, and community health. It recognizes the inter-relatedness of work life and family life. This paper analyses the impact of job stress on society & individuals. Both positive & negative impacts have been analyzed. Health issues, societal issues, personal issues, benefits offered, strategies for work & work ethics were focused in the study. It is based on a field survey & views of teachers have been captured & analyzed. Different health issues that came to light are stress, sleeplessness, headache, fatigue, lack of concentration, etc. Some other factors which came to light are hindrance in personal life, physically tiring nature of work, better salary, lack of growth opportunity, inconducive policies & almost everyone stressed on having provision for naps of 10-15 minutes. Teachers also accepted that their spending has increased and they spent money on lifestyle products, recreational activities and to support family. This paper also throw light on symptoms of work-family conflict and work-family balance benefits.  hide

279.Impact of Single Parenting and Both Parenting on the Well Being Of Children: A case study

By: Swarnshikha Sharma and Kiran Sahu, Department of Psychology, Gokul Das Hindu Girls College, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh  Show abstract Details

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The objective of the present study is to make understand the role Of single parenting and both parenting (mother & father) on psychological well-being of children.) This is an experimental study and 100 children have been taken from kalka public school NEW DELHI. Correlation and analysis has been done to see the difference. R.l bhardwaj, s. sharma, and A. garg manual have been used to understand the difference in well-being of both parenting and single parenting. Parenting is the process of raising and educating a child after birth or before until adulthood. It is usually done by the biological parents of the child in question, although society and others take a role as well. In many cases, orphaned or abandoned children receive parental care from non-parent blood relations. Others may be adopted, raised by foster care, or be placed in an orphanage. It may be with both parents (mother & father) and single parents. (Either mother or father). Whatever the family structure is: what does it effect on a child’s thinking? We have studied that whether a child develop good positive thinking and better well-being in both parenting (happily married) or else single family structure. (Either mother or father). To studied this sample of 100 children from kalka public school New Delhi has been taken and analysis has been done. To see the difference R.L. Bhardwal, Sharma and Garg. Manual has been used. It has been seen in the results that both parent children have high psychological well-being in comparison to single parenting children  hide

280.Psychological well being in relation to health locus of control and optimism among students

By: Shobhana and Sandeep Rana, Department of Applied Psychology, G.J.U S &T, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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This study has been conducted with the aims of examining the relationship between health locus of control and mental health and the relationship between optimism and mental health. The person who has internal locus of control and the person who score high on optimism, they have mental health. To accompalish the objectives of study A sample of 300 students of college and university level from Hisar city were randomly selected. Pearson correlation method was applied to find out the correlation between health locus of control and mental health and between optimism and mental health. Results show the significant negative correlation between internal locus of control and mental health (-.225**) which suggest that the students having internal locus of control are less prone to mental illnesses. Results also show the significant positive correlation between internal locus of control and optimism(.241**) which suggest that the person having internal locus of control are more optimistic than that of persons having external health locus of control. Results also show significant correlation between mental health and optimism(.209**) which means the person who are optimistic they are less prone to mental problems than that of pessimistics. On the basis of this research it can be concluded that this study supports the hypothesis.  hide

281.Depression, Hostility, Guilt Feeling and Conflict over Hostility in Criminals and Non-criminals: A Comparative Study

By: Sona Raghuvanshi and Kamini C. Tanwar, Amity Institute of Behavioural and Allied Sciences Amity University, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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The present study aims to compare criminals and non-criminals on the basis of psychological factors like depression, guilt-feeling, hostility, and conflict over hostility. The study was conducted on 200 respondents including 100 criminals and 100 non-criminals. The criminals were selected from the four important jails of Bihar namely Patna, Buxar, Gaya and Bhagalpur and equal number of non-criminals (persons having non-criminals record) were also selected from the same four towns of Bihar mentioned above. The sample was incidental-cum-purposive one and included only married males in the age group of 21 to 40, who had minimum education up to seventh standard. The scales used were (1) Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Hindi adaptation by Arora et.al, 1988), and Questionnaire of Hostility, Guilt and Conflict (Q-HGC, Sowaid and Singh, 1975). The data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The hypotheses formulated were: (1) the criminals would score higher on depression level than the non-criminals. (2) The criminals would score higher on hostility as compared to the non-criminals. (3) The criminal group of subject would score lower on guilt feeling toward hostility than their non-criminal counterparts and, (4) the criminal group of subjects would score high on conflict over feeling of hostility than the non-criminal group of subjects. The findings confirmed all the four hypotheses.  hide

282.Introversion and Well-Being Associated with Facebook Usage

By: Arti Bakhshi and Remia Mahajan, Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu  Show abstract Details

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With the advent of new forms of communications comes both positive & negative feedbacks. Social Networking Sites such as Facebook too influence person’s psychological characteristics such as personality & well-being. This study investigated the relationship among introversion, well-being & Facebook usage along with the effect of age and gender. The sample comprised of student population (N=55) of ages between 16-24 years & had been on Facebook for six months and above. The Facebook users were required to complete a questionnaire package comprising of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), the Affect Balance Scale (ABS), and the Introversion Scale. Facebook users also completed a Facebook usage questionnaire. Results revealed that personality factors (introversion-extroversion) were not as influential as previous literature would suggest but the well-being was found to be positively related to Facebook usage. The results also indicated that “connecting with friends” is the most influential motive in terms of Facebook use. There were also significant differences in Facebook use in relation with age & gender. It can be concluded from the study that person’s well-being is related to Facebook usage and age and gender also influence Facebook usage.  hide

283.Study of Loneliness in relation to Depression and Sex-Role Orientation

By: V.V. Upmanyu, Shelly Bhagat, Amit Dwivedi Deptt. of Psychology, Panjab University, Chandigarh and Mayank Upmanyu Student, Deptt of Psychology, GJUS&T HIsar  Show abstract Details

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This study concerns with the prevalence of loneliness in a sample of college students and examines gender-differences in loneliness as a function of sex-role orientation and depression. Two hundred college students (100 male and 100 female) aged between 16 and 18 years were tested to ascertain the level of experienced loneliness. The study revealed: (1) college students experienced moderate degree of loneliness, (2) the two genders differed significantly in sex-role identity (3) males with androgynous and masculine sex-role identity did not differ significantly in perceived loneliness; the additional presence of feminine characteristics in androgynous sex-role identity failed to provide any special benefits in terms of vulnerability to loneliness, (4) males with androgynous and masculine sex-role orientation, however, were less lonely than feminine or undifferentiated characteristics, (5) for female, there was no significant difference in loneliness among different types of sex-roles orientation, and (6) gender differences in loneliness failed to reach statistical significance among groups low on depression.  hide

284.Burnout among Married and Unmarried Women Teachers

By: Kiran Sahu and Priya Gupta, GDGC, Moradabad, UP  Show abstract Details

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Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who do “people –work” of some kind. It is a response to the chronic emotional strain of dealing extensively with other human beings particularly when they are troubled or having problems. The aim of the present study is to find out the burnout status among women teachers and in addition to find out the difference if any between married and unmarried teachers regarding the experience of burnout. Maslach and Jackson (1981) scale was used to measure burnout. A sample of 300 women teachers (150 married and 150 unmarried teachers) was taken in the present study. Results elucidated that unmarried teachers are more vulnerable to burnout as they are more emotionally exhausted and depersonalized and have reduced personal accomplishment in comparison to married teachers. But the interesting thing is that both married and unmarried teachers experience below than average level of burnout.  hide

285.Mental Traumatic Condition of Students: Addressing the Issues in Quadrangle

By: Namita Shah, Shaishav Child Rights Institute (NGO), Guidance and counseling centre – Bhvnagar, Gujarat  Show abstract Details

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There is a saying. Time and tide waits for none and in these electric times, we as humans are genetically becoming machines by continuously being in touch with them. All of us have become so very dependent on technology that we have become addicted to them because of the extreme use of technology we have become extremely isolated as individuals which has brought about mental problems leading them to issues which later on become very difficult. Present paper focuses on their mental trauma with reported to 1) Depression and anxiety. (2) Drug, drink and mental health. (3) Suicide and suicide prevention. (4) Awareness and counseling help : There are many mental health problems in the life of students. A student’s life consists of many problems as are social, economic and academic. Language abilities, competitive stress, logical, reasoning or dyslexia. It happens at any stage of life. At present our education is pondering on these problems. But students and parents should concern for his mental tension and its remedies students should not go away from the problems and tends to suicide. There are 35% students in all the cases of suicide. Thus, counseling has become inevitable for them.  hide

286.Spirituality and Coping: A Grounded Theory

By: Bhavna Bawa and N. K. Chadha, Department of Psychology, University of Delhi, Delhi  Show abstract Details

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The central message of Sikhism is contained in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, which compiles holy writings of Sikh gurus and other Indian saints. It is an attempt to explain complexity of life through simplicity of the omnipotent universal power. Sikhism, through its spiritual teachings, helps people make sense of events in their lives and cope better. This study aims at examining the effects of spiritualism on coping through the narratives of Sikh women. For this purpose 10 women were interviewed using semi- structured interviews. Their interviews were transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Grounded Theory (Strauss and Corbin, 1990, 2008). The results demonstrated that certain tenets of Sikhism like ‘paath’, ‘sewa’ act as a source of peace and comfort during distress by inducing positivity in the thought process. Through other concepts of Sikhism like, ‘hukum’, many women found solace by placing the results in god’s hands. The results appear to confirm the conceptual link between spirituality and coping and can significantly contribute towards culturally enriching mental health professionals approach in India.  hide

287.Impact of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) on Depression amongst Adolescents

By: Taruna and Sandeep Singh, Department of Applied Psychology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, Haryana  Show abstract Details

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Depression in young adults, teens or adolescents is frequently reported and is commonly referred to as the common cold of mental illness. Depression is a major psychiatric problem reported behind adolescent suicide (Garlow et al., 2008; Westfield et al., 2006), substance abuse, and a common cause of school failure and school dropout. Adolescents with major depressive disorders are found to be at risk for suicidal behaviour, substance abuse, physical illness, early pregnancy, poor academic performance, impaired psychosocial functioning, and exposure to negative life events (Kovacs, 1996). Thoughts of suicide and death among adolescents are consistently associated with psychopathology and particularly with depression (Lewinsohn et al., 1996; Wild et al., 2004). Various therapeutic intervention programmes are available and applied to manage the depression amongst the adolescents. DBT is a comprehensive and extended form of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for complex, difficult-to-treat mental disorders (Linehan, 1993a, 1993b). DBT and its adapted and extended forms have evolved into treatment for various psychiatric disorders such as, substance dependence with borderline personality disorder( Linehan, Schmidt, Dimeff, Craft, Kanter, Comtois, 1999), binge eating(Telch et al,in press), depressed suicidal adolescents( Rathus & Miller,2000), depressed elderly( Lynch,2000) and to variety of inpatients and outpatient psychiatric clinical settings. Objective: The primary objective of the present research study was to observe the effect of adapted form of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for the management of depression amongst adolescents. Method: In the present study authors kept 20 participants on therapeutic intervention for the period of one year. The participants recorded to have high levels of depression on the measure of Beck Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II). Participants were trained exclusively on the skills training modules of DBT in individual as well as group settings and their post intervention assessment of depression levels were recorded with the BDI-II after every four months ( baseline, four, eight and twelve months) respectively. Descriptive statistical analysis (mean and standard deviation) and paired t-test was used to test the significance of mean. Results: The results obtained from the present study recorded the significant decrease in the mean depression scores from baseline to twelve months (end of therapeutic intervention). The present study recorded the mean difference of 32.30 from baseline (M=38.25 and SD=05.64) to twelve months (M=05.95 and SD= 03.63) the reported mean difference was found to be significant with [t=23.66 and p<.0001]. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study revealed that DBT has a significant role in managing the depression amongst adolescent. It primarily improves the basic interpersonal skills of an individual and teaches to regulate and express the emotionality mindfully. Particularly the telephonic coaching has been reported to be very effective.  hide

288.Management of Depression of Adolescents

By: Surjeet Kaur, D.N.P.G. College, Hisar  Show abstract Details

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The present paper discusses problems related to depression especially in Adolescent age. Adolescence is the period of stress and strain, storm and strike. This is the time when an individual undergoes tremendous physical, emotional and psychological changes. The hormonal changes have an actue impact on the personality of the child. It results either in pride or shame, overexcitement or humiliation. Depression is a state of low moods and enersion to activity that a person feels thought, behaviour, feeling and physical well being depressed people may feel said, anxious, empty hope less guilty, rest less they may loss interest in activities that once were pleasurable experience. Loss of appetite or overeating or problems related to concentrating, remembering details or making decision and even may attempt suicide, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy or pain or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment Depressed mood is a normal reaction to certain life events, symptoms of some medical conditions the yogic basis tools for removing the depression  hide

289.The Quality of Work-Life in Relation To Role Conflict, Occupational Stress, Organisational Climate and Work Family Balance in Working Women

By: Sailata, Department of Commerce, Sainath University, and J.P. Sharma, GBDC, Rohtak  Show abstract Details

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Now a days, working women are experiencing a reduced quality of work life. This is reflected most prominently in work life imbalance and job stress. Different researchers focused on various factors affecting the quality of work and employment. Thus continues to build on in these broad areas, as well as other areas such as perceived intrinsic job characteristics, job satisfaction, absenteeism, health satisfaction, self-rated anxiety, violence and harassment. The current study examines the strategies in favour of working women to adopt the measures for releasing the stresses of contradictory and competing dual role demands. It reveals that many factors contribute in reality to make role conflict of working women. All these sources of conflict are based on the approachable support systems at the work place as well as in the family. Keeping in view the above factors our study focused on role conflict, occupational stress, organisational climate, and work family balance  hide

290.Stress at work place and its management strategies

By: Munish Nagpal, Sub Divisional Magistrate, Hansi, Haryana, India  Show abstract Details

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Public administration jobs were found to be associated with high levels of stress, according to the findings of a personal survey carried out among the administrative officials of various ranks from various organizations/services like administration, police and revenue for improving human resource management in this sector. The main stress factors reported by over half of the survey respondents were the high workload, too many and diversified tasks, time pressure to meet with the people having different psychology, having different levels of literacy, socio economic levels and personal factors. Other work-related stress factors included and low levels of remuneration and lack of autonomy. Here are some suggestions to do when job-related stress has become overwhelming like take some time off, build up your network, talk to your supervisor, create a list of positives and draft a list of bright spots about your work But whatever good point(s) you can identify, reference it regularly to keep things in perspective and make the most of your current position. Last but not the least, adopt some healthy stress management strategies such as take up yoga, meditation, hit the gym regularly, or indulge in a hobby when you get home. Even just taking a hot shower or bubble bath each night, listening light music may be the stress-buster you need to better cope. Do things that fulfill you so that you aren’t constantly focused on the negative parts of your day job.  hide

291.Awareness of HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour among the Migrants in Ludhiana

By: Vishal Saini District Social Welfare Officer, Ambala, Haryana and Rajbala ASHA Block Coordinator, Civil Hospital Hisar  Show abstract Details

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HIV/AIDS a pandemic disease still remains a problematic concern for everyone since 80s cutting across geo-political boundaries. ‘Migrant’ are considered as ‘bridge populations’ for HIV/AIDS transmission from vulnerable populations to general populations. The study seeks to reveal the relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among the migrants in industrial city, Ludhiana of Punjab state. By using the descriptive research design, a total number of 250 migrants were covered in different locations of Ludhiana. Closed ended questions and statements which were standardized originally developed by Odu and Akanle’s (2008) in their study of Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour among the youths in South West Nigeria has been adopted to seek the relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among the migrants in Ludhiana. The instrument consisted of sixteen main questions with seven subsidiary statements that measured the sexual behaviour while the second one contained of thirteen statements that measured the knowledge of HIV/AIDS of the migrants in Ludhiana. Knowledge of basic/key concepts of HIV/AIDS has been limited to transmission and cure knowledge of the disease, which was standardized and used in the present study. Frequency counts and percentages were used in describing the knowledge and sexual behaviour of migrants. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis and calculation of Pearson Product Moment Correlation to reveal the relationship between knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual behaviour among the migrants in Ludhiana. The analysis revealed that migrants are incessantly sexually active and engaged in high-risk sex. It was clear that migrants were having adequate awareness of basic concept on HIV/AIDS but many migrants were also harping myths & misconceptions about the cure of HIV/AIDS. The study recommended policies and programmes that can transform the sexual behaviour of the migrants inspiring them to reduce and regulate their high risk sex behaviours and also contended that prevention message should be consistent, clear and effective to counteract other unreliable sources of information.  hide

292.Multimedia is a better way of learning: a case control study

By: Ashima Demonstrator, Deptt. Of Anatomy, SHKM, Govt. medical college, Nalhar, Mewat  Show abstract Details

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Now a day medical teaching is gaining importance as the field is doing ample improvement both in clinical field and also in research field. Improvement in medical teaching is the need of hour. Most of the medical college still follow the ancient style of teaching like chalk and talk or over head projector etc. which need immediate reform . Various clinical and basic science investigators tried differently style of teaching leading to a new horizon. Present study describe about the study through animated picture in multi media. MATERIAL AND METHOD two groups of 30 persons were allocated basing on the marks in their internal assessment. One group taught with chalk and talk method and other with the multimedia. After the session both were asked ten questions based on the topic. Answer pattern were compared. RESULT the group taught with multimedia (6.6±1.22correct answer) shown better result than the group taught with chalk and talk manner (5.46±1.07). CONCLUSION inclusion of multimedia study in clinical and non clinical branches of medical colleges is a better was if teaching.  hide

293.Mental Health Level of School Teachers of Rohtak: A Comparative Study

By: Kirti Sharma, Demonstrator, Deptt. of Physiology, SHKM, Govt. medical college, Nalhar, Mewat  Show abstract Details

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In the present race of competition, the human life has become bad of throne in place of comfort path. It is very difficult to the human being to survive in this congestion and competition. This result in psychological and psychiatric problems. There are many changes like depression, sadness, worries and conflicts. Mental health of people of any society is very important for its progress. This is a world of professionalism and this is valuable aspect of life. Employee’s Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava, assesses the mental health of the employee. The subjects have to respond yes or no out of 22 statement of the questionnaire. The participants of this study were teachers of government and private school. There were 200 males (100 from government and 100 from private) and 200 females (100 from government and 100 from private) in the age group of 25 to 58 years. The participants were given the questionnaire at their school and ask to respond question given in the Employee’s Mental Health Inventory. They were requested to put their questionnaire at the drop. box placed near the school office. The data were collected backed. Out of 400, we got only 309 questionnaires back. Out of which 288 were analyzed for statistical purpose to make the equal number of both type of sample. The data were collected, calculated and analysis was done by t test. Show the means of 60 of private teaches and 42 of the govt. teachers. Standard deviation of private school teachers is 12 and that of govt. teachers is 6. The p value calculated was 0.03 which is significant. There is a significant difference between the mental health level of the teachers of government and the private organization  hide

294.Perception of selected risk factors for brain stroke among north Indian people

By: Poonam Rani, Rohtak  Show abstract Details

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Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a major contributor to burden of disease in developed countries, and are increasing rapidly in developing countries such as India. Cardiovascular diseases & cancer accounted for 48% and 21% of NCD deaths respectively. There are several risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases & cancer that are modifiable. Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide1–3. These diseases — which include cardiovascular conditions, some cancers, chronic respi¬ratory conditions and type 2 diabetes affect people of all ages, nationalities and classes. Of the 57 million global deaths in 2008, 36 million were due to NCDs, that is approximately 63% of total deaths in the world. Study Design: - Cross sectional. Settings:- at tertiary care centre of northern India Participants: - Randomly 190 ambulatory adult (>18 years) visitors (patients or attendants) coming to the hospital were included in the study. Methodology: A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to them after obtaining informed consent. Statistical Analysis: - Simple proportions, Chi square test.  hide

295.Life Satisfaction as a Correlate of Death Anxiety among Elderly

By: Princy and Tejpreet Kaur Kang, Department of Human Development, College of Home Science, Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, Punjab  Show abstract Details

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Aging is a natural phenomenon that refers to changes, which occur during the life span and result in differences in structure and function between the youth and the elderly. Traditionally the term elderly has been referred to people who have attained certain age chronologically. Ageing is an inevitable process in which physiological, emotional and mental changes are observed in declining form. It is also known as a closing period of life span. It is “moving away” from more desirable period. Life satisfaction is a sum total of the perception of an individual towards his various aspects of life. It is his life in family, society and the environment he lives in. It is a composite measure comprising of physical, mental and social well being as perceived by each individual or by group of individuals. Life satisfaction includes happiness, satisfaction and gratification as health, marriage, family, work, financial situations, belongingness and trust in others. Life satisfaction of an individual is influenced by various factors. Amongst them death anxiety is one of the major influencing factor. Death anxiety (Thantaphobia) refers to fear and apprehension of one’s own death. It is the neurotic fear of loss of the self, which, in intense state, parallels feelings of helplessness and depression. Man’s awareness of his own death produces anxiety in him. Death anxiety is feeling of dread, apprehension or solicitude when one thinks of what happens after death, the process of dying or ceasing to be. The study “life satisfaction as a correlate of death anxiety among elderly ” was conducted on 360 elderly persons (180 males and 180 females) residing in Punjab state. Only those elderly were selected for the sample who were leading a retired life, were not suffering from any deadly disease, living with their spouses and belonged to middle socio economic status families. Socio-Economic Status Scale developed by Bharadwaj was used to assess the socio economic status of the respondents. Death Anxiety scale by Chouhan and Tiwari and Life satisfaction scale by Alam and Shrivastava were used to assess the death anxiety and life satisfaction of the respondents respectively. The results revealed that significant differences existed in death anxiety and life satisfaction among elderly males and females. A significant and negative correlation between life satisfaction and death anxiety was found indicating that with increase in life satisfaction there is a decrease in death anxiety.  hide

296.Self Perception across Gender among the Managers of Telecom Sector

By: Archana Shukla and Amreen Fatima, Dept. of Psychology University of Lucknow, Lucknow, UP  Show abstract Details

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The present study endeavours find out the perceived self among the managers of telecom sector and to study the gender difference among them. 50 managers were selected (25 males and 25 females) through convenience sampling. The mean age was 35 years. The WHO AMI? technique, by Bugental and Zelen (1950) was used in the present study for the better understanding of perceived self among the managers of telecom sector. Gender differences were noted in the perception self. Male managers’ personality bears more positive shades as compared to female managers. Males’ perception was more self-focused as compared to females whose perception of self was other - focused  hide